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tration, with some three or four millions of likely again to occur; and during the greater bushels of grain and four annually brought from part of the other thirty-five years it suffered unAmerica, and some 70,000,000 lbs. of wool, and der corn and other restrictive laws, that were we know not how much gold, annually, brought more ruinous and desolating than the most exfrom Australia, that in proportion as the people terminating wars. Through the greater part of in these other countries increase, (and of their in the period the people were continually complaincrease in an accelerating ratio there can be no ing of want of room; there was a continual and doubt, the people here may increase. Nor does universal gene; but it was a moral, not a physical it now require any proof, however much the state- want; and every successive reduction of taxation ment may have been slighted or neglected, that and abolition of restrictions, as at the close of the the productive power of man depends on his war, as after the Reform Act was passed, as after knowledge and his skill, and that these increase Sir Robert Peel began his commercial reforms in as his numbers increase. The Registrar-General 1842, and after they were carried out further in states :

1846, and 1849, the gene, the limits, the want of "It is one of the obvious physical effects of the room disappeared, and periods of prosperity enincrease of population, that the proportion of land sued. We cannot, therefore, infer, from the to each person diminishes; and the decrease is slight retardation in the rate of increase, which such that, within the last fifty years the number has certainly taken place in the three last decimal of acres to each person living has fallen from 5.4 periods, through twenty-eight years of which the to 2.7 acres in Great Britain ; from four acres to law shut out food from the people, as compared tiro acres in England and Wales. As a counter- to the decennial period 1811, and 1821, when its vailing advantage, the people have been brought malevolent effects were only beginning, that such into each other's neighborhood : their average a retardation is hereafter to be the rule. On the distance from each other has been reduced in the contrary, now that the people are at liberty to get ratio of 3 to 2; labor has been divided ; industry food wherever they can, now that their industry has been organized in towns, and the quantity of is in a great measure free, and that they, in comproduce either consisting of, or exchangeable for mon with nearly all the people of Europe, are the conveniences, elegances, and necessaries of anxious to preserve peace, and increase their life, has, in the mass, largely increased, and is in- wealth, it is to be inferred that the population creasing at a more rapid rate than the population. will increase faster than ever, and that before the One of the moral effects of the increase of the close of the present century it is more likely to people is an increase of their mental activity; as amount to fifty, than not to exceed thirty milthe aggregation in towns brings them oftener lions. into combination and collision.

These facts and these deductions are of the Here is another startling fact. While the po- highest practical importance. Society and popupulation has increased in this wonderful manner, lation are one, and all the new phenomena of sothere has been a still more rapid increase in “the ciety are subordinate to the increase of population. conveniences, elegances, and necessaries of life.” The vast relative increase in population in this With this is conjoined another fact, that the century, explains at once those greater political "mental activity,which implies an increase in changes that have taken place in it, than in seveskill and knowledge, which again implies an in- ral preceding centuries. Catholic Emancipation crease in productive power, “is a consequence of Parliamentary Reform, religious and commercial the increase of the people.” The question, there- freedom, are a few of the leading changes in the fore, which the Registrar-General raises, whether last thirty years, which, in themselves, and their the population can be sustained at the present consequences, surpass all the previous political rate of emigration, and whether the increasing changes that were made from the Revolution to population can be profitably employed, or rather the close of the century. As population was will be able profitably to employ themselves, are comparatively stationary before the commencesurely and clearly answered in the affirmative by ment of the century, so were our institutions ; the facts he has stated. The reproductive spring and as population has increased, so have our inof population, provided food can be obtained, is stitutions necessarily undergone a change. It is powerful enough, as our offspring in America palpable enough, that the same cause which forced prove, to fill up all the vacancies of emigration; Manchester, and Birmingham, and Leeds into and the increase of mental activity, of skill and Parliament, is still in active operation, and is knowledge, which are the main sources of pro- forcing other townships, and other rising homes ductive power, will undoubtedly be great enough of people also into Parliament. Where this very to supply the increasing people with ample means rapid progress is to stop, no man pretends to of subsistence.

know; and he is rather presumptuous than wise Let us remember that the first fifteen years, who undertakes to predict whither it is to go, and nearly, of the fifty years in which the population where it will reach even in the next twelve has increased as much as it increased in all the months. preceding ages, the country was involved in a Some clue to it may be found in the past inruinous and desolating war, such as seems un- crease of particular classes of the people; and a


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“ But

better clue will be supplied when the changes in secular and religious. He stripped creeds of
the occupations of the people are ascertained and their man-made rites and forms and observances;
published. The Registrar-General tells us that, declared that to be educated at Oxford or Cam-
calling the detached houses, the villages, and the bridge was not needed to qualify a man, nor could
small towns without markets, the country, at the it of itself be a qualification, to become a messen-
present time the town and country populations ger of the gospel; that they who preached for
differ so little in numbers, that they may be con- the loaves and fishes, were wolves in the fold and
sidered equal; 10,556,288 persons live in the not pastors; that the temple of God was not the
towns thus classified, and 10,403,189 in the church of stone and mortar, as the idolatrous su-
country. Adopting this classification, although perstition of the time implied, but the human
it obviously includes in the country much that heart itself, and proclaimed with inspired elo-
belongs to town life, and town industry, and town- quence that they who'worship the Father aright
begotten wealth, we all know that the rapid in- must worship him in spirit and in truth.' He
crease in the first half of the century has been revived the almost forgotten and quite disregard-
almost exclusively of a town population. The ed truth, that God is the common Father, and all
population of the towns of all classes was, in 1801, we are brethren, and for the first time since the
3,046,371; and in 1851, 8,410,021; an increase primitive ages of Christianity, promulgated a code
of 176.067 per cent. ; while the general increase of rules for the government of society based upon
in the same period was 98.177; so that the town this presumption : how admirable and practical it
population has increased nearly twice as fast as is has been testified by the approbation which
the average increase. “ The towns," says the many experienced statesmen, wholly opposed to
Registrar-General,“ have increased most rapidly the doctrinal points of Quakerism, have expressed
in which straw-plait, cotton, pottery, and iron are of its internal discipline.”
manufactured." Thus, while the average in- How much more my young friend might have
crease of the town population in the century was added in eulogy of one who had excited his re-
176-076 per cent., the percentage increase in the verence so deeply, I do not know, had I not in-
town population engaged in the manufacture of terrupted him by saying, that having determined
straw-plait has been 351.558; of iron, 589-918; to study for myself the history of Fox and his
of cotton, 282-391; of pottery, 260.972; or, mission, it was perhaps better that he should not
taking another classification, between 1801 and prejudice my judgment on the subject.
1851, the towns have increased, per cent.--Lon- don't you think it a pity," I asked, “ that the
don, 146-358; county towns, excluding London, Quakers of the present day, liberal and philan-
122.096; watering-places, 254:125; sea-ports, thropic as they are well known to be, should mar
excluding London, 195.551; manufacturing their usefulness by the exclusiveness and puncti-
towns, 221:174; mining and hardware towns, lious observance of peculiar and unsocial customs
217.303. Thus, the great increase is in a town in speech, dress, and address, for which they are
population, and of that the great increase is in equally conspicuous ?”
the seaports, the manufacturing towns, and the “I must confess that some of their singulari-
watering places. The increase is of comparatively ties appear to me a good deal obnoxious to your
wealthy and intelligent people, and that progress objections, nor do I think that the clear under-
seems likely to continue. Such, then, will pro- standing and liberal heart of George Fox would
bably be the progress of society, which will give altogether justify them, were he living now. The
laws to all future lawgivers. That probability pro- times are changed since they received his sanc-
gress statesmen ought to study; for to that their tion, and however sound the principle of conser-
policy and their acts, to be at all successful, must vatism may be in matters of pure faith and doc-

trine, it is plainly rational that those manners and
habits and customs which are accidental to man,

and moulded by ever mutable taste and circum-

stance, ought to be subjected to the remodelling (Concluded from page 15.)

influence of mental and practical progress. MoLinked to the highest moral character, they dern Quakers, I believe, have been too apt to admit the existence of a Titantic intellect, a lose sight of this, to an extent even that has large catholic heart, and an indomitable will, brought upon them, in the face of their activity ever subservient to manifested duty; but the as general reformers, the charge of attempting to true genius of the prophet-priest and cos-mopo- stereotype the mind. A distinction, however, relitan reformer has been too much overlooked quires to be drawn between the motives which in the acrimony of sectarian dissensions. In ruled George Fox in recommending that departhis lonely, prayerful meditations, by groves ure from the fashions of the world which occaand meadows, and in the hollows of trees, sions the peculiarities' of Quakerism, and those he obtained above all men of his time a which influence the sect at the present day in marvellous insight into the eternal realities of life still adhering to them. The age in which these and nature which underlaid the cant and hypo- ' peculiarities' arose was one signalized above all crisy that invested nearly all things around him, others in English history for its hollowness, flip


and open immorality. The example of a been himself a member of the Society of Friends, profligate prince, and the corrupt though polished and may therefore be held excusable if he was a court which surrounded him, acted as a canker little mistaken in regard to some of the peculiariat the heart of society, destroying virtue in all its forms, and infecting with its demoralizing taint ties which have marked the Society from its rise the institutions, literature, and amusements of to the present time. We do not find that Friends the people. To stem this tide of iniquity was a adopted a costume of their own, as distinguished part of Fox's mission, and he had to adapt his from what was usually worn in their time; but means to his ends. It was a case of life and death : the corrupt members must be sacrificed,

retaining the form of dress which was common or the whole body would perish. The abstract among the graver class of their cotemporaries, edly innocent and refined arts of music and sing. they rejected such appendages as were designed ing had become associated with low and impious for ornament and not for use; and their peculilanguage; dancing, the “poetry of motion,' was arity of dress in the present day so far as it is equally prostituted; theatres and other places of diversion were, of course, above all else affected peculiar, has arisen from their declining to by the general corruption, and quite justified the change the form and color of their garments in iinputations of the Latin poet respecting them; compliance with the usage of an ever-varying world. the common courtesies of life, which seem native Yet when changes in the form of apparel, conduto civilized humanity, had given place to artificive to usefulness and convenience, are introduced, cial forms of breeding marked alike by their insincerity and their dattery of the creature : in Friends do not refuse to adopt them, for convefine, England was one vast Augean stable. And nience sake. Hence it has happened that the when the question, how must it be cleansed ?' appearance of the consistent and sober class came over the mind of Fox, or rather weighed among us, had become very different from that upon his heart, what other conclusion was possi- of our ancestors of the 17th century. Friends do ble than the one he came to, namely, that these things must be abolished in toto, as irreconcila- not, and never did, object to the adoption of real ble with the spirit of truth, and too vicious to be improvements in dress or in any thing else, but susceptible of amendment. In this way arose they do object to following the freaks of fashion the distinctive peculiarities in the externals of for fashion's sake. Quakerism; whether, as I said before, they may

With regard to the use of thee and thou, we not now be regarded as having done their appointed work, and that when thee and thou' and a may easily perceive that as these words hold a broad-brimmed hat and a plain coat have ceased necessary place in the English language, as atto be substitutes for anything more objectionable tested by their use in the translation of the scripin the world at large, they may not themselves

tures and in all the higher orders of composition; be dispensed with, you may judge for yourself hereafter, but I do believe that had it not been the practice will cease to be a peculiarity whenfor their interposition, and for the check they ever those who speak our language shall unite in exercised over the vicious tendencies of every- speaking it correctly. thing relating to la mode' in the reign of the second Charles, England would not have made

THE CROSS. the progress she has towards the realization of

“ The, cross if freely borne, shall be Christianity."

No burden, but support to thee.” After a good deal of further conversation with So, moved of old time for our sake, my companion on various topics of this nature,

The holy monk of Kempen spake. but not without a renewed promise on my part to Thon brave and true one, upon whom inform myself more fully upon the lives and times Was laid the cross of martyrdom, of the early Quakers, we reluctantly bade each How didst thou in thy faithful youth

Bear witness to this blessed truth! other adieu. In the meantime, I resolved, instead of any more indulging in ridicule and mer- Thy cross of suffering and of shame riment at the expense of Quaker simplicity, to A staff within thy hand became, remember the words of my mountain friend, that

In paths where faith alone could see

The Master's steps upholding thee. beneath the rough Gothic exterior of many an humble follower of George Fox there throbs a Thine was the seed time; God alone

Beholds the end of what is sown; great human heart.-R. Ü. J.

[London Friend. Beyond our vision, weak and dim,

The harvest time is bid with Him.
Our readers will observe that the young man

Yet unforgotten where it lies, who gave these explanations respecting the prin- That seed of generous sacrifice,

Though seeming on the desert cast, ciples and motives of George Fox, and his coad

Shall rise with flower and fruit at last. jutors, does not appear from the narrative to have


gers in the Arctic.

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ed, and it is intended to modify, by degrees, the FOREIGN INTELLIGENCE.—The Steamship Frank- now ruled. The measures necessary to carry the

military institutions by which these provinces are lin arrived at New York on the 14th inst., and the decree into effect on the 1st inst. had been already Arctic, on the 18th, bringing English dates respec-adopted. tive to the 1st and 7th inst.

RUSIA AND TURKEY.—The question at issue beHarriet Beecher Stowe was one of the passen- tween these governments is still unsettled and ap

prehension continues unabated. ENGLAND.—The Queen had left Ireland and gone CHINA.-Advices from Shanghai to 6th mo. 30th, to her residence at Balmoral, Scoiland.

have been received. The main body of the insurThe principal members of the Cabinet remained gents still remain at Nankin, Chin-kiang-foo, and in London, awaiting the termination of the Turk- on the northern banks of the Yang-tse-kiang. ish question.

They had taken Tal-ping-foo, a city of great The weavers of domestics by power looms, at strength, to the westward of Nankin. No moveManchester, and the cotton skein dyers from ment had been made northward, or in the directwenty-two establishments, had struck for higher tion of Soochow and Shanghai. wages.

The city of Yan-ping-foo had been besieged Ninety-three emigrant ships sailed from Liver- and was supposed to have fallen, and all compool during the past month, carrying upwards of munication with the interior was cut off by the 20,000 passengers, of whom 18,000 were for the rebels. The imperialists still hold Chongchow United States.

and Tang-wa, where there had been constant The ex-royal family of France have engaged a fighting and much slaughter. The insurgents had steamer to carry them to Lisbon.

possession of Amoy.
The Bank of England has raised the rate of Buenos Ayres. — A letter in the N. Y. Courier
interest on commercial bills to 4 per cent. and Inquirer states that Urquiza, being deserted by

FRANCE.—The Emperor was to leave Dieppe for his fleet and menaced by Gen. Flores, addressed
Boulogne on the 6th inst.

a note to the city government of Buenos Ayres, Letters from various departments state that the saying that he had resolved to retire from the price of wheat continues to decline.

State, and recommending that it should consent to Numerous vessels had arrived at Marseilles, with a peace with the rest of the confederation. The wheat from Odessa. These advices were of 31st government consented to do so, and Urquiza left ult. The price of wheat had fallen considerably his intrenchments on night of the 7th mo. 13th, at Rouen and Lille, and likewise at Villeneuve, and proceeded to the bank of the river, where he Astaffort, Marmande and Moissac, in Lot and Ga- embarked on board of the U. S. steamer Water

Witch. The Entre Rios troops were embarked on A letter from Paris says that the Government is board a British vessel, and all sailed immediately seriously occupied in considering all the regula- for Entre Rois. tions referring to the sale of bread in Paris. The HONDURAS. -Letters from Balize, Honduras, have present system of retaining a store of flour in been received. warehouse, as a supply for the inhabitants in case Guatemala had captured the Honduras towns of of scarcity, is condemned as defective, notwith- Quira and Truxillo. standing the enormous expense it entails. The An earthquake had occurred along the Salle supply at present in the granaries of Paris, is not shore which was very violent at Biloxi, and much more than sufficient for seventy days' consump- damage was done to the place. The houses rocked tion.

and the people were greatly alarmed. A seditious address was posted upon the walls

Mexico.- Late intelligence from Mexicoinforms of Rheims, during the night of the 1st inst. Next that the two important States of Guanajuato and morning, crowds assembled to read it, but no dis- Guadalajara had declared against Santa Anra, and position to make a disturbance was manifest. it was believed that Chihuahua and several other

Portugal.—Lisbon letters of the 19th announce States would soon follow the example. The imthe closing of the Cortes on the 15th, by royal de mediate causes of the movement appear to have cree. The prospects of the country were very been the imposition of new and grossly oppresunfavorable, owing to the rapid and general spread sive taxes, a forced levy of troops to make up the of the grape disease: the grape shipments by the army of 91,000 men, and the substitution of mili. packets will not, it was expected, reach more than tary for civil government in the several States. 10 per cent of the quantity usually shipped. Many Mexicans had fled across the frontier to

SARDINIA.—The funeral of Bartholemi Bottaro, avoid the conscription.
a democratic priest, at Genoa, had been made thé DOMESTIC.-An earthquake took place on the
occasion of a grand political demonstration. His 11th inst. along the coast of Louisiana.
body was attended to the tomb by as great a con- The yellow fever continues to decline at New
course as that which followed the remains of the Orleans. Thirty-two deaths from this cause are
mother of Mazzini. Bottaro had been censured reported for the 24 hours ending on the morning
by the Holy Congregation of Rome, for his poli- of the 16th inst. The total number of deaths from
tical psalms,” but refused to retract his opinions, the fever from the commencement to the 10th
and therefore became an idol with the Republican inst. was 7381.
party. His death was sudden, and a post-mortem At Natchez and at Vidalia, opposite to it, the
examination of his body show traces of poison. epidemic was raging with great violence. At
An inquest into the circumstances of his death Mobile, business was almost entirely suspended.
had been commenced.

One-half of the population of Grand Guli, Miss., ITALY.—The state of siege in Venice and Lom- | were attacked with it in less than a week. It also hardy is to be removed. According to a decree prevailed to a frightful extent at Vicksburg and of the 13th ult., it was to be immediately mitigat-'other towns on the Mississippi.

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No. 3.


the disposition and abilities of their parents. In

general, however, neither of these are wanting. PUBLISHED WEEKLY BY SAMUEL RHOADS,

The parish of Hoff contains more than four hur

dred souls, yet there is only one parishioner, urNo. 50 North Fourth Street,

wards of eight years of age, that cannot read; PHILADELPHIA.

and this individual is prevented by a natural Price two dollars per annum, PAYABLE IN ADVANCE, infirmity. or six copies for ten dollars.

“ Their method of education has a very favoraPostage on this paper, when paid quarterly or yearly ble effect upon them, in many respects. It is in advance, 13 cents per annum in Pennsylvania and 26 cents per annum in other Srates.

considered the duty and interest of the mother to form the minds of her children, and to instruct

them in the first rudiments of learning, as soon DOMESTIC IMPROVEMENT.

as they are capable of receiving it. The father It was said by the pious Howe, a man of much then teaches such other branches as appear dereflection and observation, and a sincere friend to sirable. the cause of christianity, that “ It is the duty “Thus, without the expense, exposure, or loss of every person coming into the world, to leave of time, which most experience, they acquire a it as much better than he finds it, as he can.” perfect understanding of things necessary and

Were this maxim observed, and our minds expedient. And in many instances those who imbued with that love which breathes “glory to have never been at school, are capable of reading (rod in the highest, on earth, peace, good will authors of several different languages. towards men,” with what pleasing anticipation “The predominant character of the Icelanders, might we contemplate the near approach of that is that of unsuspecting frankness, pious contentday, when “swords shall be beaten into plough- ment, and a steady liveliness of temperament, shares, and spears into pruning-hooks; nation combined with strength of intellect, and acuteshall not lift up sword against nation, neither ness of mind. They are kind and hospitable; shall they learn war any more.”

and in their general knowledge, superior to people Yet, as a proof how much may be done in this of their rank, in most other parts of the world. important business by individual care, industry “As I was riding along one day, I was enterand perseverance, I take pleasure in introducing tained by the interesting conversation of a peasant, a few extracts from the journal of a very inter- who was going to a market town with his produce. estiny tour in Iceland, performed by E. Hender- The knowledge he discovered of the geography, son in 1814–15. In his visit to that inhospita- politics, &c. of Britain, quite astonished me. He ble clime, embracing most parts of the island, gave me a long detail of circumstances, and prohe had great opportunity of becoming acquainted posed many questions. with the habits, manners, situation and wants of “Among other things, as a proof that he had its inhabitants.

not read the Scriptures without reflection, I may He says that, “Though there is but one school mention his being somewhat at a loss to account in Iceland, and that solitary one is exclusively for the term "wrath' being ascribed to God, in designed for the education of such as are after the Bible. And it was not until I explained to wards to fill offices in church or state, yet it is him the difference between holy and reasonable exceedingly rare to meet with a boy or girl, who anger, and that which is unreasonable and malihas attained to the age of nine or ten years, that cious, and shown him that those expressions, as cannot read or write with ease. And there is applied to the Divine Being, signified his disnot a peasant, or scarcely a servant girl, in Ice- approbation of every species of iniquity, and was land, who is not capable of reading the most an- ultimately resolved into his love of righteousness, cient documents extant on the Island, though it that he declared himself satisfied on the subject. has been inhabited near nine hundred years. "On enquiring of my hostess, how many chil

“There being no parish schools, nor indeed dren she had, her reply was, 'I have four, two any private establishments for the instruction of of them are here with us, and the other two are youth, their mental culture depends entirely on with God. It is best with those that are with

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