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of Friends were soon after settled in Holland and employ many in its erection ; I adorn it with other places; some travelled into Asia; some luxurious furniture, and with the gems of art, were carried to Africa; and several were impri- but I liberally compensate the poor and merisoned in the Inquisitions of Rome, Malta, and in torious mechanic and artist; I ride in a carriage, Hungary. About the same period the first that but a brief period since a prince would have Friends arrived in America, at the port of Bos- coveted for its splendour, and my entertainments ton, and commenced their religious labors among are noted for their elegance, but look at the the people, many of whom embraced the doctrines numbers who live by the money I expend for which they heard. The spirit of persecution, these, and at the servants who are fed at my from which Friends had suffered so deeply in table. England, made its appearance in America with Well, bring thy doings to the test ; for whose increased virulence and cruelty, inficting upon glory are they? The idol god of self, or the the peaceable Quakers various punishments, and great God of all the living ? If thou be not finally put four of them to death by the gallows. sleeping the sleep that leads to the death of the

Notwithstanding the opposition they had to en- soul, the conclusion will be, there is no praise in counter, the principles of Friends continued to these to Him, whose are the cattle on a thousand spread in America ; many eminent ministers ac- hills, and who himself says, “ The world is mine tuated by the love of the gospel, and a sense of and the fulness thereof." religious duty, came over and travelled through Another thinks it right to devote himself to the country; others removed thither and settled; the accumulation of wealth, that he may preand in 1682, a large number, under the patron- mote great undertakings for the benefit of the age of William Penn, came into the province of community. What are these, and whose is to be Pennsylvania, and founded that flourishing co- the glory of them? How many would toil to enlony. At that time meetings were settled along dow a college, to build an hospital, to establish the Atlantic provinces, from North Carolina as a library, if his name were to be utterly forgotfar as Boston, in New England; and, at the pre- ten or unknown of men? The race ground for sent day, the largest body of Friends is to be riches would not be entered by so many eager found in the United States.

candidates, if they believed that no share of the When we consider the great numbers who glory was to be theirs, except that of faithful joined the society; that, without any formal ad- stewards. mission, all those who embraced the principles of Others there are who flatter themselves that Friends, and attended their meetings, were con- they are justified in toiling for worldly treasure, sidered members, as well as their children, and, if they devote a liberal portion to the adornment of course, the body in some measure implicated of outward temples of worship. in the consistency of their conduct; the numer- The early Christians may teach us on this subous meetings which were settled, and the wide ject, and whose is the glory of the outward extent of country which they embraced, it is ob- house, vious that the organization of the society would Augustine * says, "Whoever loves the habi

— have been imperfect, without some system of tation of God's house, doubtless loves the church; church governinent by which the conduct of the the church which does not consist in walls and members might be inspected and restrained. roofs, adorned by art, nor in the splendor of (so be continued.)

marble and gilded tables, but in believing, holy men, who love God with all their hearts, and

their neighbors as themselves." DOING ALL TO THE GLORY OF GOD.

Jerome thus writes to a person who sought "Whatever ye do, do all to the glory of God."

his advice for the right conduct of a Christian Let every man ask himself this question, Does life : “ The true temple of Christ is the souls of the present engagement of my life conform to believers ; adorn these-clothe these,-bring this express injunction, this command by one, them as offerings—in them receive Christ. Of who gave it forth by Divine inspiration ? Ex. what use is it that the walls of the churches are amine the motive that devotes every energy of resplendent with jewels, while Christ suffers the mind and will, every talent with which the hunger in the persons of the poor? Finally, great Creator has endowed thee, to the promo- let those who exclaim the temple of the Lord ! tion of commercial enterprise, or worldly pros listen to the Apostle : Know ye not that ye are perity by whatever path thy choice has selected, the temple of God, and the spirit of God dwelland then in the clear light of truth decide, eth in you ?'”. whether this all-absorbing doing of thy life can Gregory of Nyssa writes, -"Hence I call on be placed on the altar of that temple which you who fear the Lord, to praise him in whatever is within thee, as that which gives glory to God. place ye may happen to be. For no one comes We

may hear one say, Is it not right if I am nearer to God by a mere change of place ; whereendowed with capacity to acquire wealth, that I ever thou art, God will come to th«c, if the habit should use it ? behold the benefits of its distri. bution ; I build myself a costly dwelling, but I

* Neander's Memorials of Christian Life.


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ation of thy soul is so prepared that the Lord CIRCULAR OF THE BIBLE ASSOCIATION OF can dwell in thee and walk in thee. But if in

FRIENDS IN AMERICA. the inner man thou art full of evil thoughts, thou

In again calling the attention of Auxiliaries to mayest be on Golgotha or the Mount of Olives, the annual Queries to be answered previous to yet thou art as far from having received Christ the general meeting of the Association in the into thy soul as those who have not yet made Fourth month, the Corresponding. Comunittee profession of the Christian faith. If the Spirit would press upon Friends who have been engag. blows where he wills, then believers here become ed in the distribution of the Holy Scriptures, the partakers of the work of grace according to their importance of furnishing full and accurate anfaith, not in consequence of a pilgrimage to swers to all the Queries, and of forwarding their Jerusalem.

Reports seasonably to the Depository. Though in the great cities of the Grecian Em

It may be recollected that in making donations pire many sought to find a religious pretext for to Auxiliaries, the board are guided in deciding the splendor of their dress, and thus fancied they what number of Bibles and Testaments shall be could combine the claims of vanity and of reli- sent to each, by the information given in its region, yet Asterius of Amasea in Pontus, remark- port. Hence those Auxiliaries that do not report ed in a sermon: “ Those among rich men and in time, are liable to be left out in the distribution. women who wish to be pious, have chosen the Specific directions should be given in every evangelical history itself and given it to the wea- case, how boxes should be marked and forwarded; vers ; I mean our Lord Jesus Christ, with all his and their receipt should always be promptly disciples and every one of his miracles as it is acknowledged. narrated; and when they have done this they Address John Richardson, No. 50 N. Fourth think they are pious, and wear a dress acceptable street, Philadelphia. to God. If they would take my counsel they

THOMAS KIMBER, would part with these clothes, and hold in honor

CHARLES YARNALL, the living images of God. Do not have pictures

SAMUEL BETTLE, JR. of Christ on thy garments, but bear his spiritual

Committee of Correspondence. image in thy soul. Do not have the paralytic Philadelphia, Second Month, 1851. painted on thy walls, but find out the sick who

QUERIES. are lying on the ground. Do not have always

1. What number of families or individuals before thy eyes the woman who was cured of the

have been gratuitously furnished with the Holy bloody issue, but give relief to suffering widows. Gaze not continually on the penitent woman fall. Scriptures by the Auxiliary during the past ing at the Lord's feet, but feel contrition on ac

2. What number of Bibles and Testaments count of thy own sins."

have been sold by the Auxiliary within the past The delusions of rich men and women now may not be the same as those of the Grecian Em

3. How many members, male and female, are pire, but do we not behold in many ways the evi- there belonging to the Auxiliary ? dences, that they fancy they can combine the

4. What number of families of Friends reside claims of vanity and of religion? If any wish to within its limits ? discover how pure is their motive, let them faith

5. Are there any families of Friends within fully apply the text, “Whatever ye do, do all your limits not supplied with a copy of the Holy

, to the glory of God.”

Scriptures in good, clear type, and on fair paper; ; if so, how many ?

6. How many members of our Society, capable WORKS OF FICTION.

of reading the Bible, do not own such a copy of Constant familiarity, even with such works of the Holy Scriptures ? fiction as are not exceptionable in themselves, 7. How many Bibles and Testaments may pro says the celebrated Hannah More, relaxes the bably be disposed of by sale within your limits ? mind which needs hardening; dissolves the heart 8. Is the income of the Auxiliary sufficient to which wants fortifying; irritates the passions supply those within its limits who are not duly which want calming; and, above all, disinclines furnished with the Holy Scriptures? and disqualifies for active virtues and for spiritual 9. What number of Bibles and Testaments exercises. Though all these books may not be would it be necessary for the Bible Association wicked, yet the habitual indulgence in such read- to furnish gratuitously, to enable the Auxiliary ing is a silent mining mischief. Though there to supply each family? is no act, and no moment in which any open as- 10. What number would be required in order sault on the mind is made, yet the constant habit to furnish each member of our religious Society, performs the work of a mental atrophy, it pro- capable of reading, who is destitute of a copy, duces all the symptoms of decay; and the danger and unable to purchase it? is not less for being more gradual, and therefore 11. How many Bibles and Testaments are now less suspected.

G. on hand ?



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prohibition is said to be overthrown. Can preThe Representatives of Ohio, to their Constituents. sumption go further ? To all who, in any way, Washington, Thursday, January 19, 1854.

lean upon these Compromises, we commend this

exposition. (Cuncluded from page 334.)

The pretenses, therefore, that the Territory, The statesmen, whose powerful support car-covered by the positive prohibition of 1820, susried the Utah and New Mexico acts, never tains a similar relation to slavery with that acdreamed that their provisions would ever be ap- quired from Mexico, covered by no prohibition plied to Nebraska. Even at the last session of

except that of disputed constitutional or Mexi. Congress, Mr. Atchison, of Missouri, in a speech can law, and that the Compromises of 1850 rein favor of taking up the former Nebraska bill

, quire the incorporation of the pro-slavery clauses on the morning of the 4th of March, 1853, said : 1 of the Utah and New Mexico Bill in the Ne“It is evident that the Missouri Compromise braska Act, are mere inventions, designed to cannot be repealed. So far as that question is cover up from public reprehension meditated bad concerned, we might as well agree to the admis- faith. Were he living now, no one would be sion of this Territory now as next year, or five or more forward, more eloquent, or more indignant ten years hence.” These words could not have in his denunciation of that bad faith than Henry fallen from this watchful guardian of slavery, Clay, the foremost champion of both comprohad he supposed that this Territory was em- mises. braced by the pro-slavery provisions of the Com

In 1820, the Slave States said to the Free promise acts. This pretension had not then been States, "Admit Missouri with slavery, and reset up. It was a palpable afterthought.

frain from positive exclusion south of 36 deg. The Compromise Acts themselves refute this 30 min., and we will join you in perpetual propretension. In the third article of the second hibition north of that line. In 1854, the Slave section of the Joint Resolution for annexing States say to the Free States, “ Missouri is adTexas to the United States, it is expressly de- mitted; no prohibition of slavery south of 36 clared that “in such State or States as shall be deg. 30 min. has been attempted; we have reformed out of said Territory north of said Mis-ceived the full consideration of our agreement; souri Compromise line, slavery or involuntary no more is to be gained by adherence to it on servitude, except for crime, shall be prohibited;'

our part; we, therefore, propose to cancel the and in the act for organizing New Mexico compact." If this be not Punic faith, what is it? and settling the boundary of Texas, a proviso Not without the deepest dishonor and criine can was incorporated, on the motion of Mr. Mason, the Free States acquiesce in this demand. of Virginia, which distinctly preserves this pro- We confess our total inability properly to dehibition, and flouts the bare-faced pretension that lineate the character or describe the conseall the territory of the United States, whether

quences of this measure. Lavguage fails to exsouth or north of the Missouri Compromise line, press the sentiments of indignation and abhor

, is to be open to slavery. It is as follows:

rence which it inspires; and no vision, less pene“ Provided, That nothing herein contained trating and comprehensive than that of the Allshall be construed to impair or qualify anything Seeing, can reach its evil issues. contained in the third article of the second sec

To some of its more immediate and inevitable tion of the Joint Resolution for annexing Texas consequences, however, we must attempt to dito the United States, approved March 1, 1845,

rect your

attention. either as regards the number of States that

may What will be the effect of this measure, should hereafter be formed out of the State of Texas, or it unhappily become a law, upon the proposed otherwise." +

Pacific Railroad? We have already said that Here is proof beyond controversy, that the two of the principal routes, the Central and the principle of the Missouri Act, prohibiting slavery Northern, traverse this Territory. If slavery be north of 36 deg. 30 min., far from being abro- allowed there, the settlement and cultivation of gated by the Compromise Acts, is expressly af- the country must be greatly retarded. Inducefirmed ; and that the proposed repeal of this pro- ments to the immigration of free laborers will be hibition, instead of being an affirmation of the almost destroyed. The enhanced cost of conCompromise Acts, is a repeal of a very import- struction and the diminished expectation of proant provision of the most important act of the fitable returns will present almost insuperable series. It is solemnly declared in the very Com- obstacles to building the road at all; while, even promise Acts" that nothing herein contained if made, the difficulty and expense of keeping it shall be construed to impair or qualifythe pro- up, in a country from which the energetic and hibition of slavery north of 36 deg. 30 min., and intelligent masses will be virtually excluded, will yet, in the face of this declaration, that sacred greatly impair its usefulness and value.

From the rich lands of this large territory, Act of March 1, 1845–5, U. S. Statutes at Large, also, patriotic statesmen have anticipated that a Congressional Globe, 1848-50, p. 1552 ; Act, Sept. free, industrious and enlightened population will 9, 1850—9, U. S. Statutes at Large, 416.

extract abundant treasures of individual and


public wealth. There, it has been expected, We appeal to the people. We warn you that freedom loving emigrants from Europe and en- the dearest interests of Freedom and the Union ergetic and intelligent laborers of our own land are in imminent peril. Servile demagogues may will find homes of comfort and fields of useful tell you that the Union can be maintained only enterprise. If this bill shall become a law, all by submitting to the demands of Slavery. We such expectation will turn to grievous disappoint- tell you that the safety of the Union can only be ment. The blight of slavery will cover the land. insured by the full recognition of the just claims

The Homestead Law, should Congress enact one, of Freedom and man. The Union was formed to would be worthless there. Freemen, unless establish justice, and secure the blessings of pressed by a hard and cruel necessity, will not, liberty. When it fails to accomplish these ends and should not, work beside slaves. Labor can- it will be worthless, and when it becomes worthnot be respected where any class of laborers is less it cannot long endure. held in abjcct bondage. It is the deplorable We entreat you to be mindful of that fundanecessity of slavery, that to make and keep a mental maxim of Democracy, Equal rights and single slave there must be slave law; and where Justice for all men. Do not submit to become slave law exists labor must necessarily be de agents in extending legalized oppression and graded.

sytematized injustice over a vast territory yet We earnestly request the enlightened con- exempt from these terrible evils. ductors of newspapers printed in the German and We implore Christians and Christian ministers other foreign languages, to direct the attention to interpose. Their divine religion requires them of their readers to this important matter. to behold in every man a brother, and to labor

It is of immense consequence, also, to scruti- for the advancement and regeneration of the hunize the geographical character of this project. man race. We beg you, fellow citizens, to observe that it Whatever apologies may be offered for the tolewill sever the east from the west of the United ration of Slavery in the States, none can be States by a wide slaveholding belt of the country, urged for its extension into Territories where it extending from the Gulf of Mexico to British does not exist, and where that extension involves North America. It is a bold scheme against the repeal of ancient law, and the violation of American Liberty, worthy of an accomplished solemn compact. Let all protest earnestly and architect of ruin. Texas is already slaveholding, emphatically, by correspondence, through the and occupies the Gulf region from the Sabine to press, by memorials, by resolutions of public the Rio Grande and from the Gulf of Mexico to meetings and legislative bodies, and in whatever the Red River. North of the Red River, and other mode may seem expedient against this extending between Texas and Arkansas to the enormous crime. parallel of 36 deg. 30 min., lies the Indian ter- For ourselves, we shall resist it by speech and ritory, about equal in extent to the latter State, vote, and with all the abilities which God has in which slavery was not prohibited by the Act given us. Even if overcome in the impending of 1820. From 36 deg. 30 min. to the boundary struggle we shall not submit. We shall go home line between our country and the British Pos- to our constituents, erect anew the standard of sessions, stretching from west to east through Freedom, and call on the people to come to the more than eleven degrees of longitude, and from rescue of the country from the domination of south to north through more than twelve degrees Slavery. We will not despair; for the cause of of latitude, extends the great territory, the fate Human Freedom is the cause of God. of which is now to be determined by the Ame- (Signed by the Senators and a majority of the Rerican Congress. Thus you see, fellow citizens, presentatives from Ohio.] that the first operation of the proposed permission of slavery in Nebraska will be to stay the

A FEW JOTTINGS ABOUT MAPS. progress of the free States westward, and to cut There are many interesting features presentoff the free States of the Pacific from the free ed by maps, and many various circumstances atStates of the Atlantic. It is hoped, doubtless, tending their production. Of course, every one by compelling the whole commerce and the whole knows that as the earth is globular and a map travel between the East and the West to pass for flat, there must necessarily be some kind of dishundreds of miles through a slaveholding region, tortion in spreading out the various districts and in the heart of the continent, and by the influence countries ; but so long as the portion of country of a Federal Government, controlled by the slave represented on a map is small, or the scale large, power, to extinguish Freedom and establish the distortion is of no importance. When, howSlavery in the States and Territories of the Pa- ever, a large portion of the earth's surface is recific, and thus permanently subjugate the whole presented on one sheet, the mappist is puzzled country to the yoke of a slaveholding despotism. to know how to render the distortion least inconShall a plot against humanity and democracy, so venient. He adopts different projections, as they monstrous and so dangerous to the interests of are called, according to the purpose for which Liberty throughout the world, be permitted to the map is intended ; as the musician adopts one

i succeed?

among many systems of tuning or temperament,

little as may

to lessen a musical difficulty which can never be, to the others. He had no Ordnance Maps to wholly removed from keyed instruments. The aid him in those days; he took a six-sheet map, globular, the orthographic, the stereographic, the cut out the counties by scissors or penknife, and gnomonic, and Mercator projections, are so many weighed the portions in a delicate balance. It ways of treating a difficulty which cannot be got is obvious that the correctness of such a method rid of. None but a student of geometry can must depend conjointly on many circumstances rightly understand these terms; and no ordinary —such as the accuracy of the map, the readers of ordinary maps need trouble themselves equable thickness of the paper, the correctness about them, for the maps of countries are gene- of the cutting, and the equity of the balance. rally so managed as to render the distortion as Dr. Long, some years afterwards, extended the be.

same method to an inquiry concerning the relaWhere a map is pasted on a spherical surface tive quantities of land and water all over the to form a terrestrial globe, the distortion disap- globe. He took the engraved pieces of paper, pears altogether, for the mimic world is shaped forming the gores or stripes of a sixteen-inch nearly like the real one. But, then, it requires globe, and cut out the land portions from the that the paper itself shall be peculiarly shaped; water portions; he weighed them against each for if a large sheet of paper were pasted on á other, and found that he had 124 grains of land globe, it would wrinkle round the edges. It re- to 319 grains of water. He thus felt emboldenquires that the map should be in several pieces, ed so say, that the water on the earth's surface shaped something like the profile of a double- is a little less than three times the area of the convex lens: there are generally twelve of these, dry land. to embrace 30 degrees of longitude each ; but But it was left for Professor Rigaud, of Camthe number is sometimes twenty-four, of 15 de- bridge, to pursue this inquiry with all the nicety grees. Or there may be two circular picces, to of modern science. He has described in full his comprise the regions within the two polar circles; mode of proceeding in the Cambridge Philoand then the remaining pieces or gores would- sophical Transactions. He procured the ento use a homely comparison—have somewhat the graved and printed sheets for one of Addison's form of a rolling-pin. Fourteen such pieces, thirty-six-inch globes, on paper selected with consisting of twelve gores and two circles, would especial reference to its equability of thickness exactly cover a globe without wrinkles, provided and quality. The paper was divided into twentythey have the due shape and size ; and it is the four gores, like those of a balloon, each repreglobe-maker's business to see that this due ad-senting 180 degrees of latitude, and 15 degrees justment is obtained. It matters not whether of longitude. A little calculation shews that few or all of the pieces are engraved upon one such a globe has a surface of 4071, square inches. plate, and printed upon one piece of paper ; they Professor Rigaud was not satisfied with ascertainmust be cut out accurately at the outlines, in ing the ratio between the land and water in each order that, by being placed edge to edge on the gore, because future discoveries in geography globe, they may completely cover it without lap- might vitiate the correctness of the whole gore; ping or wrinkling. The superior value of a globe but if each gore were cut into several pieces, over a map depends in part on this exact adap- any one of these might be corrected at any tation of the map surface to the globular surface, future time without disturbing the rest. He, thereby obviating the distortion already men- accordingly, cut each gore at the equator, at tioned.

the two tropics, and at the two polar circles ; An interesting inquiry arises, bearing relation and he thus obtained six portions or zones of to world-maps. In a correct map of the earth, each gore-namely, arctic, north temperate, as represented on a globe, what is the relation north tropical, south tropical, south temperate, between the quantities of land and of water ? It and antarctic. The whole surface of the globe is not at all generally known how curious are the was thus cut up into 144 pieces, all bounded by methods by which this relation has been ascer- definite geometrical or geographical lines, sustained. In round numbers, the ratio is known ceptible of exact description. The professor to be about three to one—that is, three times as then gave himself the labor of ascertaining the much water as land on the earth's surface. But land and water ratio in each of these numerous scientific men are not satisfied with round num- pieces; each piece was first weighed singly, then bers, if there is any chance of obtaining others it was cut up into land and water, and each of more nearly exact ; and we need not feel sur- these was weighed twice over in a very delicate prised that the earth's surface has been made balance. Not only were oceans and seas cut at the subject of careful inquiry, in respect to the their boundaries, but estuaries, bays, and indenquantities and ratio above adverted to.

tations of coast. Weights were ascertained down So far as we are aware, Dr. Halley was the to one-tenth of a grain. Another advantage first to experiment upon the paper of maps, as a accruing from the cutting of the map into so means of bringing out results of an analogous many pieces was this—that if any slight inecharacter. He wished to find how much land qualities existed in the paper, they would probably was contained in each English county relatively compensate each other in different parts of the


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