« ΠροηγούμενηΣυνέχεια »
Sarah Galbreath. The number of boarders in, chased, and by appointing and employing suitathe family, five.
ble agents to carry on the same. The settlement of which we have been speak- The Trustees soon discovered that, however ing, extends in length from east to west about easy and agreeable it was to pass a resolution in nine miles, and from one to three in width; pre- a commodious office in Philadelphia, authorizing senting a level surface, well covered with timber; the erection of a brick building in the wilderness and although the land is not of the first quality of Ohio,." of 40 ft. front by 30 ft. in depth, two yet when cleared, drained, and well farmed, will stories high, with garrets; a kitchen attached so be no doubt productive. A town (Carthagena) as to form an L, 25 ft. long and 17 ft. wide, two has been laid out, and some lots sold"; two houses stories high, with a double piazza ;" yet the exfor religious purposes are being erected; three ecution of it was altogether a different matter. frame and three log houses are nearly finished, The Editor of the Review is sufficiently well actogether with one smith's shop, one carpenter's, quainted with the character of our frontier setand one batter’s. A steam engine of 25-horse tlements, to admit the propriety of this remark. power has been purchased by two of the settlers, Nevertheless, with the assistance of the colored at an expense of $800, which is expected to go settlers, together with the supervision of some into operation the ensuing spring, for the grind- practical men of Ohio, the resolution aforesaid ing of grain and saving lumber. The settlement has not only been carried into effect, but a comis yet in its infancy, and although many of the modious barn has likewise been erected, and this, comforts of life are wanting, yet it is pleasant to too, in a country that furnished neither lime nor believe that the elements are there out of which stone, which had to be transported a great dismay be formed a moral, industrious and respecta- tance, both by land and water, and over roads ble community.
not often exceeded in badness. There are at present at the settlement about
Notwithstanding the large outlay incident to
such sixty families, and one hundred and forty-six
an undertaking, the original bequest has not tled on farms varying from 40 to 300 acres, em: fore! If in providing the necessary buildings children. The agricultural population are set-only been untouched, but the means in the hands
of the trustees are now more ample than heretobracing in the aggregate 3254 acres, of which
for the accommodation of the school, many emabout 600 are partially cleared. There is a considerable body of land in the organization of the school itself was accompanied
barrassments had to be met and disposed of, the vicinity owned by non-residents, who either hold with many difficulties. In the first place, as the it for sale, or for their own accommodation at settlers had very generally been in a state of slasome future time. A further increase of numbers is anticipated the approaching season, for whose position of binding their children under any circonvenience some provision is making, as I was cumstances. To obviate this it was agreed to adinformed.
mit some of the neighboring children as day Most of the farmers have some stock, either scholars
, they paying a small sum for their tuihorses, oxen or cows, whose condition, owing to tion, but orphan and indented boys were always the exposure they are subject to, is not credita- to have a preference. Again, when it is rememble nor profitable. Hogs are common, and some bered that the Institution is located in the midst of the forward settlers have meat to dispose of; of a large community consisting exclusively of one individual sold this season 1132 lbs. of pork, colored people, the difficulty of obtaining the for $2 25 per cwt. The pecuniary embarrass- needful supervision will readily be perceived, ment of A. Wattles is such that, unless speedily But this obstacle has thus far been met, and relieved, he will be compelled to dispose of his several worthy individuals have from time to farm; in the event of which the school will be time been willing to make the sacrifices demanded, closed. This will inevitably occasion an immense and to assume the arduous duties pertaining to moral loss to these poor people, sufficiently great the management of the Institution. As the into retard their progress, if not to check their ad- denting of apprentices under existing circumvancement, and render void the undertaking, as stances involved great responsibility, it was there is no other individnal in the neighborhood deemed expedient, for the present, to restrict the either disposed or qualified to take his place."
number of boys to twelve, and to receive such day On the presentation of this report, the Trus- scholars from the vicinity as the Superintendent tees, with unanimity, resolved to endeavor to es- might approve of—and truly pleasant it is to add tablish the contemplated school at the colored that up to this time no elopement has occurred, settlement in Mercer county. Accordingly, a and scarcely has a dismission been recorded. committee was appointed by the board, to visit The concern has thus far been conducted by the place in question, to purchase two hundred a Superintendent and Matron, but experience acres of land, to make such arrangements as they has shown the necessity of having a female asmay find in their power and deem expedient for sistant in the school, wherein are taught the carrying out the beneficent intention of the tes usual branches of a plain English education. tator, by opening a school on the tract thus pur- Connected with the Institution is a carpenter
and joiner's shop, well supplied with valuable A reader unacquainted with the case, would
be necessary to close the school in very of the West Indies, some negro slaves were Mercer county, a considerable advance can be imported into Hispaniola ; but the traffic was proobtained for the farm by which the means of the bibited by Ovando, who went there as governor Trustees will be more ample for effecting else in 1502. The traffic was afterwards permitted where the benevolent intention of Samuel by Ferdinand the King, during the later years Emlen.
W. of his life. But Ferdinand died in the begin.
ning of 1516, leaving Cardinal Ximenes regent of the kingdom, till the arrival of Charles, the heir
to the crown, he being then in the Low countries. We find in the reported speech of Preston, of Ximenes, during his administration, prohibited Kentucky, in reply to Gerrit Smith, the follow the importation of negro slaves into Hispaniola.
This prohibition is attributed, by one, at least, of ing singular statements :
his biographers, to a shrewd and farseeing policy. “It is a historical fact, and worthy of note, that Las Casas had prior to this rendered himself the first abolitionist was the first person who in conspicuous, by his labors in behalf of the Indians, troduced African slavery on the shores of Ame- not in Mexico, but in Hispaniola. The expedirica. Las Casas, Bishop of Chiapa, after Cortes tion of Cortes did not leave Cuba until the auconquered Mexico, felt the deepest compassion tumn of 1518, and the surrender of the capital for the Indians who were allotted as slaves to his took place in 1521, at least four years after the Spanish adventurers. He petitioned the King event which has connected the name of Las of Spain, that these Indian slaves should be en- Casas with the African slave trade. franchised, and that the more robust and hardy Ferdinand, as already mentioned, died in the negroes of the African coast should be imported. early part of '1516, and Charles, before the end His prayer was granted, and it is to him the of that year, and while yet in the Low counthraldom of the African in America is to be at-tries, granted, to some Flemish favorites, a pa, tributed. The misfortunes of Mexico at this tent authorizing them to import four thousand hour are,
in my opinion, attributed in a great slaves annually into the colonies. This was, no measure to the indiscreet philanthropy of Las doubt, the act designated by the member from Casas. The barriers which separated the races Kentucky, granting the prayer of Las Casas, to were cast down. The Castilian blood no longer liberate the slaves in Mexico, and introduce neran pure and unpolluted in the veins of the groes in their stead. But the plan of Las Casas, people. The great preponderating Mestizo, or whatever it was, it appears, was offered to the mixed race, was engendered ; and he who will ministers of Charles in the following year, and walk through the streets of Mexico will see all after his arrival in Spain. Las Casas, we must the horrid results of a debased and amalgamated remember, had been remonstrating against the descent, spurn from him with his foot, as he which
they were rapidly wasting away, both with race, as he sees the Mexican of pure Spanish oppression of the natives in Hispaniola, under would some beast, the loathsome Mestizo that obstructs the way."
* Edwards' Hist. of British W. Indies.
For Friends' Review.
Ferdinand near the close of his reign, and with , would seem to have been almost equally defecXimenes during his regency, but without obtain- tive, when he stated, in his message to the Leing the desired redress. Of his efforts with the gislature, that the discharge by Judge Paine, of youthful monarch and his ministers, the follow- New York, of the Lemmon slaves, was such a ing account is given by Herrera; and from this breach of the comity of nations as had been Robertson and other historians have deduced hitherto unknown among civilized communities; their conclusion that the African slave trade, and when it is well understood that the slaves of the the slavery of the negroes in the western world, Creole who rose and conveyed the vessel and are chargeable to the benevolent Bishop of Chi- crew into an English port, were neither given up apa.
nor paid for by the British government; and that " The licentiate Bartholomy Las Casas, per- thousands of fugitive slaves, who would be given ceiving that his plans experienced on all sides up if found in one of our States, New York not great difficulties, and that the expectations which excepted, have taken refuge in Canada, where he had formed from his connection with the no one expects to reclaim them. E. L. High Chancellor, and the favorable opinion the latter had formed of him, had not produced any
CULTIVATION OF COTTON IN AFRICA. effect, projected other expedients, such as to pro. A few suggestions on the importance of the Culcure for the Castilians settled in the Indies, a cargo of negroes, to relieve the Indians in the tivation of Cotton in Africa, in reference 10 culture of the earth and the labor of the mines;
the abolition of Slavery in America. also to obtain a great number of working men
(Continued from page 278 ) from Europe, who should pass over into those Cotton, however, is not the only article of regions, with certain privileges, and on certain general consumption produced by slave labor, conditions, which he detailed.
that can be more cheaply cultivated in Africa Whether this cargo of negroes was to be pro- by free men. Coffee and rice grow there luxucured from the African coast, or to be made up riantly, and have already been raised to a confrom the slaves then in Spain and Portugal, does siderable extent and with comparatively little not clearly appear from the words of Herrera, labor; both being indigenous to that continent, supposing the project to be correctly reported by and the Liberia Coffee is considered one of the him. As it appears from the historian already best varieties in the English market; where it cited, that a considerable trade in slaves, from the commands a high price, and for that reason but coast of Africa, had been established no less than little is imported into the United States. seventy years before this project of Las Casas This plan for eradicating one of the greatest was offered, we may, without violence to the evils that afflicts so large a portion of the human text, suppose the design to have been to furnish race, and our own country in particular, may this
cargo from the black slaves then in Spain. seem so plain when viewed in the light of its We do not find that the Flemish grantees used commercial importance alone, and yet so simple their patent for the importation of slaves them in the means proposed for carrying it into effect, selves, but assigned it to some Genoese merchants that many will be inclined to ask why it has not who are said to have reduced the traffic to a re- been tried before if so efficacious as here repregular system. This proceeding, we observe, was sented for the accomplishment of its object. totally unconnected with the project of Las Casas, This would be a natural question, and the answer and was probably unknown to him. The plan, is this. The agents who would be best adapted of which the introduction of negro slaves was to the work in most respects, have not been proonly a part, was suffered to languish ; and it is perly educated for it; the influences surrounding questionable whether a single slave was carried them in this country have all been of a depressing from Africa to the West Indies in consequence nature, calculated to discourage any noble aspiof his suggestion. Yet he lived to express his rations, that would lead them to promote the poignant regret and humiliation on account of welfare of their race, and to achieve for it a the encouragement which he thus temporarily higher position in the estimation of the world gave to a system which he saw to be equally un- than it has yet attained ; and from this want of just, whether the Indians or the Africans were a knowledge of their own capabilities, they have
a the victims.*
been too long contented with the most servile ocThis brief view of the case may serve to show cupations. In addition, however, to the want of how regardless of historical accuracy our Ken- information, among the mass of our colored poputucky orator proves himself to be, when laboring lation, in regard to the measures best calculated to identify the name and character of an aboli- to advance their welfare, and to which must be tionist with a traffic which the civilized world attributed much of the lack of energy and enterhas agreed to condemn.
prise among them, a large majority, including The memory of Ex-governor Cobb, of Georgia, some of the most intelligent and best educated The labors of Las Casas, and his pious efforts for
portion, have imbibed very strong prejudices the improvement of the Indian race are given more tin against the scheme of African Colonization as etail in the first volume of Friends' Review.
conducted by the American Colonization Society,
from the fact that many slaveholders, as well as , There we see an independent government non-slaveholders, are interested in, and patronize formed on strictly republican principles, modelled the enterprise. The great mortality that occurred after our own in all respects, slavery excepted, in some of the earlier expeditions that formed established and creditably conducted by less than the settlement of the present Republic of Liberia ten thousand of the African race, most of them has given rise to very incorrect views as to the from a state of bondage in Anierica, and of whom salubrity of the climate, and has led the colored not one hundred ever had an education in this man to overlook the great advantages that must country such as is to be obtained in our best result to himself, to his posterity, and to the schools. They were aided indeed in the first entire race, from a vigorous and judicious prose- instance by the labors of a few of the self dengcution of the scheme in the manner here indi- ing and devoted friends of this oppressed people, cated. It is, however, not desirable that a very among whom the names of Ashmun and Bularge proportion of our colored population should chanan should be held in grateful remembrance by at once emigrate to Africa, much less a general every true hearted and intelligent black man in exodus; but if only fifty thousand of the intelli- Africa or America. gent and educated should be induced to settle Liberia is now enjoying a high degree of prosthere within the next ten years, what might perity, and occupies an honored and most rethey not accomplish? This would be but one spectable position among the civilized governtenth of the free colored population of the United ments of the world, her sovereignty and indeStates, and only equal to about one per cent per pendence having been acknowledged by Great annum. Yet this number distributed in some Britain, France, Prussia, Belgium and Brazil, eight or ten different settlements along the coast with all of whom she interchanges national ciriwould form the nucleus of probably as many in-lities, and a mutually lucrative trade; her flag dependent States hereafter to form a confederacy and her revenue laws are now respected by the similar to our own; and as they would naturally vessels of all nations, and her citizens meet on adopt republican principles, might in less than equal terms, those from Europe or America who half a century show a more important destiny for visit her ports, in the pursuit of commerce, or in this race, in the civilization and christianization the employment of their respective countries. On of Africa, and perform a more important part in the two occasions when her chief magistrate the great work of the world's redemption, than visited Europe, he was received with distinguished many of their best friends have ever anticipated. consideration by the nobility and crowned heads, If it should be objected that this calculation is and by the virtuous of other classes of the two not entirely within the bounds of moderation, most powerful and most refined nations of the that the effects hoped for are too great for the Eastern continent. Liberia, however, still needs means employed, we have only to look at our the sympathy and aid of her friends in extending own country to see the vast results of coloniza the benefi of lucation among her growing tion, from small beginnings; or to realize what population, as both the government and people has been accomplished within the last few years, are far from a state of affluence. Yet they have in California and Australia, and then ask our. overcome most of the difficulties incident to the selves if the colored man has not greater induce. settlement of a new country, and especially that ments, at this time, to emigrate to Africa, than great obstacle, the slave trade, with which they our forefathers had, in their day, to emigrate to had to contend for many years, and which reAmerica ? And is the prospect of gain that sisted them with all its power, constantly inciyearly takes so many thousands to the gold fields ting the natives to oppose their friendly and of California or Australia, to be compared with peaceful advances. The slave trade is now enthe great advantages accruing to the enterpri- tirely destroyed, not only within their own borsing emigrant to Western Africa ?
ders, but it is prohibited in all their treaties with If any one doubts the capability of colored the native kings who have sought their friend. men to overcome difficulties in establishing for ship. The Liberians have otherwise exerted a themselves an independent government, and in healthful influence in the suppression of wars spreading the blessings of civilization and chris- between the different tribes with whom they have tianity among a savage people, he has only to had intercourse. The cultivation of coffee has cast his eyes on Liberia, to see what has already been prosecuted to a considerable extent, in Libeen achieved, by a few thousands of the same beria, and within the the last year or two some class, a large majority of whom were emancipated attention has been given to the culture of cotton. slaves, without any previous education or the With these facts before us, showing what has least experience in the great work they have so already been accomplished by a handful of comsuccessfully accomplished. Liberia has fully paratively uneducated people, what may we not established the capacity of the African race for expect from a much greater number properly self government, and the highest degree of civi- educated for the work ? May we not safels cal lization, and she stands at this moment as the culate on benefits as important to the world from most successful example of colonization to be the colonization of Africa by intelligent and well found in the annals of history.
educated black men, as have been achieved by our
(To be continued.)
own race in the colonization of America ? And soon as we can take them, and is willing to pay if so, should not all the opponents of slavery, and one half the expenses of transportation and supall the sincere friends of the colored race, unite port, besides giving them a comfortable outfit, their efforts to promote so important an enter- and paying their expenses to the port of emprise ? In urging, however, the great value of barkation These people are the iron-men of this department of anti-slavery labor, it is by no Tennessee. Mr. Bell has long been known as one means our intention to undervalue other efforts of the largest manufacturers of iron, and his in the same cause, especially the moral influence slaves have been his only workmen. They tho. that may be brought to bear upon the great sys- roughly understand the business, and have among tem of oppression and wrong by the judicious and them •ininers, colliers, moulders, and are fully well directed efforts of able writers, who forget competent to build a furnace for making iron and not the law of love, and Christian obligation while carrying it on themselves. They are men of high esposing the enormities to which the system of moral character, which would render them an slavery is liable. The works of John G. Whit. acquisition to any country. Thomas Scott, the tier, Harriet Beecher Stowe, and others of the patriarch of the family, who sailed in the General same class, will be fully appreciated by those who Pierce, helped to make the cannon-balls which desire some practicable plan in which all may were fired from behind the cotton-bales at the batlabor who desire to accomplish at the earliest tle of New Orleans; and he is yet a man of great period possible the abolition of so deep rooted activity and energy of character. He and his and
wide spread an evil. Neither will the friends whole family entertain the very highest respect of free labor deem it necessary to confine their and veneration for their late master, and their efforts to any one point, however important that valued friend. His last words to me, as he stood may be shown to be.
on the deck of the vessel, were, “Do write a most loring letter to my old master, and tell him how
much we love him, and will never stop thanking EXPEDITION TO LIBERIA.
the Lord for his goodness to us." The brig General Pierce, chartered for the Considering all the circumstances, we hare purpose, and fitted out in Baltimore, sailed from great reason to congratulate ourselves upon the Savannah, Georgia, the 16th ult., with 163 emi. success which has attended the departure of this grants, of whom 85 were from Tennessee, 15 from very interesting company of emigrants. Alabama, 56 from Georgia, and 7 from South
W. McLAIN, Carolina. There were 8+ males and 79 females.
Secretary of American Colonization Society. Of the whole company, 107 were over ten years Colonization Rooms, Dec. 31, 1853. of age, and 56 under, 126 were sent by masters now living, 16 were liberated by will, and 21
I WILL ALWAYS PRAY. were born free. They were all in fine condition, “ Evening and morning and at noon will I pray.”—Psalm. and well provided with the means necessary to I will rise and pray, while the dews of morn enable them to assume a position favorable to Like gems are scattered o'er tree and thorn, their future welfare.
Ere the sun comes up in his glorious power,
To waken the bird and open the flower; Of these emigrants, 50 were liberated by Ri. I will turn from the earth to heaven aspiring, chard Hoff, Esq., of Oglethorpe county, Georgia, With faith unshaken, hope untiring, who paid $60 each for their transportation and And for strength to walk throngh the weary day, support six months in Liberia, in addition to To the God of love will l humbly pray. giving them, when they embarked, about $2000. I will pray at noon, when the fervid glow They were all entirely black, without any mixture When the flocks have sought the shading trees;
Of the sultry sun is upon my brow; of Anglo-Saxon blood.
When the stream is silent, and hushed the breeze, It will be remembered, that the Hon. W. E. I will gaze o'er the beautiful earth abroad, Kennedy, of Columbia, Tennessee, sent in the And praise the doings of Nature's God; Zebra, from New Orleans, last spring, 26 of his To the God of love will I humbly pray.
Then closing my eyes on the glorious day, slaves. He sent another company, of 29, in the I will pray at eve when the crimson light General Pierce, leaving only two with him, who is passing from the mountain's height; are unwilling to leave him while he lives, but in. When the holy, solemn twilight hour tend to go to Liberia after his death.
Is hushing the bird and closing the flower; The most interesting and extraordinary part To keep their walch o'er the sleeping earth
When all is at rest and the stars come forth of this expedition was a family of thirty-eight, To Him who hath kept and blest through the day, consisting of a man and his wife, and their chil
. To the God of love will I humbly pray. dren and grand-children, from near Nashville, Then will I pray, for I find it sweet Tennessee, liberated by Col. Montgomery Bell, a To be always found at my Maker's feet; gentleman eighty-five years old. He gave them I will always pray-on the heavenly roadevery thing requisite as an outfit, and paid us I ne'er shall faint while I lean on my God. 82,000 for their transportation and support six shall gather strength for my upward night ; months in Liberia. He has a large number more, It shall heighten to perfect, eternal day,
My path will be as a shining light; of whom he wants to send about eighty as Therefore to God will I always pray.