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but let us grant, that whatever advantage in this, brief notice of the proposed joint investigation of respect we possess, was enjoyed more abundantly the Ocean desirable, if not necessary. by the primeval fathers, by reason of the length Lieut. Maury, so long ago as 1812, conceived of their lives, so that it is morally impossible but that it would be useful to science if the masters that their material condition should have been of American vessels could be induced to keep one of high and progressive advancement during their log-books in an improved fashion. Practhe period which is now under our survey.

tical men shook their heads at the idea. He In further corroboration of the argument, that wished them to record the set of currents, the the recent invention of many arts, and the savage depths of the ocean bed, the heat of the water. condition of many nations, is not adverse to the They did not see his purpose, and for a long conclusion, that the fathers of mankind were not time they gave him little assistance. Materials a barbarous, but a cultivated people, let us listen nevertheless slowly grew in bulk under his eye; to the hypothesis built by Plato, upon natural he compared the information which he obtained and thoughtful reasoning from known facts. He with older logs; and at the end of six years he admits that men, in these ancient times, pos- announced his first practical discovery-a new sessed cities, laws, and arts; but desolations, route to Rio. cor in the shape of inundations, epidemics, Practical men still shook their heads. They malaria, and the like, those that escaped betook who had crossed the line a hundred times were themselves to the mountains and kept sheep. not to be taught navigation by a person who Most of the arts and sciences, which were for- spent his days in star-gazing or poring over old merly common, were then more and more disused logs. It was not easy therefore to get a sailor and forgotten among them. But mankind after- bold enough to venture on the new route ; for wards multiplying, they descended into the val. seamen, more strongly wedded to tradition than leys; and, by degrees, mutual conversation, the perhaps any other body of professionals, were necessities of their condition, and the due con- afraid of the Great Belt of Calms near the equasideration of things, gradually revived among tor, and of a bugbear of a current setting on them the arts which had been lost by long inter- Cape St. Roche, in South America. At length mission.

a bolder than the rest proposed to sail under Sir Matthew Hale, who, in his profound work Lieut. Maury's directions; and the consequence on the “Primitive Origination of Mankind,” in- was, that he reached the line in twenty-four days cidentally touches on this subject, says :-“We instead of forty-one. He had sailed nearly as are not to conclude every new appearance of an the crow flies, instead of running seven or eight art or science is the first production of it; but, as hundred miles out of the direct course to avoid they say of the river Tigris, and some others, imaginary dangers. they sink into the ground, and keep a subterra

After this great discovery Lieut. Maury had neous course, it may be for forty or fifty miles, little trouble with the seamen. To use his own and then break out above ground again, which is words, “navigators now for the first time apnot so much a new river as the continuation and peared to comprehend what it was I wanted reappearance of the old, so many times it falls them to doand why.It was this “why" out with arts and sciences; though they have that had made them indifferent. They could their non-appearance for some ages, and then see no advantage in recording the minute details seem first to discover themselves where before asked for by the astronomer, and they failed in they were not known, it is not so much the first many cases to give themselves the trouble. production of the art, as a transition, or at least a Lieut. Maury's next service was—shortening at restitution, of what was either before in another, various points the route to California. Ile sucor in the same country or people. And thus also ceeded in reducing the entire sea voyage from some tell us that guns and printing, though but 180 to 100 days. It is with such practical relately discovered in Europe, were of far ancienter commendations in his hand, that the American use in China.”Flogg's Instructor.

astronomer has now come to offer to Europe a share in the glory and the benefits of a larger,

more systematic, and more minute ocean survey Lieut. Maury's Plan for Improving Navigation: than has ever before been made. with Some Remarks on the advantages arising

In the pamphlet now before us, Lord Wrotfrom the Pursuit of Abstract Science. —Lord tesley has put the case in a very lucid and inWrotlesley's Speech in the House of Lords, on the value of scientific knowledge even when it

teresting way: adducing some facts in proof of 26th April 1853.

would not seem to be practically available. The The presence of Lieut. Maury in Europe—the story of Franklin and his thermometer is a good Congress of Meteorologists just held in Brussels instance of this kind. Franklin, as every body

- the arrival of the Dolphin at Southampton-knows, was great at experiments. He had a and the publication (see Athen. No. 1350) of the passion for ascertaining facts, whether isolated Correspondence between Col. Sabine, Dr. Bache, or other. When crossing the Atlantic he had and the English Admiralty, combine to render al been in the habit of dipping his thermometer

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into the sea and noting the record. These sim- , the world—and for European and American ple experiments, though he had no notion of commerce it is far the most important. their special importance at the time, caused one “This astonishing current [says Lord Wrotof the great internal revolutions in America— tesley] is always from 8° to 200 warmer than the transferred the trade and wealth of Charleston surrounding ocean, and it imparts its temperature to New York, from the south to the north, from to the superincumbent atmosphere, thus generathe Slave States to the Free. This important ting fearful storms. But another and very cutransfer was effected thus :

rious purpose appears to be answered by this ex“When Dr. Franklin was in England, the traordinary stream; in addition to the benefits merchants of Providence, Rhode Island, 'peti- which accrue from its transporting as it were on tioned the Lords of the Treasury, (it was before its waves a mild and genial climate to the shores the recognition of Independence,) that the Gov- of Europe, it acts as a great thawing laboratory ernment packets that usually sailed from Fal- for all the ice that comes down into it, in two mouth to Boston, United States, might in future streams from the inhospitable shores of Baffin's sail from London to Providence; and they sup. Bay and Greenland; it is possible that the weed ported the prayer of their petition by the allega- may help to arrest the course of these frigid tion that the average passage from London to mountains, till they are completely dissolved in Providence was fourteen days less than that from nature's furnace, and while their course is so Falmouth to Boston. Now Falmouth and Bos- stayed they gradually disappear, and are preton being between London and Providence, this vented from intruding on the more genial climes statement seemed rather startling; and Dr. of the South.” Franklin, who was always on the alert when his Lord Wrottesley very properly adds :-"surely country's interests were at stake, hearing of it, a current which seems to exercise such an imsent for Capt. Folger, an old New England portant influence upon navigation and meteorWhaler, who happened also to be in London at ology is worth examination till all worth knowing the time. The old Captain immediately ac. is known.” Major Rennell, who paid great atcounted for the fact that had puzzled the Doctor. tention to the Gulf-stream, as the highway of “ The London packets,” said he, “are com- nature between the two worlds, writing thirty manded by New England masters, who know years ago, says :something about the Gulf-stream; the Falmouth,

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But nothing less than a great number of obby Englishmen who know nothing about the servations of every kind, and those made through matter." This hint was enough for Dr. Frank- many seasons, in order to embrace all the varielin. He had either previously or subsequently ties of cases, can enable the most diligent inquitaken the temperature of the Gulf-stream, and rer to make himself master of the whole subject; had found it considerably higher than the sur- and this can be the work of Government only ; rounding Ocean; dipping a thermometer into for individual enquiry can produce little more the sea, therefore, showed when you entered it than unconnected facts.and left it. He and the old Captain laid down America is doing her part in this great work. its limits according to the best of the existing Holland has also given in her adhesion to Lieut. information on the charts, and the result was a Maury's plans. England could not keep aloof complete change in the course taken by vessels from such an enterprise-so important for her trading between England and America."

trading interests, so precious in the scientific reBy using or avoiding the Gulf-stream as cir- sults. To those who would still object to the cumstances required, for which the thermometer trouble and expense involved—and we may say, served the purpose of a sextant, the distance be- in passing, that these are very small—Lord Wrottween London and New York was shortened tesley offers a striking illustration of the practical from sixty to thirty days. In this way New uses of real knowledge, whether it be gained by York became nearer to England than Charles- accident or by design. He writes :ton. It grew into the point for all vessels

“ The man who would laugh to scorn the phibound to the New World to touch at—and so, losopher experimenting on the leg of a dead frog assumed the importance of a great commercial would stand amazed in silent admiration before depot. Charleston lost its chance of ever grow- the wonderful performances of the electric teleing into the metropolis of the Republic :-and, graph ; yet the connexion between the one and to use the words of Lieut. Maury, "all these re- the other is known to every tyro in science. sults are traceable to the use of the water ther- Who could have foreseen that Worcester's rude mometer at sea.”. This is an answer to be pon-experiment on the expansion of the vapor of dered by those who affect to sneer at the tem- water contained the germ of that great invention, perature registrations of the Dolphin.

the steam engine? These are instances in which The Gulf-stream, Franklin's observation of the rude ore was slowly worked into the finished which led to such important results for America, manufacture; but there are cases in which disis still a comparatively unknown ocean current. coveries which seemed likely to continue long Yet it is one of the most interesting streams in unfruitful have been suddenly and unexpectedly

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applied to the arts. Thus, about forty-five years ago a gentleman was surveying through a particular kind of prism, the light of the setting sun reflected from the windows of the palace of the Luxembourg; this led to the discovery of a property of light, which gave a new character to the science of Optics. Light was observed to undergo certain modifications on being transmitted through, or reflected from, certain substances. To these changes the name of “polarization” was given; many interesting experiments were made, beautiful colors and tints exhibited, men cried out, How pretty! but what is the use ? Now, your Lordships will be surprised to hear that this property of light has been lately employed by the French in the manufacture of beet-root sugar.”

This is tery true, and very much to the purpose. But there is something better in science than the per-centage which it yields, however imposing that may appear on Change. The mental result—the growth of human power and confidence in the mastery over natural laws—is a greater thing than the material harvest of advantages. In such a cause, however, we are willing to press all arguments into the service.The Athenaeum.

A SIGNIFICANT FACT. During the past year, there have been incarcerated in the Albany Penitentiary, for various offences, one thousand persons, male and female. Of this number, all but twenty-five have been confessedly intemperate, and trace their downfall to drunkenness. Of these twenty-five, fi/teen acknowledge to the Physician of the Prison that they have habitually used intoxicating liquors to the amount of from half a pint to a pint daily, and this they call moderate drinkiny! When the connection between the use of these poisons and the crime that scourges our land, is so glaringly evident, uchy is it that every friend of virtue does not demand the suppression of the poison-traffic ?-Prohibitionist.

By a dying infant's bed,

Sadly were her parents weeping, While above her sinking head,

Guardian angels watch were keeping. In a distant tropic land,

With the dark-browed Hindoo dwelling, Had her father joined the band

Jesus' love to pagans telling. Far away from native soil,

Far from scenes of early childhood, For his Master did he toil

In the lonely jungle wildwood. But when evening brought repose,

Heartfelt praises up to heaven, From that humble cot arose,

For the daily blessings given, For the friends they once had left

Far away beyond the water, For the boon of health and gift

Of a darling, only daughter. In her parents' arms entwined,

She was all their earthly treasure ; And her early dawning mind

Filled their souls with purest pleasure. Gentle-tender as a bird,

Her blue eye with love was gleaming; And, by lively fancy stirred,

All her face with thought was beaming. By her mother's pious care,

Oft as came her time for slumbers, Sweetly rose the little prayer,

From her lips in faltering numbers. But the loveliest scene will fade

In the distant skies are swelling, Clouds that darken with their shade

Sunshine in each earthly dwelling. When the heated noon-tide air,

From the poisoned forests springin?, O'er the landscape wide and fair,

Fell disease and death was flinging. Ere three summer suns had rolled,

Swiftly in their course returning, Brilliant cheek and bright eye told

Fever in her veins was burning. As before the autumn gale

Shrinks the tender summer blossom, She, when strength began to fail,

Drooped upon her mother's bosom. Still her breath grew short apace,

And the mists began to gather, While upon her cherub face

Shone the image of her father. “Mother, dear, 'tis almost night,"

Said the dying babe, caressing; "Now, I cannot see the light,

Mother, sweet, thy evening blessingNow, I lay me down to sleep,

Thou, O Lord, who life hast given, K...," ah! that voice, how still and deep,

Here unheard, but breathed in Heaven. “Dearest, now we call thee spirit,”

Sobbed they then in accents lowly; - Lead us where the pure inherit

Mansions glorious and holy. Lord, tho’humbled to the dust,

By the blow that thou hast given, Still in mercy shall we trust

To rejoin our babe in Heaven."

A TRUE INCIDENT. A beautiful little girl, between two and three years of

age, the only child of a Missionary in the East Indies, was attacked by the jungle fever, and in a few days the physician pronounced her case to be hopeless. Having been taught from very early infancy to repeat a short prayer every evening, as her strength ebbed rapidly away and her eye sight grew dim, she naturally supposed that the hour of rest drew nigh. Clasping her tiny bands, in a faint but earnest tone, she began

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and gently breathed forth her spirit into the keeping of Him who has declared “Of such is the kingdom of Heaven."

c.

ones were

SUMMARY OF NEWS.

fessedly on the ground of opposition 10 a new Re. Foreign INTELLIGENCE.-The steamships Pacific form Bill, but more probably on account of differand Africa arrived at New York, respectively on

ences with Lord Aberdeen on the Eastern question. the 26th and 301h ults. The former brings Liver. Amelia Opie, the celebrated authoress, died at Nor. pool dates to the 14th, and the latter to the wich on the 2d ult., aged eighty-five years. 17th ult.

FRANCE.- A number of political arrests were A flotilla of Turkish vessels conveying re-inforce made in Paris, on the 9th and 10th ylis. Another ments to the army in Asia, while lying at anchor plot against the life of the Emperor has been disin the harbor of Sinope, whither ihey had been covered and more than one hundred persons were driven by stress of weather, were attacked on the arrested in consequence. 30th of ihe 11th month by !he Russian fleet, under Admiral Nachimoff. The Russian squadron con: been suspended indefinitely, in consequence of

Spain.—The sittings of the Spanish Cortes have sisted of twenty.four sail, and that of the Turks of the defeat of the Ministry. eighteen. The Turks sought with the most desperate valor, until one ship after another was either Mexico. Letters from the city of Mexico, dated sunk, blown up or otherwise destroyed. To the last, the 16th ult., state that Santa Anna has been deOsman Bey refused to strike his flag, but continued clared Dictator for life, with power to appoint his to fire from his shattered ship at the Russian steam successor. The people are enthusiastic in his ers that were towing it towards Sebastopol, until he favor. was taken, wounded, on board Nachimoff's ship, and his vessel sunk. Eleven of the Turkish vessels de Cuba, on the 1st ult.

CUBA.– A slight earthquake occurred at St. Jago were destroyed, and a number of the men taken prisoners. Seven Russian vessels were destroyed,

The new Captain-General has declared his deincluding two ships of the line, and the remaining termination to do all in his power to prevent the

so shattered that they could scarcely landing of slaves, and to captūre slavers approachreach Sebastopol. . The Russian Admiral did not ing the island, but says he can take no action afsucceed in conveying any of the Turkish vessels ter the slaves have been placed upon the estates. into Sebastopol, and it is supposed that the remain- DOMESTIC.—Texas.-The Pacific Railroad Bill ing seven succeeded in effecting their escape. passed the Texan Senate on the 8th ult. The bill

Immediately on the news of the disaster reaching grants a bonus of twenty sections of land to the Constantinople, a Grand Divan was held, at which mile, and stipulates that the line shall cross the all the foreign ministers were present. The Eng. Trinity, Brazos, and Colorado rivers at the 32d deJish and French ambassadors were strongly urged gree, or the nearest practicable point to it. to order the combined fleets into the Black Sea, but

The monster ship, the Great Republic, was it was finally decided that only a ship or two should destroyed by fire, on the 27th ult., at New York. be sent to acquire more definite information. Two The celebrated clipper, the White Squall, which French ani iwo English frigates had gone to Sinope, ostensibly with medical assistance for the New York in ninety days, and the Liverpool

recently made the voyage from San Francisco to wounded.

packet, the Joseph Walker, were also burned to the The Turkish steamers, wiib arms and ammunition water's edge. Several vessels had their spars for the Caucasus, had returned 10 Cunstantinople, scorched, but were not greatly injured. Four having landed their cargoes in safety. On their way large stores were also consumed, and a number to the coast of Abaca, an engagement took place of others, with the goods in them, were much inbetween these steamers and a Russian frigate and jured by fire and water. The fire originated in a brig, but the latter were obliged to retire, in a very cracker-bakery. The Republic had taken in her dismantled stale, to the roadsiead of Sohound.

cargo, and would have sailed in the course of the A naval force of ten powerful steamers, under a day. The vessel was valued at $300,000, and Turkish Pacha, left the Bosphorus on the 21 ult. her cargo was estimated at $300,000 more. The It was reported that at Chetliken, a Russian fleet, insurance on the ship and cargo is said to be about with 6000 troops on board, was repulsed, with a loss $300,000. of 1500 men, one steam.er knocked to pieces and a

Congress.-Scarcely any business was transact. frigate dismásted.

ed by either house of Congress, during the past Omar Pacha had taken up his winter quarters, and week, a number of the members being absent for all military operations on the Danube were eus- the holidays. In the Senate, on the 27th, Senator pended. The Turks have strongly fortified Kalasat, Seward introduced a bill for a military and postal and have 5000 men at Turna.

railroad between the Atlantic States and CaliforIn Asia, the Turks continue to be successful. nia, which was referred to the Committee on Post Schamyl and Selim Pasha, operating in concert, Offices and Post Roads. were gradually approaching each other and taking Senator Slidell introduced a bill to remove the the fortresses on their line of march. Prince Wo-obstructions to navigation in the mouth of the ronzoff was surrounded at Tiflis, and his retreat cul Mississippi, at the Southwest Pass and Pass a off. Several important fortresses in Asia are re- Loutre. The bill was referred to the Committee ported as having been taken by the Turks.

on Commerce. The Shah of Persia has declared war against On the 28th, the members of both houses assemTurkey.

bled to attend the funeral of B. Campbell, a The allied Powers are still engaged in efforts of member of the House of Representatives from conciliation.

Tennessee. The House then adjourned to the 31st. Excland.-Lord Palmerston has resigned his The Senate adjourned from day to day, no quooffice of Secretary of State for Home Affairs, pro- rum being present.

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F FRIENDS' REVIEW.

W.

A RELIGIOUS, LITERARY AND MISCELLANEOUS JOURNAL.

VOL, VII.

PHILADELPHIA, FIRST MONTH 14, 1854.

No. 18,

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EDITED BY ENOCH LEWIS.

tinued her course, and experienced, as I think,

a remarkable degree of preservation.* She is PUBLISHED WEEKLY BY SAMUEL RHOADS, now an attender of Friends' meetings at StavanNo. 50 North Fourth Street,

ger, and was much tendered in the sitting we PHILADELPHIA.

had with her. I omitted to name that Berthe

Danielsen and her husband, although very poor, Price two dollars per annum, PAYABLE IN ADVANCE, or six copies for ten dollars.

are so hospitable, it is said, they would share Postage on this paper, when paid quarterly or yearly their meal, even to the last, with suffering huin advance, 13 cents per annum in Pennsylvania and 26 manity. cents per annum in other States.

“ As a striking instance of faithfulness under

suffering, amongst many others, might be menSOME ACCOUNT OF THE RISE AND PROGRESS OF tioned the case of Soren Ericksen, of Stagland, THE SOCIETY OF FRIENDS IN NORWAY. who, when he became convinced of the princi(Cuntinued from page 260.;

ples professed by Friends, felt he could no longer Isaac Sharp, in his account of the visit to allow his children to be baptized by the priest of

the district within the limits of which he resided. Friends in Norway, proceeds:

This brought him into much trouble. A demand “ There is evidence in Norway (among some was made for the baptismal fee of sixteen schil. who have known but very little of Friends) of lings, being equal to about eightpence English. the quickening power of Divine grace immedi. In enforcing this demand, which was enormously ately revealed. And it was very striking to re- swollen by excessive charges of various kinds, the mark in some instances, how strength had been whole of his cattle were seized and sold, with the granted, from time to time, to forsake all for the exception of a single calf; yet his neighbors, love of Christ, and, in his name, to plead with who have a great regard for him, have had occathe people.

sion to rejoice in the increase of his flock. His " Helge Ericksen, a young man of Hagane, in sheep are now more numerous than those of any Valders, has, for most of seven years, travelled other person in the district. Endre Dahl reunder an apprehension of religious duty, endu-marks of this family: “They have kept faithful ring all the fatigue and hardship attendant on to their testimony through many difficulties and the rigour of the climate, and many changes of trials. At Stavanger also, and at other places, heat and cold, industriously supporting himself

, a noble testimony has been borne to the authority in the interim, by making neat watchguards, and of Christ in the Church, and to the spirituality chains for fishermen's knives of brass wire, as he of the Gospel dispensation. The care they have journeyed along. He has five times walked extended to the poor within their borders, whefrom South Ourdal to Gudrang, a distance of ther members or not, if needful and deserving, one hundred and forty miles, to visit those whom is also very exemplary and confirming; and they he believed to be in a seeking and tender state, appear to have endeavored to the utmost to proand to whom his mind had been attracted. mote the education of the children of these.

“ Berthe Danielsen also left her husband, All, without any exception, are furnished family, and home, and travelled many miles as a with the Scriptures ; and to those attenders who preacher, until apprehended in Sweden, and im- are too poor to purchase for themselves, they are prisoned there for eight weeks for conscience granted on loan. sake, after having been engaged in travelling for « The kindness with which we were regarded twelve months, literally without purse or scrip. while journeying along from day to day, and the

Ingebor Jeversdatter, now about eighteen uniform openness evinced to receive our message years of age, commenced travelling through Nor- of love, together with the feeling attendant on way at the age of thirteen, and continued, for our own minds, have induced the settled trust, three years, to preach and exhort the people, having no certain dwelling place, but over moun. Jeversdatter left home to travel as aforesaid, they

*" At the time H. Ericksen, B. Danielsen, and I. tain and moorland, through summer's heat and were in no manner connected with the Society at Stawintry snow, often thinly and poorly clad, con- I vanger."

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