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The whole number of children under instruction | TENNESSEE has a school-fund of nearly a mil. is 94,605, of whom 1,953 are colored. New lion and a half of dollars. Jersey has an invested school fund of very nearly KENTUCKY has a fund nearly as large as that $100,000.
of Tennessee, and expends $111,600 a year for PENNSYLVANIA maintains 9,699 public schools school purposes; but out of the 215,195 children at a cost of a little more than a million dollars a in the State, only 69,835 attend school. year. The average rate of compensation for male 0110 spends somewhat more than $200,000 a teachers is $18.75 per month; for females, $11. year in maintaining her 9,916 schools. In one 46; but the schools are kept open on an average year—1852—Ohio built 181 school-houses. The only five months in the year. In Philadelphia, State is in earnest on the subject of education. there are a Normal and a High school. The INDIANA holds property, in trust, for the edupublic schools of Philadelphia cost $7,16 a year, ! cation of her children, which is valued at five for each pupil.
millions of dollars. The income of this property, DELAWARE has 236 common schools, and ex- which consists chiefly of land, is to be devoted pends $19,469 a year in their support.
exclusively and for ever to the support of free MARYLAND has a school-fund of $150,000, schools. particulars respecting the expenditure of which
Illinois has a school fund of nearly a million we do not possess.
of dollars, which the State borrowed some years VIRGINIA, so far as we know, has no organized ago, at an interest of six per cent. The State system of public schools ; nor, we believe, have can boast of 3,000 school-houses and seventy-six
. North Carolina, Florida, Alabama, Arkansas, school libraries. Male teachers receive an aveand Texas.
rage of $17.64 a month; females, $10.32, and South Carolina supports 4,023 common three days in the year.
the schools are kept open six months and twentyschools, attended by 9,022 pupils, at an annual
Missouri has a school fund of half a million ; cost of 10,580. Governor Means, in his message, and, in addition to this, the Legislature has apNovember, 1852, says:
There seems to be a general belief that it (the Free School System) for the support of the free schools, which swells
propriated one-fourth of the revenues of the State works badly, except in large cities. Conducted the amount to be annually distributed, to as they are in the country, I do not hesitate to
$140,000. pronounce it an almost useless expenditure of
Iowa has made a spirited beginning in behalf the public fund ; yet I am far from being willing of public education. The constitution provides to recommend a discontinuance of the appropri, that a Superintendent of Public Instruction shall ation. I am sure the system could be so altered be chosen by the people for three years, and that and improved as to work well with us.” commends the appointment of a suitable and all escheated estates, shall constitute a perpetual
all lands granted by Congress to this State, and competent person to travel over the State to fund, the interest of which shall be applied to witness its operations, and suggest improvements. the support of common schools ; and all moneys
GEORGIA has a school-fund of $23,086, the in- received for exemption from military duty, and terest of which is divided among the counties, for fines imposed by the courts, shall be approaccording to the population.
priated to support such schools, or for the estaMISSISSIPPI has no uniform school system. blishment of school libraries. Each township has a school-fund arising from the WISCONSIN has a school-fund of $816,220, lease of lands granted by Congress for common and expends already more than $120,000 a year school purposes, every sixteenth section in each for educational purposes. There are nearly 2,000 township having been so granted. These lands schools in operation, which are provided with are leased mostly for ninety nine years. The libraries, to the extent of 1,000 volumes. There money thence arising is loaned annually, at not are 66 school-houses of brick, 74 of stone, 778 less than eight, nor more than ten per cent. per of logs, and 812 framed, and all are valued at annum interest. This interest is the amount ap- $561,986.32. The highest valuation of any plied to tuition, etc., annually from the township school-house is $5,550, and the lowest $150. fund. There is also a county fund, arising from CALIFORNIA has made splendid provision for fines, forfeitures, licenses, etc., which is distri- the future. The constitution provides for the buted in those townships that are destitute, or election of a Superintendent of Public Instruchave but a small school-fund.
tion, to hold office for three years. By the same LOUISIANA imposes a tax for school purposes instrument, the proceeds of the public lands of one mill on a dollar, and a poll tax of one dol- granted to the State for schools, the 500,000 lar on each white inhabitant. There is also a acres granted to new States under the act of school-fund of $325,025. The State supports Congress, and estates of persons dying without 704 schools
, and expends $25,000 a year upon heirs, shall be a fund, the interest of which and them. Yet, there are more than 20,000 white the rents of unsold lands are to be inviolably apchildren in the State who do not attend school propriated to the support of common schools. at all,
The Legislature has established a Board of Edu.
cation for the State, consisting of the Governor, is, that thirty-five thousand millions of persons the Superintendent of Public Instruction, and have perished by war; that is, some thirty-five the Surveyor General. Each town elects three times as many as the whole present population of persons as coinmissioners of schools for the town, the earth. In Bible language : “Who slew all and a constable as a common school marshal. these?” War slew them. And, when contemProvision is also made for County Superintend- plating this vast slaughter, how natural to inquire, ents. The Legislature has devoted one-twentieth in other words of that blessed book, "Shall the part of the tax upon real and personal property sword devour forever ?” to the support of common schools. The public And how immense the loss of property by war! school system is already in operation, and more The annual cost of the war system to Europe than 4,000 children are reported to be under in. alone, including interest on her war debt, exceeds struction,
a thousand millions of dollars. The government For the free instruction of the people, there- of our own nation has expended, on account of fore, there are in the whole United States, in the army and fortifications, more than five hunround numbers, 60,000 schools, which are sup- dred millions of dollars; and, on account of the ported at an annual expense of something less navy and its operations, more than half that sum. than six millions of dollars, of which sum more Buť to ascertain the whole loss of property, which than half is expended by the two States of New this nation has suffered by war, we must take into York and Massachusetts. In this survey of the the reckoning many other items, and, especially, common school facts of the different States, we the cost of the militia. Now, this last item, not acfind little cause for boasting though much for cording to mere conjecture, but according to the hope. For, though nearly every State in the computation of those capable of making it
, is Union has recognized its duty to see that no child fifteen hundred millions of dollars. Add, then, within its borders grows up in ignorance, yet to what our nation has paid for war, and to her only a few of the States have taken up the sub- loss of property by war, the interest on these pas. ject of universal education with anything like ments and losses, and you have an aggregate the earnestness which its importance demands. equalling a large share of the whole present Teachers generally are ill paid, and hence, ill wealth of the nation. qualified; and it is a startling fact, that the And, just here, I would say a few words on people of the United States pay quite half as national debts. As such debts are, in the main, much every year for the support of their dogs as war debts, there can be no assignable limit to they do for the education of their children. A their accumulation, so long as war is thought to well-informed man is still a rarity, and multi- be necessary—for so long there will be warstudes of the people “spell character with a k,” and, until war is abandoned, it will be held to and are ready to affirm, that “oats is cheaper be unjust and dishonorable to repudiate war than they was last year.”—Ilome Journal. debts, no matter how crushing, and increasingly
crushing, from age to age, may be the burden
of such debts. So commanding is the influence SPEECH OF GERRIT SMITH OF NEW YORK, ON WAR. of war, and so world-wide and mighty the senti
; The bill making appropriations for the support ment which it has been able to create in favor of of the Military Academy being before the House
, that no debts are deemed more sacred and on 1st month 18th, Gerrit Smith addressed the such debts being, in truth, sacred and obligatory
obligatory than war debts. And yet, so far from House as follows:
there is the most urgent and imperative duty to I believe in the progress of the human race. repudiate them. No doctrine should be more I delight to dwell upon the idea of an ever-grow- indignantly scouted than the doctrine, that one ing civilization. Hence it is, that I am aflicted generation may anticipate and waste the earnings at every demonstration of the war spirit. For and wealth of another generation. Nothing is the spirit of war is the spirit of barbarism ; and, plainer than that the great impartial Father of notwithstanding the general impression to the us all would have every generation enter upon contrary, war is the mightiest of all the hinder- its course unmortgaged and unloaded by prior ances to the progress of civilization. But the generations. Nothing is plainer than that in spirit of this bill is the dark, barbarous, baleful those States of Europe, where the war debt is so spirit of war; and, therefore, would I use all great, that the very life-blood of the masses must honorable means to defeat the bill.
be squeezed out to pay the annual interest upon It is strange--it is sad—that, in a nation pro- it, repudiation must take place, ere those masses fessing faith in the Prince of Peace, the war can rise into even a tolerable existence. It is a spirit should be so rampant. That in such a na- very common remark at the present time that tion there should be any manifestation whatever Europe needs a revolution. She does need a of this spirit, is grossly inconsistent.
revolution. But she needs repudiation more, How vast, incomprehensively vast, the loss of However, there never will be a decided and life by war! There are various estimates of this wholesome revolution in Europe that does not loss. Burke's estimate, if my recollection is right, involve repudiation. If a people, on whom thio
wars and crimes of past generations have entailed It would, perhaps, be wrong to ascribe the conan overwhelming burden of debt, shall achieve a tinuance of war to the low and perverted state of revolution, of which repudiation is not a part, the moral and religious sense. It would, per their labor and sacrifice will be lost their revo- haps, be more proper to ascribe it to the prevaillution will be spurious and vain. It is absurd ing delusion that war is unavoidable. And yet, it to claim that the people of England and Hol- may be that a better state of the moral and reliland are morally bound to continue to dig gious sense would have entirely prevented this from the earth, and to produce by other forms of delusion. But, however this delusion may be toil the means for paying the interest on their accounted for, or whatever may be responsible enormous war debt.
They are morally bound to for it, it is consoling to know, that it is not so break loose from this load, and to drag it no well nigh impossible to dispel it, as is generally longer. For, so long as they drag it, they can supposed. A fresh baptism of wisdom and goodnot exercise the rights of manhood, nor enjoy the ness may, perhaps, be needed to that end; but blessings, nor fulfil the high purposes of human no new faculties, and not a new birth. Nay, existence. Is it said, that the Government, for were we to apply to the subject of war no more whose wars they are now paying, would have than our present stock of good sense and good been overthrown but for these wars? I answer, feeling—no more than our mental and moral that the Government, which involved its subjects faculties, as they now are- -it is probable that in those wars, was the greatest curse of those war could not long withstand the application. subjects, and is the greatest curse of their suc- The doctrine that war is a necessity is the cessors. The maintenance of such a government greatest of all libels on man. The confidence is loss; its overthrow is gain.
which, in private life, we manifest in each other, I do not deny that the case is possible in which proves that it is such a libel. We walk the a generation would be morally bound to assume streets unarmed. We go to bed without fear, the debt created by its predecessor. But, even and with unlocked doors; and we thus prove, then, such generation should be the sole judge that we regard our fellow-men as our friends, and of its obligation to assume the debt. Were the not our foes—as disposed to protect and not to cholera raging over the whole length and breadth harm us. It is true, that there is here and there of our land, and sweeping off millions of our one that would rob us, and, at very far wider people; and were a foreign nation to minister to intervals, one that would kill us. our relief by lending us money ; if we could not are at rest in the consciousness that, where there repay the loan, our successors should ; and such is one to assail us there are a hundred to defend a loan they would be glad to repay.
Indeed, society could not be held together, I would incidentally remark, that civil govern- were it not true that the generality of men are ment will be neither honest nor frugal, so long swayed by love and confidence and generosity, as the practice of war is continued. Í say so existing either in their own hearts, or accorded for the reason, that the extensive means néces- by them to others. The men who are swayed by şary to carry on wars, or pay war debts, cannot distrust and hatred, constitute the exceptional be obtained by direct taxation. The people will cases. consent tu their being obtained only by indirect Have I then an evil-minded neighbor? I, taxation; and no government ever was, or ever nevertheless, need not fight with him. I may will be, either honest or frugal, whose expenses rely, under God, upon the mass of my neighbours are defrayed by indirect taxation ; for no govern- to protect me against him. So, too, if there is ment whose expenses are thus defrayed, ever was here and there a malicious American, and here or erer will be held to a strict responsibility by and there a malicious Englishman, who would be the people ; and no government, not held to such guilty of involving their countries in a war with responsibility, ever was or ever will be either each other; nevertheless, the mass of Americans honest or frugal.
and Englishmen, inasmuch as they prefer interI have referred to the loss of life and property national amity to international quarrels, should by war—of life, that is so precious--of property, be relied on to preserve peace; and they would that is so indispensable to the enjoyment and preserve it if so relied on. Now, it is in this usefulness of life. But there is an unspeakably point of view, that the nation, which is detergreater loss than this with which war is also mined to keep out of war, will never find itself chargeable. I refer to the damage which morals involved in war, and that nothing is hazarded and religion suffer from it. AI I need add on by adopting the peace policy. I add, that as it this point is, that the power of war to demoral- is not in human nature, under its ordinary inize the world, and to corrupt the purest religion fluences and in its ordinary circumstances, to fall in the world, is abundantly manifest in the fact, upon an unarmed and unresisting, man, so the that the moral and religious sense of even good nation, which puts its trust not in weapons of men is not shocked by war. No stronger argu- war, but in the fraternal affections of the human ment can be brought against war than the fact heart, and in the God who planted those affecof its power to conform the morals and religion tions there, will find this trust an effectual shield of the world to war.
from the horrors of war. Such a shield did the
good men who founded Pennsylvania find this Miner's School for Colored Girls in this city, and trust. During the seventy years of this trust, of her ability, judgment and merit every way as there was no blood shed in their Province a Teacher. "Ihave visited her school several times These good men subdued even the savage heart, attractive spectacle-bright faces-an appearance
and see it constantly improving. It is really an simply by trusting that heart. These good men, of as much intelligence as I see in any other by refusing to carry deadly weapons themselves, Schools-as quick and ready answers to the ques. shamed even savages out of carrying them. And / tions—as much neatness, order and good behawere America now to disarın herself, even to the viour. The School too is permanently established, extent of abandoning the policy and practice of and by no cause that I can forsee, is it likely to be
disturbed or broken up. war, and were she to cast herself for protection on the world's heart, she would find that heart tem in America, but there can be no question
There may be questions about the Slave Sys. worthy of being so trusted. The other nations about improving and elevating the free colored of the earth would not only be ashamed to take people by every wise means; and I have no sym. advantage of her disarmament, but they would pathy with him who can look upon Miss Miner's love their confiding sister too well to do so. Nay, effort, I will not say with apathy, but without Instead of making her exposed condition lively interest.
ORVILLE DEWEY. an occasion for their malevolence, they would be From Professor Horsford, of Cambridge University. moved to reciprocate the confidence expressed I was present at a morning exercise of Miss by that condition, and to disarm themselves. Miner's School for Colored Girls in Washington, [To be continued.)
during the winter of 1852-53.
The pupils present were of various ages from
eight to sixteen years, and were plainly but neatFRIENDS' REVIEW. ly and comfortably clad. They consisted of mu
lattoes and quadroons for the most part, though PHILADELPHIA, THIRD MONTH 4, 1854. some were obviously of pure African blood, and
others could with dilliculty be distinguished from Some portions of an address from Myrtilla Mi
whites. ner, to the friends of the colored race, which has
The exercises were in spelling, reading, geo
graphy, penmanship, composition, analysis of aulain for some time on the Editor's table, are intro- ihors, moral philosophy and translations from the duced into the present number. The importance French. The degree of attainment some had of extending to the descendants of the Africo- made, the manifest interest of all, and the preAmerican race the benefits of education has been vailing healthful moral and religious tone were
such, as to show that the School had been emilong felt and acknowledged by our most enlight- nently successful. This is true, whether consi. ened philanthropists. This was one of the means dered in view of its effects upon those who reproposed by the benevolent Anthony Benezet for ceive the instruction, or upon the families whose raising this oppressed class to their
homes will be made happier, by the light that
proper level, to which he devoted a considerable share of his that circle of larger, if not indefinite extent, which
will accompany the knowledge thus im parted, or time, and the principal part of the little property will be blessed by the indirect influence of such which his expansive liberality left in his posses. an institution. sion at his death.
Few out of Washington can duly estimate the The laws of many, if not most of the slave- a School. It requires on the part of its head, the
difficulties of organizing and sustaining there such holding states, discourage the instruction even of rarest union of qualifications. There must be, the free colored population, and the public papers beside varied accomplishments, the more imporhave recently furnished the disgusting details of tant good sense, discretion, tact and energy, which
wait upon all successful enterprises. In addition the prosecution and imprisonment of a female in to these, Miss Miner has the deep religious faith, a neighbouring State, on a charge of teaching ne- that united with other attributes, gives the fullest groes to read and write. Happily, in the District assurance, that while her life and health are conof Columbia, and the Capital of the Union, such tinued, the school must prosper. I do not hesi.
tate to add, that I have never attended a School philanthropists as Myrtilla Miner are not liable to exercise that interested me more deeply than that be fined or imprisoned for such an act. Her use of Miss Miner's at Washington, nor can I escape ful and benevolent labours, however, cannot be the conviction that if the School can be mainprosecuted without pecuniary resources; and we tained, its usefulness in the great cause of hulhave ample assurance that any contributions manity will be more marked than if the pupils
were white instead of colored. which may be made to this object will be faith
Cambridge, Dec. 28, 1853. E. N. HORSFORD. fully applied. Out of a large number of testimonials of M.
The remarks of Gerrit Smith in the House of Miner's qualifications for the task she has under Representatives at Washington, a portion of taken, the following are selected :
which is given this week, to our readers, furnish From Orville Dewey.
some original views in relation to the kind of WASHINGTON, Jan. 27, 1853.
hands to which the preservation of the public I entertain the most favorable opinion of Miss ' peace ought to be entrusted. If his plan does not
come up to what many among us, the Editor of, rah Crew, all members of Salem monthly meet. this periodical included, regard as the true Chris-ing of Friends. tian standard, it may be fairly considered as a valuable approximation to that standard. While the Dieb, - Ôn the evening of the 16th ult.; in the rulers of nations so generally rely on the applica- 75th year of her age CATHARINE Jones, a member
and overseer of Radnor Monthly Meeting. tion of brute force for the maintenance of their While evincing by a life of practical piety, her rights and the preservation of peace, it is a satis- belief that "faith without works is dead," she faction, and perhaps a harbinger of better times, emphatically recognized that Christian doctrine, to witness an esfort, even if it should prove, at have done, but according to his mercy he saveth
that “it is not by works of righteousness that we present, an isolated one, to fix the attention of us,”: Thus, for her, death had no terrors, but, with legislators upon the propriety of introducing a lamp trimmed and light burning she calmly higher moral standard among those who are en
awaited the coming of the bridegroom of souls. trusted with the execution of such laws as are remember the serenity which marked her closing
Those who watched by her sick bed will long provided for the maintenance of order and peace. hours ; so full of sweetness and love that to them It must be obvious, on a primary view of the it seemed as if a foretaste had even then been subject, that one of the most effectual means to granted her, of that bliss which they reverently
believe it is now in its fulness her privilege to preserve tranquility, both among ourselves, and with foreign nations, is to avoid, as far as possi
enjoy, through the mercy of God in Christ Jesus
our Lord. ble, all such measures as are likely to arouse the
At his residence near Mount Pleasant, passions from which contests, domestic and in- Jefferson County Ohio, on the 16th of 11th month ternational, arise. Of course if an armed police, I last, after a short illness, Curtis Grubb, a memon land, or on the ocean, or on both, is deemed re
ber of Short Creek monthly meeting, in the 85ih
year quisite, a sober rationality would appear to dic
-, On the 21st of 11th month last, suddenly tate that it should be composed of men who would of apoplexy, in Shelby, Orleans Co., N. Y. not needlessly irritate the passions which their Cynthia, wife of Allen Mason, aged nearly 60, a own organization was designed to control.
member and Elder of Elba monthly meeting.
of his age.
FRIENDS' ASYLUM. The circular, published this week in the Review, relative to Haverford School, is intended to to the Asylum for the Relief of Persons Deprived
A stated Annual Meeting of “The Contributors attract the attention of our readers, and particu- of the Use of their Reason,” will be held on larly those at a distance, to that noble institution. Fourth day the 15th of Third month, 1854, at 3 In the establishment and maintenance of semina- o'clock, P. M., at Arch street Meeting-house, Philries of learning, within the precincts of our reli
William Bettie, Clerk. gious society, one of the most stubborn obstacles to
INDIAN CIVILIZATION. success has been found in the want of suitably
A Friend and his wife are wanted to reside at qualified teachers. This deficiency, the semina- Tunessassah, to be engaged in managing the ry at Haverford is well calculated to supply. A Farm belonging to the Committee of Philadelphia heavy expense has been incurred in the provision Yearly Meeting, and the domestic concerns of the of the needful auxiliaries, and instructors well family qualified for their respective stations have been
Also, a well qualified Friend to teach the School.
Application may be made to procured. Hence it is confidently believed that
Joseph ELKINTON, 377 South 2d St., this institution furnishes an opportunity of a more
Thomas Evans, 180 Arch St., complete education than can be obtained in any
Philada. 2d mo. 11th, 1854. other within the society.
SLAVE LABOR IN CUBA. It will no doubt be a satisfaction to many of our
I believe my inquiries as to the cost and proreaders to learn, that our Friends, Josiah Forster, able me to afford a fair opportunity for deciding
fit of the production of sugar in this island, enJohn Candler, and William Holmes, arrived at this city, about the middle of last month, and af- ba and free labor in Jamacia. Before, however,
as to the comparative cost of slave labor in Cuter a short stay in this vicinity proceeded on their entering upon the question as to the “ relative mission toward the northern and eastern part of cost,” I deem it requisite to give some details the Union.
which I have gathered, as to the manner the Our friend Lindley M. Hoag, arrived at New slaves in this island are worked, together with York in the Baltic on the 20th of last month. some other matters connected with the question.
In this island, considerable tracts of land, bithMarrien, - At Friends' Meeting, Salem, lowa, erto uncultivated, are annually taken into cultion the 25th of Ist month, 1854, CHARLES ). Poul- vation. I have been upon a sugar estate of conTER, to Susannau W. daughter of Walter and Sa- Isiderable extent, the owner of which, a Creole,