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vanced as to the wind-roads. The all but river-, these vast regions of dry earth, pursued a southerly less countries of Southern America, South Africa, career, its stores of rain would be spent over very and Australia, are situated in the midst of the small tracts of earth, and over immense regions of largest expanse of ocean, with surface winds water. It is clear, therefore, that no other sysblowing over them that have swept the face of tem than that which it is now believed is the the waters for many thousands of miles, and course of the winds, could be productive of the which must at their temperature be heavily great benefits which we receive from them. The loaded with vapor. Yet these winds furnish no southern hemisphere may be likened to an enorsupplies of rain suficient to form any rivers of mous boiler; the northern, to a huge condenser, magnitude. Those lands are almost riverless. by means of which all the moisture in the world

On the other hand, the winds which blow over is dealt with for distribution. the gigantic rivers of the northern hemisphere

The one exception, of the Rio de la Plate, to the mighty streams of America, Russia, India, the absence of large rivers in the south, serves and China—have all traversed but little of ocean; equally to prove the theory. If the reader will their way from the equator has chiefly been over refer to a map of the world, he will perceive that dry land, whence they could raise up but little, the North-east Trade-wind, which is lifted at the if any moisture. Whence then is it, that coun: equator, passes as an upper current of precipitatries with comparatively so little water about tion over the sources of the Plate, must have them should receive so copiously of rain, whilst crossed the equatorial region in about one hunthose in the very heart of the seas are devoid of dred degrees west longitude, and, therefore, havany such supply?

ing come from the north-east, must have traTo take up surface water and hold it in sus- versed some thousands of miles across the Atlanpense, the air must be at a high temperature; to tic; and then meeting, in its southerly career, part with it again in the shape of rain, its tem- with the lofty Andes, becomes forced up by them perature must be considerably lowered. The only into still higher regions of cold, draining, in its winds which, by reason of the temperature, can ascent, the last drop of moisture from these mounperform this lifting process, are the trades on tains to supply the solitary river of the south. either side of the equatorial region. In their

In like manner, a reference to the course over the vast body of waters, they become show that the north-east wind which traverses


will highly charged with vapor. On their meeting the Great Sahara of central Africa, is flung up at at the zone of equatorial calms they rise, reach a cooler atmosphere, and consequently become ex- in a south-westerly direction, leaving no rain in

the equator, and thence passes over South Africa panded, and part with some of their moisture; that riverless country. Again; the same trade and hence we hear of such extraordinary falls of which sweeps the sterile, rainless steppes of Chirain in these regions, as that sailors have actually taken up buckets of fresh water from the surface nese Tartary, crosses the line to the southward of of the ocean during one of these down-pourings. the great Australian continent, where also there

Ceylon, and thence takes its vaporless way over But the winds only part with a portion of their load; the South-east Trade lifts itself and its

are no rivers of any size. load of aqueous vapor high above the surface, and

There is a remarkable circumstance connected coursing on towards the north in the contrary with whirlwinds at sea, or cyclones, as they are direction of the North-east Trade below, becomes termed, which goes far to confirm this theory of our gradually cooled on its way, and as it cools, parts Air Map. In the northern hemisphere, all these as gradually with its vapors in the shape of rain. circular storms revolve from right to left; in the

In like manner, the North-east Trade that rose south they revolve from left to right; and these as an upper current at the equator to take its way are precisely the courses indicated by the present to the south, performed also its task of evapora- theory, which the various currents of atmosphere tion, but to a far less degree. Coming from the take at the two poles in their return circuits. regions of the north, it is a cold wind, and there- We have thus given the main features of the fore not in a condition to raise up vapor until it great wind-roads of this earth, as laid down by be near the equator; consequently, it has but lit-Lieutenant Maury. There are, however, many tle to precipitate in the shape of rain, and hence lesser tracts-small footways, as it were-divergwe find the lands of the south so devoid of rivers. ing from the main trunk roads of the atmosphere, Were it to be otherwise than thus—were the which, taking their course and strength from the south-east vapor-loaded winds to traverse the sur-varied surface of the land, follow irregular, and, face of the earth in their northerly career, they as yet, but little known directions. It is to these, would not part with their moisture where most and to the confirmation of what is already beneeded, by reason of their high temperature; but lieved to be the case, that the attention of nautiwould deposit the whole when arrived in the tem- cal observers is wished to be directed; so that, in perate zone, where least needed.

the course of time, by the united efforts of British Again; if this south-east wind, when it rose up, and American navigators, we may be enabled to was turned back in its course, and, instead of fill up the many blank and uncertain spaces in our passing over to the northern hemisphere to water great Air Map.-- Household Words.



nation and experiment. For engineering, the The following remarks on the subject of Cen- mathematical training will be rigorous, with a

thorough use of instruments in mensuration, surtral Schools, we find in the National Intelligencer veying, levelling, plotting, draughting, and deof the 24th ult.

signing A new class of institutions has recently sprung

“A rigid propriety in deportment and lanup in country villages, called Union Schools. The guage, a cheerful compliance with established replan is , to unite several small schools into one, and a generous bearing towards others, and

gulations, a thorough and constant self-control, having one supervision, but various departments. and lofty religious sentiments inculcated, and in

pure The result is, more and better instruction at less expense. Ohio has probably entered more gene- healthful influence on the habits of the people

a good measure attained, in the school, exert a rally, more liberally, and more successfully into


whom it is located." the plan than any other State in the Union. In several instances school-houses have been erected

During the last year the school has numbered

three hundred and thirty-three pupils, more than for the purpose, at the expense of from twenty to

half of whom were from abroad. The salary of thirty thousand dollars. In Circleville, a village the principal is one thousand dollars. It is a pubof four thousand inhabitants, their Union Schoolhouse, with the land, cost twenty-five thousand lic school, opening, of course, these high intellecdollars. Teachers receive salaries of eight hun

tual and moral privileges to every child in a comdred, ten hundred, and even fifteen hundred munity supporting it, and at the same time made dollars.

available to many teachers of other communities." The Union School of Marlborough, a village of five hundred inhabitants in Stark county, illus

LIFE AND DEATH. trates the policy of liberal provision for education, " What is life Father ?” in a manner worthy the attention of American

A batile, my child, citizens generally, and the citizens of all other where the strongest lance may fail, countries. It is very extended in its plan, and And the strongest heart may quail.

Where the wariest eyes may be beguiled exceedingly successful in its operations. From where the foes are gathered on every hand, the normal department of the school about sixty And rest not day nor night ; teachers have just gone out, under the offer of And the feeble little ones must stand high salaries ; females, with equal qualifications, In the thickest of the fight. receiving as much as males.

66 What is death father?” The course of instruction is of an extended and

“ The rest my child elevated character. By an apparatus costing fif- Where the strife and toil are o’er, teen hundred dollars, a full course of experimental And the angel of God, who calm and mild chemistry is given; the various departments of Who driveth away the demon band,

Says need natural philosophy fully illustrated; experiments Bids the din of the battle cease; on electricity and galvanism liberally given; phy- Takes the banner and spear from my failing hand, siology and comparative anatomy illustrated And proclains an eternal Peace.” by a manakin, and a large variety of anatomical “Let me die Father, I tremble, I fear preparations; and by a microscope magnifying To yield in that terrible strite,' one million five hundred thousand surfaces, vari- - The crown must be won for L'eaven, dear, ous departments of botany and other branches of In the battle field of life; natural history are so fully illustrated as to show My child, the ugh the foes are strong and tried, the beauties and the wonders of science.

He loveth the weak and small; For a knowledge of the English language, And God is over all."

The angels of Heaven are on thy side " constant and varied exercises in composition are inseparably connected with every branch in

SUMMARY OF NEWS. every department of the school, in which orthography, etymology, and syntax are objects of un

FOREIGN INTELLIGENCE.-The British mailremitting attention.” A daily paper is also pre

steamer America, from Liverpool on the 10th inst., pared alternately by the ladies and gentlemen,

arrived at Boston on the 241h. and read cach morning as the opening exercise, or aflairs in the East. The four powers have re

No material change had taken place in the aspect recognized as “one of the most useful features of sumed their joint action in favor of peace and have the school.”

recognized, by a formal protocol, ihe paramount Departments for agriculture and engineering importance of preserving the present territorial arare, in future, to be made prominent in the plan rarigements of Europe. On this basis, measures of the school. The former, embracing all the have been taken to hold a joint conference, which sciences, will be especially and practically illus- is to be open to the representatives of Russia and trated by chemistry and geology, making the ele- sioners. The liberal party claim that the present

Turkey, ihus making a conference of six Commis

, ments and the analysis of soils

, and the various opportunity should be seized to obtain the free navi. manures adapted to them, subjects of rigid exami- gation of ihe Danube and the Black Sea, and the

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abandonment of all Russian claims against Turkey: 1 Several political arrests have been made, and an The Czar is represented as alternately irritated order has been issued forbidding any Spaniard to and depressed at the evident failure of his political leave the Island, on pain of condign punishment. and military schemes, and irresolute in the adoption An American citizen had been ordered to leave of decided measures to carry on the war ou a grand the Island within six days. scale, or to conclude a lasting peace.

CALIFORNIA.—The steamship Northern Light, No movements of importance are reported on the from San Juan del Norte, arrived at New York on Danube. The Turks were fortifying Kalafat. the 24th, bringing dates from San Francisco to the

In Asia, the Russians were so hard pressed that 1st inst. 16,000 troops had been sent to their relief. In an The rainy season commenced on the 14th ultimo. engagement of some magnitude, near Areska, on The rain had filled the gulches and raised the rivers, the 4th ult., the Russians were defeated, leaving a and the works of the dry season were closed. The number of their dead and wounded on the field diggings in the river beds had been abandoned, and, The fortresses of Saffa and Aristan had been taken though the rise was not great, many valuable dams, by assault by Selim Pasha. Akhalzikh, in Georgia, Aumes, &c., had been swept away. had also been captured by the Turks.

Preparations for next summer are making among Baron Bruck has informed the Porle that Austria the miners, and canals, to be finished by the 6th will support the neutrality of Servia, and the Sultan month, have been commenced on the North Yuba, replies that he will compel Servia to renounce her Middlé Yuba, and North Fork of the Anierican neutrality, and has given orders to that effect. Aus- river. Many similar enterprises are contemplated. tria is said to be making active preparations to as- A number of new diggings have been discovered. sist Servia.

A lead two hundred feet wide, evidently once the FRANCE.- Louis Napoleon is said to have ad- bed of a stream, has been found under a mountain, dressed a formal representation to the King of the and 600 feet above the level of the Middle Yuba, Belgians, charging him with having brought about near by. In this lead are

found the remains of trees, the late " fusion” of the two branches of the House some rotten, others petrified, others changed into a of Bourbon, which took place at Vienna, between mineral resembling sulphate of iron. the Count of Chambord and the Duke of Nemours.

Several valuable quarız veins have been opened The Emperor gives the Belgian Government notice, in El Dorado; and some discoveries have been that upon the first movement of the coalesced Bour-made in Calaveras which, it is thought, will raise bons against the French government, an army will the latter to a high position among the quarız be marched into Belgiung. The late rapid move

counties. ments of the Duke of Brabant, heir apparent to the

From a report of the Legislative Committee, it crown of Belgium, are understood to have referred appears that the Siate debt is $3,197,688, and the to the fusion.

yearly interest $231,912. Spain.-Reports are prevalent of movements

DOMESTIC.-Congress.- In the Senate, on the among the ('arlist Chiefs.

201h, a number of petitions and resolutions were MONTEVIDEO. – A change of government has which was adopted, directing the Committee on

presented. Senator Sumner offered a resolution, taken place in Montevideo, without bloodshed, the Post Offices and Post Roads to inquire whether the late President, Giro, and his ministers having taken charges on letters carried by the ocean steamers are refuge in some of ihe foreign ships of war in the not unnecessary and burihensome, and whether harbor. The new government is composed of a something may not be done to secure the benefiis triumvirate of generals--Flores, Paxheso and Fruc of cheap ocean postage. tus Rivera. It is thought that Flores will be nominated to the Presidency.

A remonstrance from citizens of New York

against the ratification of the International Cops: Mexico.—Mexican papers state that 2,000 men right treaty, and a bill for the payment of French have been sent 10 the Pacific coast, to defend the Spoliations, were appropriately referred in the U.S. country against the invasions of fillibustering expe. Senate on the 20th. A resolution instructing the ditions.

Committee on Indian Affairs to consider the expe. A valuable gold placer has been discovered in diency of appointing a Commission to prepare Sonora, north of the village of Tubutama. The codle of laws for the government of the Indian tribes A pache Indians prevent its being worked, but the within the limits of the United States, was agreed Government has sent a reinforcement to the troops to. for the protection of the place.

In the House of Representatives, on the 19th, a A report from Gen. Gadsden informs that Santa bill was reported making appropriations for the Ci. Anna's government has favorably received his pro- vil and Diplomatic expenses of the Government for position to concede the right of way, for a Railroad the year ending 6ih month, 1855 ; also a bill for io the Pacific, through territory south of the bound supplying the deficiencies in the appropriations for ary line of the United States.

the year ending 61h month, 1854. On the 20th, a HONDURAS.- Advices from Honduras state that bill was reported au! horizing the construction of six the contract for the new interoceanic route to the first-class steam frigates for Government. On the Pacific, through Honduras, has been completed, and 21st, a bill providing for he establishment of the that a special agent has been sent to Washington Territory of Nebraska, was referred to the Commitby the government of Honduras, to effect a treaty tee on 'Territories. with this country for more intimate relations, and to The Senate of South Carolina has passed a bill perfect the arrangements for the opening of this to arnend the law in relation to colored seamen. It new communication with the Pacific coast of this provides that masters of vessels shallgive bond and continent.

security for the continuance of such persons on CUBA.—The yellow fever still prevails, to some board their vesssls while in port. It is thought the extent, in Havania.

bill will become a law.




Ꭱ W.




No. 17.





we have lived subject to his government, all the

time of his reign in Norway; although, for conPUBLISHED WEEKLY BY SAMUEL RHOADS, science sake, we have suffered under his rule, No. 50 North Fourth Street,

by the old laws continuing in force in the land. PHILADELPHIA.

We also certainly believe it was quite contrary Price two dollars per annum, PAYABLE IN ADVANCE, to his will

, which he in many respects showed, or six copies for ten dollars.

by his affectionate and tender mind and judgPostage on this paper, when paid quarterly or yearly ment towards us, when our sufferings came to in advance, 13 cents per annum in Pennsylvania and 26 his knowledge. cents per annum in other States.

“We have the same hope in thee, O king ! (should) similar circumstances occur to us, in our honest regard for conscience. And since

thou hast shewn so much favor, and such a (Continued from page 243.)

Christian disposition towards us, so we desire, for On the proclamation of this alteration of the these and other reasons, that the love of the law in favor of those who conscientiously dis- eternal and true God may not only be as a heav. sented from the Lutheran church, the Friends enly visitation to thy soul from the Most High, of Stavanger prepared and forwarded to the king,

but that it may continue to grow from one dethe following grateful acknowledgment :

gree of pureness to another, and be known of Translation of an Address on behalf of the eternal life in thy heart. This

is the true great

thee as a fountain of peace, springing forth to . Society of Friends, in and near Stavanger, in Norway; to Oscar, King of Sweden, Norway, are established, and is of more worth than earthly

ness by which the thrones of kings and princes

, , dic.

This was the fountain from whence "To King OSCAR!

king Solomon obtained his great wisdom, and “We, who are a people called Friends, but which he sought for before earthly crowns, and known by the name of Dissenters in Norway, as- after which he cried to the Most High, to obtain sume the liberty in these lines, to express, in wisdom to reign over a great people ; and, so long true and sincere love, our gratitude to thee, o as he lived in the fear of God, it was well with king! for the law for liberty of conscience, and him. so large and free exercise of religion, which thou, “We desire, fervently, that a portion of this in thy generosity, hast granted us; a law which, spirit of true wisdom, may also in the same way in any former


would scarcely have even been be thine ; and that we, thy subjects, may also be asked to be permitted in the land of Norway. in a fervent and daily endeavor to get a part in We believe that herein, (we dare to say) that it

, and continue to grow in it, which always leads thou, o king, hast shewn a pre-eminence over tó humility; so would the equity of thy spirit, thy predecessors

, who were kings of the same and obedience to the same from thy subjects, country.

meet each other. And thus, as we have lived “And that it is from the Most High, this ex- in peace and obedience under the government of cellent judgment and disposition of mind is—to thy father, to all his equitable laws and comloosen the bands of conscience, for peaceable and mands, which we did not feel to be in opposition Christian minded subjects, that they might wor- to the laws of God; we also hereby promise, ship and adore God in the manner they believe through the grace of God, as good subjects

, to shew the same obedience to thee, O King! to " If this step, and this excellent judgment thy government and authority. should often again be proved, thou wilt never

“We believe that this is the binding duty of come to repent even unto thy latest breath ; all under this Christian profession; and we bewhilst the knowledge of God and his fear dwell lieve obedience to be the first, sole, and right hoin thy heart.

nor, with which we can honor our king, govern“We believe, also, that thy dear deceased ment, and superiors in authority. father had a mind in union with it; under whom “And as we wish that the mercy of God may

to be right.

rest upon thee, thy house, and people; and that sing, which have occurred during the year, should thou, O king, mayest seek after both heavenly then be discussed and considered. and earthly peace, and rule over thy land and Perhaps we may venture secretly to look for people in the same, and therein end thy days in some one from England to visit us at Stavanger. the Lord's appointed time. This is the sincere It would be very acceptable to us, if it were the wish, for thee and all men, of us, thy well-wish- Lord's will. Friends are well, except two woing subjects, in, and near Stavanger, in Norway, men, who are very feeble. And now thou art of the Society of Friends, but formerly known affectionately saluted from thy friend and fellow under the name of Quakers. On behalf of this pilgrim,

ENER RASMUSSEN." little society, and in its fellowship, we hope by faithfulness to continue,

In the spring of 1846, an individual accus

tomed to attend meetings at Stavanger, had oc“King Oscar's obedient subjects,

casion, with her husband, to come over to New“Stavanger, 12th of 8th mo., 1845.

castle, where they were kindly noticed by several “By E. TASTED."

Friends. On their return home, they mentioned We will now present the reader with one more the surprise with which they had observed, in letter from the pen of Ener Rasmussen, written the houses of Friends, a departure from that anin Danish, to a Friend of Sunderland.

cient simplicity which the early Friends were 8th mo. 30th, 1845. “ Although I and thou accustomed to observe, both in their apparel, and are personally unknown to each other, I believe in the furniture of their houses. This being rewe yet do know each other in the hidden man.

ported to the dear Friends of Stavanger, gave I feel a true union in my spirit with you, the them pain; and proves the need we have, as Friends in England. Often am I in my loneli- members of a Society hitherto so remarkable for ness turned towards you in love and sweet fel-lits self-denial, and abstinence from an indulgence lowship in my spirit, even as if I were amongst

in the pomps and vanities of this wicked world, you. This fellowship has its source in Christ,

to be very careful in an adherence to that innothe true vine tree, in whom all true unity and cency and simplicity of life and manners which fellowship consist.

was so impressively inculcated by our Lord, when “ Your love is great toward us, and the con

he warned his disciples against the pursuit of cern you have evinced in both spiritual and tem- such things ; adding, "After all these things do poral things, is much appreciated ; and, I believe, the nations of the world seek; and be not ye

like unto them." yet more precious in the sight of God, who rejoices to behold his love poured forth on earth, In a letter to a Friend of Newcastle, the writer as it is in heaven.

remarks: “They are telling some things which “ You are much mentioned amongst the young are a grief to tender-hearted Friends, and which, Friends, and love bursts forth from them towards they say, only worldly-minded people do, as it is you. I trust all will be to the praise and honor not useful for any thing but to gaze upon. Friends of Him who has thus united us together in the ask me, Is that true? and have Friends liberty spirit.

to do it? Is it consistent with Friends' princi“I will now inform thee of a great visitation ples? Are they not more separated from the of grace from on high, which was felt in our meet- world than this? Such questions do they put ing on the first First day in the fifth month last. to me, because I never told any body of such I believe the Lord's presence was near the as- things amongst you, although I saw it when with sembly, and was felt by all present, as our dear you, and looked upon it as superfluity; your friend, Endre Dahl, stood up and publicly bore great love covered it to me.” testimony amongst us. A shaking or motion There is so much instruction to be derived was felt by the whole assembly. He has also from this little occurrence, that the Editor is appeared in ministry a few times since, and has best satisfied to give it a place in these pages, as travelled to visit Friends who live at a distance an excitement to greater circumspection, lest we from Stavanger, and who lack ability frequently unhappily offend or give occasion of stumbling to attend our meeting. I have also been with to any of the little awakened tender-hearted ones him on a visit to some Friends.

of Christ's flock, who are earnestly enquiring “We are now granted religious liberty by the after the true way to the kingdom of God; and king of Norway; and, perhaps, Elias Tasted or whose eyes have been measurably opened to see Endre Dahl will send a copy of the law to thee, that the lusts of the flesh [the carnal mind,] the by which thou canst see how great our liberty is. lusts of the eye, and the pride of life, are not of

" It was determined, in our two months' meet the Father, but of the world. ing, held in the sixth month last, that, in the We now come to another remarkable event in sixth month of each year, all Friends in Norway, the history of the little community of Friends in who live at a distance from Stavanger, should be Norway; the religious visit paid to them in the invited to meet as regularly as possible for them, summer of 1816, by our dear Friends, Edwin 0. as many have a dangerous voyage to travel; and Tregelles and John Budge, of Cornwall, and that all things relating to the two months' meet- Isaac Sharp, of Darlington. It cannot be better


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