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erature. We are indebted especially to the last , melodious notes to him, without some attempts work—the “Daily Bible Illustrations" of Dr. at imitation. But hitherto, probably, all their Kitto, for the following remarks :

attempts had been vocal, until Jubal discovered It seems clear to us (says Dr. Kitto) that the that instruments might be contrived to give vent antediluvians, commencing with the knowledge to musical sounds of greater compass and power. imparted to Adam before his fall, and acquired We may conceive that he had many anxious by him subsequently, did make high improve thoughts, many abortive trials, until perseverance ments in the arts, and attained to a state of con- conquered, as it always does, and he had brought siderable civilization. If this be true, there is his sharp and organ” to perfection. The harp consequently no foundation for the notion of was something of that sort which we call a lyre, man's gradual progress from the savage to the and the form and character of which is better civilized condition. Indeed, how any one who known to us from sculptures, paintings, and mebelieves in the sacred origin of the book of Gen- dals, as well as poetical descriptions, than from esis can take that view, is inconceivable. Ac- actual knowledge, the instrument being virtually cording to that account, the various nations of extinct. And let not “the organ” of Jubal the world are descended from the men who sur- perplex us with large ideas of pipes, and keys, vived the deluge, and who were certainly not an and bellows. It was nothing more than a simuncivilized family. They built a large and capa- ple “mouth organ”-a bundle of reeds—a Pancious vessel, and their doing this implies the dean pipe, that is, such a pipe as the god Pan is possession of tools suited to so great a work; they seen to blow, in ancient sculptures, and such as were also skilled in agriculture; and Noah be- is often enough to this day witnessed in our took himself to the culture of the ground as soon street exhibitions. as he quitted the ark; the successful manage- The son of Lamech by Zillah supported well ment of so many diverse animals that were com- the renown of his family for discoveries in the mitted to his care in the ark, implies much arts. His name was Tubal-Cain. He was “an knowledge of cattle. All this we know; and, instructor of every artificer in brass and iron.” knowing this, it is not too much to suppose that For “ brass” read“ copper;” brass being a facthe various members of this family possessed all titious metal of certainly much later invention. the arts which existed before the deluge, and of Was, then, the use of metals wholly unknown in which we now give some notice. Indeed, there the eight or nine centuries of not savage life is evidence of this in the great undertakings of which had passed since Adam received his betheir descendants, previous to their dispersion ing? Perhaps not. It is hard to conceive that into nations and languages.

extensive agricultural operations could have One of the sons of Lamech by Adah was Ja- been carried on, that cities could have been bal. He, we are told, “was the father of such built, or the useful and elegant arts brought into as dwell in tents, and such as have cattle.” This use, without this knowledge. We might indeed is a very important fact. It shows that man had conceive that the use of iron was of this late, or existed thirteen centuries upon the earth before even later, origin. That metal is hard to find, the nomade life, to which a large proportion of and difficult to bring into that condition which mankind have since been addicted, received its fits it for use. It is usually the last of the metals origin. There had been shepherds before, and to be brought into man's service; and nations sheep had before been kept; but it was not until which have possessed all the other metals have the time of Jabal that pasturage was organized wanted that." This is not the case with copper. into a distinct form of social existence. The It is often found on or near the surface in its care of man was by him extended to larger ani- metallic shape; it is soft and easily wrought; mals than sheep; and they were taught to cast and nations, whose instruments were only of this off the restraints which the habit of living in metal, have been known to execute great works, towns and villages imposed, and to betake them- and to have attained an advanced state of civiliselves-wholly to the pastures, dwelling in porta- zation. All antiquity, indeed, vouches for the ble habitations, and removing from place to place remotely ancient, but not earliest, discovery of for the convenience of pasturage. This is a mode iron; but all antiquity also affirms that, although of life frequently brought under our notice in the iron was known, the difficulty of the first operaScriptures, being essentially that of the patriarchs tions in rendering it available greatly restricted whose history occupies the greater portion of the its use, and a large number of implements, utenbook of Genesis.

sils, and weapons, which we should expect to be of Jabal had a brother named Jubal, and “he iron wherever that metal was known, are found was the father of all such as handle the harp and to have been nevertheless of copper. On the the organ.” Had, then, the world been for other hand, it must be admitted that the anabove a thousand years without music, till Jubal cients, being obliged to rely so much upon copappeared ? Perhaps not. Man could scarcely, per, labored diligently in overcoming the inconfor so long a time, have been without some efforts venience which its natural softness could not but - to produce musical sounds; and the birds could occasion. By certain amalgamations and manip

scarcely for so many ages have poured forth their 'ulations, they seem to have succeeded in impart


ing to copper some of the hardness of iron; and Northumberland. He was liberally educated, it is certain that, with their tools of this material, and at an early age was sent to Oxford. He dethey were able to perform operations which we voted himself there particularly to the study of cannot execute without instruments of iron. It physical science. He was considered the best is probable that the ancients possessed some se- chemist in Oxford by the person who pronounced cret in hardening copper, which has been lost his eulogy. He devoted himself particularly to since the more general use of iron threw it out minute analysis, and was the rival of Dr. Wolof use for such purposes.

laston in experiments of that kind. Instead of Not to pursue this theme further at this time, using large furnaces for his operations, he used we may remark that copper is here placed before the blow-pipe and small bits of coal or coke. iron, and that, taking all things into account, the He prided himself much upon his operations, probability is that Tubal-Cain's improvements and related one particularly with much pleasure. were more in copper than in iron. The text Happening, on one occasion, to see a lady weepitself seems to intimate that great and important ing, he caught a half of a tear on a piece of tin discoveries in the working of metals were made foil, and on analyzing it, found it to consist of by him, rather than that he was the first to apply several microscopic portions of salts. He early them to any use. He is not, like his brothers, became a member of the Royal Society of LonJabal and Jubal

, called the "father,” or origina- don, and attended all its meetings, and made tor, of the art he taught, but an “instructor" of many communications to it. His investigations those that wrought in it. So strong is our im- related to chemistry, mineralogy and geology, pression respecting the earlier use of copper, and and it was on these branches of science that he the comparatively limited employment of iron, founded his scientific reputation, though he dethat we would almost venture to conjecture that voted much attention to all branches of knowledge. Tubal-Cain's researches in metallurgy, which led He was of retiring habits, never married, and him to great improvements in the working of lived much on the continent of Europe. In his copper, also led him to the discovery of iron. travels he carried a small hammer, with which (To be continued.)

he broke the stones he wished to examine. He said himself, “ The man of science has no coun

try, the world is his country, mankind is his SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTE.-LECTURE BY PROF.


appears to have been proud and sensitive. (Reported for the Pennsylvania Inquirer.)

He was resolved to make a name for himself. Washington, Dec. 7th, 1853.

He declared, “ The best blood of England flows Prof. Henry stated in the opening of his re- in my veins. On my father's side, I am a marks, that about eighteen months since an As- Northumberland ; on my mother's I am related sociation was formed in this city under the name to kings; but that avails me not. My name of the Metropolitan Mechanics’ Institute, the shall live in the memory of mankind when the object of which was the promotion of the orna-titles of Northumberland and of the Percys are mental and useful arts, and the mental improve- put out.” It appears from some recent informament of the artisans ; that it has already a library tion, that at one time he intended to leave his and reading-room, and has held one exhibition property to the Royal Society of London, to do of industrial products; that it has established with it what the Smithsonian Institute is now also a school of design, which will commence doing. He, however, had a misunderstanding operations shortly. The Smithsonian Institute with the council of that Society, and left his prohas endeavored to aid that Association, and in perty to his nephew, and in case of the death of turn it has become interested in the Smithsonian his nephew, to the United States of America. Institution, and the members of it had invited He died at a considerably advanced age. The him to deliver the present Lecture to them more Smithsonian Institute has recently obtained a particularly.

picture of him. Every intelligent person in the country ought Prof. Henry next spoke of the bequest. The to be familiar with the history of the Smithso- nephew to whom the property was bequeathed, nian Institute. In treating of the Institution, was a lad of feeble health, and he soon died. as the subject of the lecture for the evening, he The Government of the United States was inwould endeavor to answer three questions. First : formed of the fact. A message was then sent to Who was James Smithson, what was his charac- Congress by President Van Buren, and an act ter, what were his pursuits ? Second: What was passed accepting the trust.

The Hon. Richhas his bequest, and what were the objects of ard Rush, now a member of the Board of Reitu? Third: What plan has been adopted to gents,

and a warm friend of the institution, was hare out the design of the testator, and what employed to prosecute the claim in the Court of

was , The founder of the Smithsonian Institute and the money and personal efects of Mr. Smithto be James Smithson, son of Iugh, first Duke of amount was paid in British sovereigns, which

He declares himself son were given to Mr. Rush, and the whole

have been the results?



noble descent.

fire proof.

were deposited in the Mint of the United States, The plan adopted by the officers of the Instiand afterwards converted into American eagles. tution for increasing knowledge has been, not to By a special clause in the act accepting the be- employ in the Institution itself a number of perquest, a pledge was made to carry out the inten- sons making original investigations, but to emtion of the testator.

ploy persons everywhere who are already engaged The whole amount brought by Mr. Rush, was in making investigations. Thus persons engaged $515,169. Besides this, $25,000 were left in in scientific pursuits are requested to send in the England, as the principal of an annuity to the results of their investigations to the Smithsonian mother of the nephew of James Smithson. This Institute, where they are examined first by the money at her death, and she is now aged, will officers, and then by a commission of learned men; come to the Institution. Besides the original and on the decision of the commission they are bequest, Congress allowed interest on the sum accepted or rejected. In this way many persons from the time it was paid into the treasury till are engaged, not only in the United States, but 1846, which amounted to $242,000. This last in other countries. sum was appropriated by Congress for the erec- It may be said, that this is a slow method of

a tion of buildings. The original fund is now in advancing knowledge: but no publisher would the treasury of the United States, and never to encourage or bring forth some of the works which be expended. There were on. hand, at the last the Institution encourages and publishes, because meeting of the Regents, after all the expendi- he would be deterred by the first expense. Every tures, $208,000 of surplus interest. Of this discoverer is in advance of his age, and needs sum, $58,000 is to be applied to the building means to go on sometimes. Our countryman, Dr. during the present and next year, leaving, ac- Bowditch, spent twenty years of his life on the cording to the original plan, $150,000 of inter- Celestial Mechanics of La Place. After he had est. The building is to be completed so as to be finished it, he assembled his family, and told

them that it would cost one third of his fortune The object of the will of Mr. S. can only be to print it; and he asked them, as his heirs, learned by a careful perusal of the words. They whether he should go on and print it. The anare as follows: “In case of the death of my ne- swer was worthy of the heirs of such a father. phew without issue, I bequeath the whole of my They said, “Go on." His wife ever after pointed property to the United States of America, to to the work, and said, “Here is our carriage.” found at Washington, under the name of the The diffusion of the knowledge obtained by the Smithsonian Institute, an establishment for the Institution, is accomplished by sending a copy of increase and diffusion of knowledge among men.” every work published, to every first-class library The inference from the language is, that the U. on the face of the earth. All the Colleges and States is merely a trustee to carry out the design Philosophical Societies in the United States reof diffusing knowledge among men, including ceive one. Thus the intention of Mr. Smithson mankind in general. The Institution is not a is carried out to the very letter. One effect of national establishment, but the establishment of this diffusion has been, that copies of important an individual, and one which will perpetuate his works are sent from abroad to the Institution in name. He intended it as a monument to him- return; and some of the oldest societies abroad self.

have not only sent to the Institution copies of The objects of the Institution are two-fold—to their current volumes, but back numbers as far increase knowledge and to diffuse it among men. as possible. The works of the Institute are in These two objects are entirely distinct, and ought great demand; and even this week a request not to be confounded. The Royal Society of has been made by letter for a copy for Van London, for example, is for the increase of Dieman's Land, for a new society in that part of knowledge only. So the French Academy of the world. Science, also, is for the same object; and that He then went on to show what the Institution of Berlin. Colleges and schools generally are has done, first, on the subject of Ethnology. An for the diffusion of knowledge. The man who important work on this subject has been pubmakes a discovery, increases knowledge; he who lished, commencing with the results of the labors teaches it or lectures upon it, diffuses it. There of Messrs. Davis and Squire, in their examination are few institutions in this country for the in- of the mounds in the valley of the Mississippi. crease of knowledge, and there is, therefore, spe- They opened upwards of two hundred of these cial need for the Smithsonian Institute. No mounds. No publisher would publish the work particular kind of knowledge is specified in the they had prepared, in consequence of getting up will, but knowledge in its widest sense is intend the plates for illustrations. ed. Knowledge may be regarded, first, with The skulls found in these mounds, show that reference to its increase ; second, its diffusion, they belong to a race of people different from the and thirdly, its application to useful purposes. Indians of North America; and it would appear The principal object of the Smithsonian Institute that these ancient people were expelled by the is to increase knowledgo, leaving others to dif- Indians. fuse it.

Another volume is to be made with referenca to the mounds in Wisconsin, which are very in- of north, and in the English Channel it points teresting in their character. The surveyor em- twenty-four degrees west. ployed to measure one in Wisconsin, found, on To investigate this subject, a building has been making his plot, that he had on his paper, the erected, with a cellar, on the grounds of the In. figure of a strange animal; and it is thought that stitute, with double walls upon the sides below most of those in Wisconsin, represent some ani- the surface of the ground, and also under the botmals. A map is to be prepared by the Institu- tom, so as to keep the room dry by allowing a tion, to show the location of all these important current of air to circulate all around it. In this mounds. If history helps to teach what the future building are three very important instruments. may be, these investigations go further back than The first is a magnetic bar suspended by silk any history of this country, and help to explain threads, which points north and south, and under what has been, as well as any history, so far as the bar is fastened a little mirror, before which a they can be understood.

gas-light is constantly burning. This light is Another volume is taken up with the language thrown through a dark screen upon the mirror, of the Dacotah Indians. This is the product of and from the mirror it is reflected

upon a cylinder a number of missionaries, who were engaged eigh- about a foot in diameter, upon which a piece of teen years in studying the language of that tribe. paper is placed, which is rendered sensitive to

Astronomy, too, has been advanced by means the light, on the photographic principle; and as of the aid given by this institution. The orbit this cylinder revolves, carrying the paper with it, of the planet Neptune was determined by Mr. the ray of light travels backward and forward Walker, through such aid. About two thousand and in this way the needle is made to record its dollars were paid for that purpose. Prof. Gillis, own vibrations; and the clock which turns the also, has been aided in his investigation of the cylinder tells the time when each vibration was distances of the planets, who has been absent in made. foreign countries for this purpose. Physical Geo- Another instrument records the dip of the graphy also has been much advanced by the aid needle, and a third shows the strength of the given by the institution, as well as the science of magnet. The results thus obtained, showing the Geology. Statistics relating to Railways and changes constantly occurring at this place, can be Canals, which would otherwise be lost, are also compared with those observed at any other place, preserved here.

and at any time, and thus the cause of science Botany also has been aided by contributions be advanced. made by explorers, who have been encouraged by After referring to the plan of Professor Jewett this Institution, and who have examined plants for stereotyping the catalogues of libraries, the in Texas, New Mexico, California, and Oregon. lecture, which was duly appreciated by an attenThe most interesting volume on this subject is tive audience, was closed. one on the Algæ, or Sea-Weeds of North America, by Dr. Harvey, of Dublin, who was invited to this country to lecture before the Lowell Institute, of

SAVE THE DEAD LEAVES. Boston, for the purpose of giving him an oppor- *If every horticulturalist would reflect for a tunity to study this subject. He made a com

moment on the nature of fallen leaves, which plete collection of all the algæ of our coast, and contain not only the vegetable matter, but the he devoted four years of his life to the work, and earthy salts, lime, potash, &c., needed for next gives the whole to the world, provided the Smith- year's growth and that, too, exactly in the prosonian Institute will publish it. Without this aid portion required by the very tree and plant from it would not have been published. Dr. Harvey which they fall; nay, more, if they would con. is now on his way to Australia, and is to return sider that in this way, by the decomposition of by way of our North-west coast, and then he will these very fallen leaves, that nature enriches the furnish materials for another volume.

soil, year after year, in her great forests, it would Meteorology also has received much attention, scarcely be possible for such a reflecting hortiand been aided by the Institution. Many persons culturalist to allow these leaves to be swept away throughout the country are making observations by every wind that blows, and finally lost alon the subject , which are to be sent to the Insti- together

. A wise horticulturalist will diligently tution for examination and comparison. The pro- collect, from week to week, the leaves which

fall gress and course of storms is to be indicated by a under each tree, and by digging them under the map, showing the state of the weather at a parti- soil about the roots, where they will decay and enEmlar hour and at succeeding times, so as to show rich the soil, provide in the cheapest manner the the progress of the changes. The subject

of the best possible food for that tree. In certain vine. terrestrial magnet, is to be investigated also. This yards in France, the vines are kept in the highest is a very important subject, because, as it is well condition by simply burying at their roots every known, the magnet varies in different places, and leaf and branch that is pruned off such vines, or

same place at different times. Thus, in falls from them at the end of the season.-Horti

the needle points sixteen degrees east I culturalist,

at the



promote the advancement of science. If this inMr. Hind, the Astronomer of Mr. Bishop's pri- stitution had been in operation when Dr. Bowditch vate observatory, London, and, as we believe, completed his translation of the “ Mechanique since the death of Lieutenant Stratford, Super- Celeste,” with his numerous annotations, illusintendant of the English Nautical Almanac, in a trating its many difficult passages, there would letter to the London Times, says :—"At 6h. I probably have been no necessity of casting upon 50m. on Tuesday, I discovered a new planet in his moderate estate the expense of its publication. the constellation Taurus, about 2 deg. south of Although about sixteen years have elapsed since the ecliptic. It is rather brighter than stars of the last volume of that work was printed, if the the ninth magnitude. This planet is the Ninth (?) voice of the Editor of the Review could reach the which I have discovered since the commencement of a systematie search in 1846, and raises the regents of the institution, he would respectfully number of that extraordinary group of worlds be- suggest the expediency of an inquiry whether tween Mars and Jupiter to twenty-seven.” The some volumes of the translation may not remain enormous labor which has been performed by in possession of the family of Dr. Bowditch, which Mr. Hind, in the systematic search, will be bet- might be purchased and distributed at the expense ter appreciated when it is understood that not of the institution. one of the nine planets discovered by him, in Within the passing year, the Seventh Annual London, is ever visible to the naked eye, or even Report of the Board of Regents has been published, at all without the aid of a good telescope. --Bos- containing a detailed account of the operations of ton Traveller.

the institution for the preceding year, with no.

tices of the various objects to which the attention FRIENDS' REVIEW. of the officers is directed. PHILADELPHIA, TWELFTH MONTH 31, 1853.

Recent communications m England contain An interesting notice of the establishment and information that Amelia Opie, so well known for progress of the Smithsonian Institution, at Wash. her writings, has been removed to the land from ington, is introduced into the present number. which no traveller returns. The motives of the Testator, to whose ample bequest this institution is owing, as described The London Friend of this month contains the by Professor Henry, are too nearly allied to following notice : those which actuated the builders of the noted Accounts have been received of our friends fabric on the plain of Shinar, to command our un- James Backhouse and Lindley M. Hoag, up to qualified approbation. Ambition to leave a name

the date of Tenth month 26th, when they were to posterity, does not supply the humble Christian boat on another visit up the Bakken Fjord, &c.

again at Stavanger, but were about setting out by with a motive for action. In more passages than They were both in good health. Since landing in one in the sermon on the mount, we find it plainly Norway, they had attended or held 147 meetings. intimated, that for those who perform their acts, In several remote places they have met with se

rious-minded persons, who appear to be very though good in themselves, to be seen of

near to Friends in principle. In reviewing their applause of men is their reward.

labors, James Backhouse writes: “We feel that Very different, however, in its practical result we are poor earthen vessels; but the Lord has is the ambition of James Smithson from that which condescended to make use of us, to the awakenhas actuated many of the great ones of mankind, closer to himself, to his own praise and glory; and

ing of not a few, and to the gathering of others who, as Cow per remarks,

he has favored us with a large sense of his good“ Toiled much to earn a monumental pile, ness, mercy and love, through Jesus Christ our That may record the mischiefs they have done.”

Lord and Saviour." It is presumable that this institution will consti

The FUGITIVE SLAVE LAW.-It appears from the tute a more lasting memorial to the memory of its following extract, that this barbarous act is not in founder, than any erected by the Percys of good odor in the South: Northumberland from the time of Hotspur to the battle of Brandywine.* The facilities afforded by law. It was a stupid blunder on the part of South

The South has gained nothing but a loss by this this institution, to the printing and circulation of ern statesmen. The value of the Slave lost is eaten scientific works, especially of such as are not up if capture follows, while hatred to the institulikely to remunerate a publisher, must essentially tion abroad and opposition to it at home are in

creased by its hard features, and the barbarous en* It is, I believe, an established fact, that one of tóe forcement of them.-Charleston (S. C.) Mercury. Percy family fell at the battle of Brandywine, (in 1777,) near Birmingham meeting house." I had it

On this the Albany Evening Journal remarks : from a man who was on the battle ground at the time, We have endured all sorts of reproach and oband knew the spot where he was buried,

loquy for speaking of the "hard features ” of this

men, the


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