Εικόνες σελίδας
Ηλεκτρ. έκδοση


hensive : “Verily I say unto you, whatsoever yequent; and if this desirable result is not proshall bind on earth, shall be bound in heaven; duced, a minute is made declaring the disunity and whatsoever ye shall loose on earth, shall be of the meeting with his conduct and with him, loosed in heaven. Again I say unto you, that if until he is brought to a sense of his error, and two of


shall agree on earth, as touching any condemns it in a satisfactory manner. From the thing that they shall ask, it shall be done for decision of a monthly meeting, the disowned perthem of my Father which is in heaven. For son has the right of appeal to the quarterly meetwhere two or three are gathered together in my ing, and if that gives judgment against him, he name, there am I in the midst of them.”

may carry his case to the yearly meeting also, The doctrine of the immediate presence of where it is finally determined. The women have Christ with his church, whether assembled for also overseers, appointed to extend Christian care the purpose of divine worship, or for the trans- and advice to their own sex; and likewise prepaaction of its disciplinary affairs, is the founda- rative, monthly, quarterly and yearly meetings, sion of all its authority. It was on this ground in which they transact such business as relates that George Fox so often exhorted his fellow- to the good order and preservation of their membelievers to hold their meetings in the power of bers; but they take no part in the legislative the Lord; all waiting and striving to know Christ proceedings of the society; and in difficult cases, Jesus brought into dominion in their own hearts, or those of more than ordinary importance, they and his Spirit leading and guiding them in their generally obtain the judgment of the men's meetgervices, that so his living presence might be ing. felt to preside over their assemblies. In a church There are also distinct meetings for the care thus gathered, we cannot doubt, that the gracious and help of the ministry, composed of ministers Head condescends to be in the midst, qualifying and elders, the latter being prudent and solid the members to worship the Father of spirits, in members, chosen specially to watch over the spirit and in truth, or enduing them with wisdom ministers for their good, and to admonish or adrightly to manage the business which may engage vise them for their help. In these meetings the their attention. Nor can we question that so far men and women meet together; they are called as they are careful to act in his wisdom and under meetings of ministers and elders, and are divided his direction, their conclusions, being in con- into preparative, quarterly and fearly. formity with his will, have his authority for their There are at present in the society ten yearly sanction and support.

meetings of Friends, viz., London and Dublin, The discipline of the Society of Friends, esta in Great Britain and Ireland. New England, blished in conformity with these views, embraces held at Newport, Rhode Island ; New York, held four grades of meetings, connected with, and de- in that city; Pennsylvania and New Jersey, held pendent upon, each other. First, the prepara- in Philadelphia ; Maryland, held in Baltimore; tive meetings receive and prepare the business Virginia, held in that State, at Cedar Creek and for the monthly meetings, which are composed Summerton, alternately; North Carolina, held at of one or more preparative meetings, and rank | New Garden, in that State ; Ohio, held at Mount next in order above them; in these the executive Pleasant; and Indiana, held at Richmond in department of the discipline is chiefly lodged. Wayne County. These include an aggregate of The third grade includes quarterly meetings, from one hundred and twenty to one hundred and which consist of several monthly meetings, and fifty thousand members. exercise a supervisory care over them, examine The doctrines of the society may be briefly into their condition, and advise or assist them as stated as follows: They believe in one only occasion may require; and lastly, the yearly wise, omnipotent, and everlasting God, the Cremeeting, which includes the whole, possesses ex- | ator and upholder of all things, visible and inclusively the legislative power, and annually in- visible; and in one Lord Jesus Christ, by whom vestigates the state of the whole body, which is are all things, the mediator between God and brought before it by answers to queries, addressed man; and in the Holy Spirit which proceedeth to the subordinate meetings.

from the Father and the Son; one God blessed In each preparative meeting there are usually forever. In expressing their views relative to two or more Friends of each sex, appointed as the awful and mysterious doctrine of " the Three overseers of the flock, whose duty it is to take that bear record in heaven," they have carefully cognizance of any improper conduct in the mem- avoided the use of unscriptural terms, invented bers, and endeavor by tender and affectionate to define Him who is undefinable, and have scrulabor to convince the offender, and bring him to pulously adhered to the safe and simple language such a sense of his fault as may lead to sincere of holy scripture, as contained in Matt. xxviii. repentance and amendment. Violations of the 18-19, &c. discipline by members are reported by the over- They own and believe in Jesus Christ, the seers to the preparative meetings ; and from beloved and only begotten Son of God, who was thence, if deemed necessary, to the monthly conceived of the Holy Ghost, and born of the meeting, where a committee is usually appointed Virgin Mary. In him we have redemption, to endeavor to convince and reclaim the delin-' through his blood, even the forgiveness of sins; heard of

who is the express image of the invisible God, known by any power inferior to that of the Holy the first born of every creature, by whom all Spirit. things were created that are in heaven or in

[To be continued.) earth, visible and invisible, whether they be thrones, dominions, principalities or powers.

THE FIRST DAY SCHOOL ASSISTANT. They also believe he was made a sacrifice for sin, who knew no sin, neither was guile found in his A pamphlet of 24 pages, with the above title, mouth; that he was crucified for mankind, in published by the Tract Association of Friends of the flesh, without the gates of Jerusalem; that New York, has recently fallen into the hands of he was buried, and rose again the third day, by the Editor of the Review. This work is underthe power of the Father, for our justification, and that he ascended up into heaven, and now stood to have been prepared by a valued Friend, sitteth at the right hand of God, our holy medi- whose productions have occasionally enriched the ator, advocate and intercessor. They believe columns of this periodical ; and are always rethat he alone is the redeemer and savivur of man, ceived with satisfaction by the Editor. The folthe captain of salvation, who saves from sin as well as from hell and the wrath to come, and lowing extracts from the pamphlet in question destroys the works of the devil. He is the Seed are offered to the readers of the Review, with a of the woman that bruises the serpent's head, hope that they may encourage some parents who even Christ Jesus, the Alpha and Omega, the have their children yet about them, and in their first and the last. He is, as the scriptures of minority, to imitate the example here presented truth say of him, our wisdom, righteousness, jus

to them. tification and redemption ; neither is there salvation in any other, for there is no other name

The writer of these hints has never under heaven given among men whereby we may any one, whether a rejoicing believer, or a desbe saved.

pairing sinner, that on a dying bed, in full view The Society of Friends have uniformly de- of the approaching realities of eternity, regretted clared their belief in the divinity and manhood having spent too much time in reading or studyof the Lord Jesus; that he was both true Goding the Bible, or having too highly esteemed its and perfect man, and that his sacrifice of himself contents. But many have bitterly lamented, upon the cross was a propitiation and atonement that in the season of health they had permitted for the sins of the whole world, and that the re-worldly pursuits to exclude too much from their mission of sins which any partake of, is only in, minds the knowledge of its inestimable truths. and by virtue of, that most satisfactory sacrifice, The things of eternity are greater than those and no otherwise.

of time, as the ocean exceeds a single drop; surFriends believe also in the Holy Spirit, or prising indeed it then becomes, that any should Comforter, the promise of the Father, whom be so engrossed with worldly pursuits, as to feel Christ declared he would send in his name, to unable to devote a few hours weekly to the en. lead and guide his followers into all truth, to couragement of their children, in the reading of teach them all things, and to bring all things to the Holy Scriptures, which are able to make their remembrance. A manifestation of this them "wise unto salvation, through faith which Spirit they believe is given to every man to pro-is in Christ Jesus.” fit withal; that it convicts for sin, and, as at- There is no teaching so powerful as example. tended to, gives power to the soul to overcome Nearly all children, as they grow up, become and forsake it; it opens to the mind the myste- deeply interested in what they see engages the ries of salvation, enables it savingly to under-close attention of their parents. If, then, the stand the truths recorded in the holy scriptures, parent is occupied from morning till night, through and gives it the living, practical, and heartfelt each successive week, from one year to another, experience of those things which pertain to its in bringing all the powers of his mind to amassing everlasting welfare. They believe that the saving property, while the Bible is scarcely opened once knowledge of God and Christ cannot be attained a day,-what child observing this, would not, as in any other way than by the revelation of this a very natural consequence, become strongly imspirit; for the apostle says, "What man knoweth pressed with the belief, that money-making is the the things of a man, save the spirit of man which most important object of life? And thus, He, is in him? Even so the things of God knoweth in whose power is every breath we draw, and who no man, but the spirit of God. Now we have can destroy in one hour every hope of earthly enreceived not the spirit of the world, but the spi- joyment,is almost wholly cast out of remembrance ! rit which is of God, that we might know the But if, on the other hand, the parent often rethings which are freely given to us of. God.” If, sorts to the Scriptures as to the most interesting therefore, the things which properly appertain of all books, and if he takes every opportunity to to man cannot be discerned by any lower prin- interest his child, the result will be very different. ciple than the spirit of man; those things, which Numerous instances have occurred where an

; properly relate to God and Christ, cannot be abundant blessing, even after years have been

spent in sin and corruption, has rested on the teacher, having previously examined the lesson early and faithful labors of parents.

very thoroughly, asks from it such questions as Some years' experience in First-day schools, may be adapted to the capacity of the several puenables the writer to bear witness of their use- pils, (embracing the meaning even of the more fulness as an assistance to parents. In many in- common words, if the children are quite young,) stances lasting benefit has resulted from them. avoiding all doubtful explanation,—the object But if parents wish their children to become in-being to see whether they have read understandterested in them, they must themselves partici- ingly and remembered the contents of the lesson. pate in the exercises of them. If they manifest Sometimes the teacher will call their attention to indifference, and by their conduct declare that such passages as have particular excellence, force, the study of the Scriptures is matter of little im- or practical bearing, and when it appears useful portance, they cannot reasonably expect that their to do so. This exercise constitutes the whole offspring will pursue a different course.

lesson of the simplest schools. After the school For the children of the Society of Friends, is in successful operation, a few other simple and First-day schools appear to be especially neces- interesting exercises may be added, which are desary; for, unlike those of other societies, they scribed in another part of this little work. The are not taught by public lectures, and unless the school is closed for the day by reading a psalm means for making an early impression upon their or other portion of scripture, followed by a short minds are diligently used, a blessing can hardly and solemn pause. The whole occupies about an be expected.

hour. Management of First-Day Schools.-Some The following very simple examples will show persons, desirous of introducing the benefits of the mode of questioning the pupils, the second First-day schools into their respective neigh- chapter of Matthew constituting the lesson : borhoods, are at a loss to know how to pro- For very young children.- Where was Jesus ceed: they feel incompetent for the undertaking, born? Was Bethlehem a city or a country? become discouraged, and the whole matter is What is a city? Did any of you ever see a city? given up. This ought not to be. From many Who was king at that time ?' What is a king ? years' observation, the writer is satisfied that far What was Jerusalem ? Where did the wise men more depends on a real heartfelt interest and come from ? Can you all point towards the East? steady perseverance, even with very moderate For whom did they inquire ? natural or acquired abilities, than on the most For more advanced Children.-

The more brilliant qualifications without these requisites. If simple of the preceding questions should be omitdifficulties occur at first, faithful labor and dili- ted, and such as the following may be added to gent attention will gradually effect their removal. the others :- Was the kingdom of Jesus to be

With the hope that some assistance may be an earthly kingdom, like that of other kings? afforded to the inexperienced, the following (see John xviii

. 56.) What is the meaning of simple and brief description of the management Jesus? (see Mat. i. 21.) By what other name of these schools is given, which may be varied was Bethlehem called ? (Luke ii. 4.) Who was according to circumstances.

born at Bethlehem before our Saviour ? (Dan. Weekly Schools. - In neighborhoods where xvi. 1.) What was the prophecy that the seribes those who attend do not live more than a mile referred to, relative to the birth-place of our from the school-house, (and for which purpose a Saviour ? (Micah. v. 2.) meeting-house frequently answers well,) an hour To keep a school on this plan, it is not only may be devoted each First-day afternoon, when, needful that teachers should devote a considerable as is usually the case in the country, there are no portion of time and thought to each lesson, in afternoon meetings., A chapter is selected a order to make it plain and interesting to the week before for the lesson.* This the pupils are children, but that parents should co-operate by expected to read over once a day during the week, encouraging their children to study at home, and to become familiar with its contents. When the to attend regularly. Visits from the teachers to school assembles, it is divided into classes of 6 to the parents may have an encouraging effect, and 8 pupils each, and the superintendent opens the this labor will not seem too great to those who school by reading the selected chapter in a clear feel the importance of these early influences on and distinct voice to the whole. The teacher of the minds of children-serving as they frequently each class then takes his seat in front of the pu- do, to shape their course towards a useful and pils, and eaeh reads a verse aloud in rotation, the virtuous life. teacher reading with them, until the whole chap- If a small library can be procured, it will serve ter is read, -the elasses being separated from as an additional attraction to the children, the each other by some space in the room, to prevent books to be lent to the scholars for a week at a confusion. They then close their books, and the time. The books should be numbered, and when If the school contains quite young children, the

taken out, recorded, with the names of the per. most simple and interesting historical parts should be

sons taking them, in an account book or register, chosen, as, the four Gospel histories, the Acts, the to prevent mistakes or loss. Book of Daniel, the History of Joseph, &c.

Monthly Schools.--These are quite different



from weekly schools, and are well adapted to selected beforehand, and are of such a character every meeting or neighborhood of Friends, where as have short answers. If the school is large, there are either few or many children or young the pupils rise on asking them. people, who may live several miles distant from After the completion of this exercise, a new each other. The writer, having had many years' subject is given out for the next general lesson experience in connexion with monthly schools, (to commit to memory)-questions on slips of has found the following mode of conducting them paper for written answers are next distributed the most attractive and interesting, at the same a select portion of Scripture is read by the time that they have proved eminently useful. superintendent, and, after a short solemn pause,

The lessons and exercises are all learned or the school closes. prepared at home, during the intervals between the schools ; and hence the necessity of the

KANE's ARCTIC EXPEDITION. hearty co-operation of parents in assisting and encouraging their children. Where parents have A letter from Dr. Kane, giving the experilearned the lessons, and regularly attended and ences of the Arctic Expedition under his comrecited with their children, the interest of both mand, up to July 20, has kindly been communihas been kept up in a remarkable degree. The cated to us. It is the first letter received from writer has witnessed an interesting example of him since the expedition sailed, and is written in the encouraging influence of parents in thus par- a hopeful and encouraging spirit. The gallant ticipating, in the mother of several children, who, commander describes a calm of twelve days' duunder much difficulty, and in all kinds of weather, ration, which came over them, and they lay has for years attended without an omission, with almost still, ancient mariner-like, like a painted her children, and taken part in the exercises. ship upon a painted ocean. This calm began on Others have done nearly the same. It is only the 30th of June. Then a stiff breeze set in when parents attempt to send their children, from the South, hauling shorewards, and sending without taking the trouble to attend themselves, them on at the rate of eight knots an hour. Duthat a want of interest is manifested.

ring the calm, Commander Kane had sent into Monthly schools are occupied with several Sukkertoppen and laid in a good supply of reinexercises. The first is the recitation of the prin- deer-skins, filling at the same time his watercipal lesson, committed to memory. This lesson, casks. At the rate he was going, he expected which each pupil copies into a small blank book, to make Liefly the night he was writing, and is made up of Scripture passages on some subject, Proven in two days more. The north-westers, or in answer to some question, previously selected he thought, must have cleared the ice from Melfor the purpose ; for example, 6. What passages ville Bay, and if the wind hauled a little more to exhort us to love one another ?" or, “What is the eastward, the ice would not drive back again. our duty to our enemies ? &c. Parents and The Commander then proceeds to describe his others often assist the children in selecting pas- procedures for undertaking a sledge journey. It sages in answer. The recitation of these is al- was his intention to remain in the brig as long as ways interesting, and is made more so by the possible, seeking a harbor on the eastern side of several grown persons connected with the class. Smith's Sound. The moment the vessel comes If there are not more than twenty or twenty-five to anchor he will leave Olsen, a trustworthy man, in the school, they need not be divided, but re- in charge, to prepare for winter quarters, drop cite in the presence of the whole. If larger, his whale-boat with himself, the Esquimaux and division will be necessary.

seven men, and take advantage of inshore tideThe answers given by different children pre- leads to continue his journey to the north. The sent a very agreeable variety, and the lessons are Commander describes particularly the amphibilong or short according to the capacity of the ous qualities of the boat-for water or ice-topupils.

gether with her provisions for ninety days, exWhen this exercise is finished, each pupil inclusive of forty days for her crew. The object turn reads a written answer to a question, a suit of this is to establishi a depot in the autumn able number of which had been distributed at the months, before the full setting in of winter, a previous school, written on slips of paper, and matter which the Commander thinks perfectly containing a reference where to find the answer. practicable, though not yet undertaken by the These questions are prepared each month by the English explorers. He anticipates that his resuperintendent, or other persons appointed for turn to the brig will probably be during the solthe purpose, and the answers are usually some emn darkness of the winter night; but a part striking or memorable passage.

from the novelty and excitement of such a jourThe third exercise consists of verbul questions, ney, the moon in her high northern declination selected promiscuously by any present, from all will come in at the very nick of time, becoming parts of the Bible, and asked without any regard circumpolar on the 13th October and November, to regular order, as each may choose. If no one and giving twelve days of unbroken light. present can answer, the answer is given by the With the aid of lunars, and constantly recurperson proposing the question. They are usually ring meridian observations of the stars, no dan



[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

ger of losing his way was apprehended. The “I will try her again, said I, “ this may be a Commander had been laboriously occupied in fit- chance shot," and remarked in reference to a field ting out for this journey. Upon establishing the of ploughed ground we were passing, that it depot to serve as a provisioning centre for after broke in great lumps, and could hardly be put in operations, he hoped to return to the brig afoot, good tilth. “We have much clay land like this,” leaving the boat in case of finding the open wa- she replied, “and formerly it was difficult to culter, by which he trusted to be able to follow the tivate it in a tillage crop, but since the introductraces or direction of the missing ships. His tion of Croskill's Patent Clod Crusher, they will next journey would not take place until the re- make the most beautiful tilth on these lands, and turn of light, as a few weeks' rest would be es- which are now regarded as among our best wheat sential.

Dr. Kane had obtained, during the calm, sev- The conversation turned on cattle ; she spoke
eral observations as to the position of the coast of the best breeds of Cows for the pail, (the Ayr-
line of Greenland between Fishernaer and Suk- shires and Devons) told me where the best
kertoppen, a distance of 140 miles. These de. Cheese was made-Cheshire-the best butter
terminations show that the coast line upon the -Ireland—where the best milk-maids were to
Danish charts of Graah, as well as those of the be found— Wales—“Oh !” said I, “I was mis-
English and the late Expedition, is nearly an taken ; this charming, intelligent woman, acting
entire degree of longitude too much to the west- so natural and unaffected, dressed so neat and so
ward. He removes it some 26 miles to the east- very plain, must be a farmer's wife, and what a
ward—an important change in the axis of Baf- help-mate he has in her?—She is not an extrava-
fin's Bay.-N. Y. Tribune.

gant wife either, not an ornament about her-
yes, a single bracelet clasps a fair rounded arm

-that's all.” The train stopped at York ; no ENGLISH LADIES AND AGRICULTURE. sooner had my travelling companions stepped As showing the interest English Ladies take upon the platform, than I noticed they were surin Agriculture, I cannot but relate a casual in- maids—the men in full livery. It turned out

rounded by half a dozen servants-men and terview I chanced to have with an English lady, to be Sir John and Lady H. This gentleman I in going up in the express train from London to learned was one of the largest landed proprietors York. Her husband had bought a book at the in Berkshire, and his lady the daughter of a stand as we were about starting, and remarked Nobleman, a Peeress in her own right; but her to her that “it was one of her favorite American title added nothing to her, she was a noble woAuthors—Hawthorn.” I casually observed, “I

man without it.-Holcomb's Address to the Md. was pleased to see young American authors found admirers with English ladies,” when the con

State Ag. Society. versation turned on books and authors. But I said to myself pretty soon, “this is a literary lady-probably her husband is an Editor or Re

MINERAL CANDLES. viewer, and she handles the scissors' for him; There is a quarry aþout twelve miles to the at all events I must retreat from this discussion west of Edinburgh, in the immediate neighborabout authors, modern poets, and poetry. What hood of a picturesque group of trap-rocks, known should a farmer know critically of such things. as the Binney Crags. The quarry itself is of If I was only in those fields—if the conversation white sandstone, but there rests immediately could be made to turn on crops, or cattle, then I above it a thick bed of dark-colored shale, over should feel quite at home." I finally pointed which the hot trap must of old have flowed, and out a field of wheat, and remarked it was very which was subjected in consequence to a sort of fine. The lady carefully observing it, said: natural distillation. The distilled substance, shut “Sir, I think it is too thin—a common fault this very closely up, found its way into the crevices season, as the seeding was late;" “ those drills,” of the white stone beneath, and in these crevices she added, turning to her husband for his con- the quarriers now find it.

It exists as a light, firmation, “ cannot be more than ten inches apart, waxy matter, varying in color in the mass from and you see, sir, the ground is not completely that of gamboge to that of dark amber-melts at covered-twelve, and even fifteen inches is now nearly the same temperature as bees-wax, which preferred for the width of drills, and two bushels it equals in hardness--and burns with a bright of seed to the acre will then entirely cover the flame; and many years ago the quarriers em. ground, on good land, so you can hardly distin-ployed at the work, struck by its peculiar qualiguish the drills."

ties, learned to convert it into very darkIf the Goddess of Ceres had appeared with her colored candles, which, though rather smoky, sheaf, or her cornucopia, I could not have been gave not a bad light, and which were occasionally taken more by surprise. A lady descanting on purchased from them as objects of curiosity, but the width of wheat drills, and the quantity of much oftener consumed in their cottages. There, seed!

however, the thing rested; and in vain, for aught



« ΠροηγούμενηΣυνέχεια »