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militia, enrolling now more than 2,000,000 men | promise of 1820, repudiates the vitality of that as liable to military service on demand from the of 1850 as well. State, is our system of preparation for war, we They who assert that Slavery will not go into spend upon this, in one way and another, several Nebraska if the door be opened for it and held times as much as the general government pays open, defy the lessons of history. Climate, soil, for our little navy and standing army. But how production—in fact everything whereon they base much do these alone, together with their neces- their assumption-are the same in Nebraska as sary incidents, cost our republic? With a popu- in Ohio and Indiana, both of which were only lation of 12,866,000 in 1830, and of 17,069,900 saved to Free Labor by the determined action of in 1840, we spent from the national treasury for Congress. With regard to Ohio, the facts are as war purposes in peace, an average of $20,117,- follows: On the assembling in 1902, of the Con000 a year, during the eight years preceding vention which formed the first State Constitution 1814, and of $21,329,000 a year from 1835 to of that State a Committee of nine was chosen to 1840 inclusive. For the last twenty years the draw up a Bill of Rights—John W. Brown annual cost of our preparations for war, has being Chairman. Mr. Brown at once produced averaged more than twenty millions a year by a cut-and-dried section containing the following the general government alone; more than twice clause; “No person shall be held in Slavery, if as much as our entire system of popular ejuca- | a male, after he is thirty-five years of age ; and, tion, common, academic and collegiate, has if a female, after twenty-five years of age.' meanwhile cost the nation. Add twice or tbrice Judge Ephraim Cutler, a Federalist from Washas much more for the various expenses of our ington County, demurred to this, and asked time militia system, and we shall find that our pre- to prepare a substitute. He was allowed till next parations for war in a time of peace, have cost morning, when he presented to the Committee from five to seven times as much as the education an Anti-Slavery clause, which, after considerable of our people.

discussion was carried, by a vote of five to four, Here is our own war-system in contrast with and thereupon reported and embodied in the our system of popular education ; the people's State Constitution, where it still stands. Judge preparations for war, and their educational train-Cutler afterward learned from Gov. Worthington ing to be useful, thriving and happy. Just look and (since) Gov. Jere. Morrow, that the attempt at the cost and the results in the two cases. to engraft a limited Slavery on the institutions of Which expenditure is the wisest; which produc- Ohio was prompted or backed by a strong influtive of the most valuable results ? —Advocate of ence, including that of the then President, Peace.

THOMAS JEFFERSON, always anti-Slavery in theory, but generally pro-Slavery in practice. Gov. Worthington afterward informed Judge Cutler

that President Jefferson had conversed with him Almost every advocate North or South, of on the subject the previous winter, and expressed Douglas's Nebraska bill, endeavors to create an a hope that a limited tenure of Slavery might be impression in the Northern mind, that the ques- legalized in the proposed Ohio Constitution, as tion now pending pertains to the realm of abstrac- any exclusion of Slaverywould operate aguinst tion-that Slavery will not actually be estab- the interests of those who wished to emigrate from lished in Nebraska, even though the Missouri the Slave States to Ohio.[Fifty years ahead Restriction be rescinded.

of Badger, you see !] So Gov. Morrow has stated Now we believe not only that Slavery will go that, when he went to the Federal Capital the there, if legally permitted, but that it is very next winter as a Member of Congress from the likely to extend thence into New Mexico and new State, President Jefferson in conversation Utah, if Douglas's bill shall prevail. So long with him objected to the Judiciary feature of the as Nebraska shall be consecrated to Freedom by Ohio Constitution and also to its prohibition of the maintenance of the Missouri Restriction, we Slavery. Mr. Jefferson thought," said Gov. have little fear that Slavery will cross the west Morrow, that it would have been more judicious line of Missouri in any force. The slaveholder to have admitted Slavery for a limited pewho undertakes to move his human chattels west- riod.[For these facts we are indebted to a ward from Missouri to, Utah, or New Mexico, deeply interesting

« Funeral Discourse on the forfeits his legal control over them the moment occasion of the death of the Hon. Ephraim Cuttheir feet press, with his consent, the Free Soil ler, delivered at Warren, Washington Co., Ohio, of Nebraska. Here is the breakwater which has July 24 1853, by Prof E. B. Andrews of Mathus far shielded our New Territories from the rietta College.”]

Bear in mind that this narrow blight of human bondage. But the repeal of escape from Slavery was made by Ohio after the Missouri Compromise subverts all this and several years' efficient protection as a Territor affixes a new meaning to the Compromise of 1850. by the immortal Ordinance of 1787, and in spite It transforms the peril of Slavery extension from of her relatively high latitude and climate absoone remote and ideal to one present and actual. lutely precluding the culture of Rice, Cotton or In effect, Douglas's bill, in repudiating the Com-Sugar.



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With regard to Indiana the facts are even , quarter of the United States. That the Committee deem more instructive. On the 8th Feb., 1803, the it highly dangerous and inexpedien: to impair a profollowing letter was laid before the House of vision wisely calculated to promote the happiness and

prosperity of the North Western country, and to give Representatives, viz:

strength and security to that extensive frontier. In Indiana Territoryo misch NE. 1502. } , VINCENNES, the salutary operation of that sagacious and benevo

lent restraint, it is believed that the inhabitants of In“Sir : The people of the Indiana Territory having diana will at no dista at day, find ample remuneration by their representatives in general Convention assem- for a temporary privation of labor and emigration. bled, determined to suspend for a term of years the operation of the sixth article of compact between the

Here again we find the Committee, including United States and the people of the Territory, I have their slaveholding Chairman, utterly oblivious of the honor herewith to inclose you for the information the Cass doctrine that the Territories are indeof the House of Representatives, the instrument decla- pendent of Congress. Congress itself was equally tory of their consent. 56 I have the honor to be with persect respect,

regardless of the doctrine; and so far from re“Sir, your humble servant

moving “the sagacious and benevolent restraint," WILLIAM HENRY HARRISON, in compliance with the wishes of nine-tenths of President and Delegate from the County of Knor. the inhabitants, it does not appear from the jour“ To the Honorable the Speaker of the House of Rep- nal that any motion was ever made or any vote resentatives of the United States. By order of the Convention.”

ever taken to suspend or repeal the VIth Article

. The letter inclosed a formal vote of the Con- The anticipations of the Committee have been vention, consenting, on behalf of the inhabitants fully realized, and the State of Indiana has now of the Territory, to the suspension, for the space cause to rejoice that the unholy desires of its of ten years, of the sixth article of the compact, early settlers were not gratified. from the date of an act of Congress "giving

People of the United States ! Nebraska has their consent to the suspension of said article." never asked a repeal or suspension of the Slave

The article which the Territory thus asked ry Restriction, as Indiana officially did. Nebraska might be suspended for ten years (practically for can only be opened to Slavery by the repeal of an ever,) was the following:

act passed by Congress which was commended Art VI. There shall be neither Slavery nor in- by its advocates and regarded by the country voluntary servitude in said Territory otherwise ihan as a solemn compact between the Slave and in the punishment of crimes, whereof the party shall the Free States. To foist Slavery into Nebrashave been duly convicted." In addition to the formal vote of assent, the do in 1851, what John RANDOLPH in 1803 de

ka you (through your Representatives) must Convention also presented to Congress a petition clared to be highly dangerous and inexpedient," signed per order by the President, Gen. Harrison, declaring that nine-tenths of the inhabitants inexpedient for the Territory; dangerous to the of the Territory, being of opinion that the sixth Union, because the violation of a compact. Are article had been prejudicial to their interests, had you more pro-Slavery in 1854 than John Ranrequested the Governor to call a Convention of

dolph fifty years ago ?-N. Y. Tribune. Delegates, for the purpose of taking the sense of the whole people on “a subject to them so inter

THE VALUE OF A PROVERB. esting.” The petition then goes on to state the A proverb is practical, every day wisdom, coninjury resulting from the Article, as it prevents densed into its smallest space. What diamonds slaveholders from settling in the Territory, &c. &c. are to other gems, proverbs are to language.

We may remark, that the people of the Terri- Like the diamond also, a proverb is the slow detory asked for the removal of the restriction as posit of ages—it is the common sense of the a boon, not claiming it as a right. This, it must be people, crystallized by time. recollected, was during the administration of The English tongue is full of invaluable proJefferson, and no Presidential candidate had yet verbs. No man can realize how thoroughly discovered that the constitution had deprived practical our British ancestors were, until he has Congress of power to legislate for the Territories studied the sayings they had in common use, and had rendered the Territories free and Inde- and compared them with those of other people. pendent sovereignties.

For social conduct, for success in life, and for The proceedings of the Indiana Convention moral culture, our mother tongue supplies the were referred to a Committee, consisting of John best collection of proverbs in the world. “ManRandolph, (Chairman,) and Robert Williams, of ners often make fortunes,” says one of these old Virginia, Mr. Griswold of Connecticut, Mr. Mor- proverbs; and vainly might we seek to express ris of Vermont, and Mr. Hoge of Pennsylvania. this truism more pithily. “Never fall out with

On the 2d of March, the Committee reported : your bread and butter,” is as applicable in our “That the rapid population of the State of Ohio day to the fools who are above their business, as sufficiently evinces, in the opinion of your Committee, it was generations ago, when the proverb was that the labor of slaves is not necessary to promote first started. “Every path hath a puddle," rethe growth and settlement of colonies in that region. futes the discontent of those who fancy their own That this labor, demonstrably the dearest of any, can only be employed to advantage in the cultivation lot worse than that of their neighbors, of products more valuable than any known to that I marily as it did three centuries back.

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honest debts—and some of them to persons who so lead the way for our reciprocal free trade with are suffering for the payment of them. We those Provinces in all productions—in the works shall be, altogether without excuse, if, when our of men's hands, as well as in the fruits of God's Treasury is overflowing, we do not pay them; earth; and so lead the way, I may add, for such but, instead thereof, indulge a mad war passion unrestricted trade between ourselves and other in building ships, and in making other war pre-countries also. I regret that our Government parations. Remember, too, that the debt, which has, hitherto, been so slow to embrace the libewe incurred in our superlatively mean and wick- ral overtures of our northern neighbors. I trust, ed war with Mexico is not all paid. I hope that no sectional, or other unworthy jealousies that we shall pay it; and not leave it to posteri- will avail to hold us back, any longer, from emty to be obliged to pay it, or repudiate it

. But bracing these overtures. Let not Maine fear a it may also be asked: “What shall we do with new competition in lumber and ship-building ; future surplus money in the Treasury ?" I an- nor Pennsylvania in coal ; nor Ohio in wheat.

? “ Have none.

We should have none, These States will lose nothing in these respects; either by adopting free trade, or by doing what and, if they should lose anything their loss will is the next best thing-raising the tariff to the be inconsiderable, in comparison with their rich level of a full protection. The mixture of free gain from free trade in natural productions with trade and protection is a miserable compound. a country whose trade with us has doubled in the But it

may also be asked : “What shall we then last seven years, and our exports to which are do for means to carry on the Government ?"- double her exports to us.

Her trade with us in I answer, that, when we shall no longer have 1852 amounted to nearly seventeen millions of war to support, and are weaned from the extrav- dollars. And let not the unworthy cavil be reagances and follies which are cherished and be- peated, that these Provinces offer us free trade gotten by that dazzling and bewitching and be in natural productions only. How could they fooling barbarism, it will not cost more than one carry on their Governments, were they to contenth as much, as it now does, to defray the cost sent to free trade in all productions? Is it said, of administering Government; and that tenth that they could by direct taxation ? But it does the people will be willing to be directly taxed for. not lie in the mouth of a Tariff nation like ours

But I have consumed the most of my hour, to say so. I repeat it-I rejoice in this treaty. and must close. Do not pass any of these war To accomplish such a blessing for our own counbills. Do not so cruel, so foolish, so wicked a try, for the British Provinces, and for the world, thing. Cruel it will be to the poor, who will will be an imperishable honor to this Adminishave to pay these millions of fresh taxes; for, tration. remember, Sir, that it is they who have to pay I am informed, that our Government is negothem. The toiling poor are the only creators of ciating a commercial treaty with France also. wealth. Such as ourselves are but the conduits Now, how happy if this House would use its of wealth. Foolish it will be, because the more great influence to get inserted in both these treayou expend in this wise, the more will it be felt ties an arbitration clause-a clause submitting innecessary to expend; and because the more you ternational disagreements to a wise, disinterested, seek to protect your country in this wise, the less peaceful arbitrament ! How happy, if this will she be protected. Wicked it will be, be- House would pass a resolution to this effect !cause war, in all its phases, is one of the most An arbitration clause in our treaties with those horrid crimes against God and man.

dations would render war between them and us I have made my appeals, Sir, in the name of well nigh morally impossible. And such a clause reason and religion, both of which condemn war. would prepare the way for the establishment of Let not these appeals, which are made to a high- an international court—that great desideratum of er nature-to all that is pure, and holy, and sub- the world. Would that our country might parlime within us—be overborne by the counter ap- ticipate most promptly and most largely in the peals, which are made in the name of a vulgar glory of achieving that desideratum! We have patriotism, and which are all addressed to our already the village court, and the district court, lower nature-to our passion, pride, and preju- and the state court, and the national court ! and, dice-our love of

power, and plun- were it proposed to abolish one of these courts, der.

and to let differences between men take their own There is, just now, an opportunity for Congress course, and run into violence and bloodshed, such to do a better thing than to indulge and foment proposition would be regarded as a proposition the spirit of war. Our Government, as I am in to return to barbarism. But, Sir, I trust that formed, is negociating a commercial treaty with the day is near at hand, when it will be thought England. From what I learn of its provisions, to be barbarous not to have an international I rejoice in it. I trust, that it will be consum- court. mated, and go into full effect. It will well dis- Sir, I have done. Rapidly, very rapidly, has pose of the fishery difficulties. It will open to the world advanced in civilization, the last forty us reciprocal free trade, in natural productions, years. The great reason why it has, is, that, with the British North American Provinces; and during this period, it has been comparatively ex


conquest, and



empt from the curse of war. Let the world con- 1 To the friends of free labor at the North, such tinue to advance thus rapidly in civilization; news as this, in the present aspect of affairs, and let our nation continue to advance with it. comes like a voice of encouragement.-N. Y. During these forty years, our nation has gene- Daily Times. rally gone forward in the cause of peace. In its war with Mexico, it took a wide step backward.

THE PLANET VENUS God grant that it may never take another step

Which for some months past has been so bril. backward, in this cause ! God grant, that, in respect to this dear and sacred cause, our nation row into a line, or into inferior conjunction with

liantly shining in the south-west, comes to-normay adopt the motto on one side of the standard the sun, and therefore during the remainder of of the immortal Hampden: “Nulla vestigia the year will not be visible in the evening. Beauretrorsum”-no steps backward : and, having tifus as the light of this planet always is, it has done this, it will have good ground to hope for seemed to us, since the beginning of January, its realization of the blessing of the motto on the other side of that patriot's standard : “God neously with the disappearance of this luminary

even more so than usual. But, nearly simultawith us.

from the western sky, Mars appears in the east, Pass these war bills, Sir, and carry out the its opposition having taken place on the 26th. President's recommendations, and you will con- These oppositions occur at intervals of about two tribute to roll along that deep and broad stream of sin and sorrow, which war has rolled down about 240 millions of miles from the earth, and

years, and as this planet, when most remote, is through every age of the world. But defeat

when nearest only one fifth of that distance, the these bills, and frown upon these recommendations, and there will be joy on earth and joy in change in its apparent size and light is of course

very great. Nevertheless, although now at the heaven.

least distance from us that it will be, until 1856, the planet is not as near as it was in the opposi

tions that happened some years since. It is, We have received recently files of papers and however, very conspicuous in the east, shining private letters from Western Texas, which de- with a deep red light, and rising as the sun sets. velope a somewhat important movement in pro

-Boston Journal of 2d mo. 27th. gress. It is well known that the Germans have The writer of this notice, has been a little too been tending in considerable numbers, of late careless in his statements. The planet Mars reyears, towards the fertile plateau lands of West- turns to its opposition at a mean interval of 780 ern Texas. The genial climate and the mingled days; and its distance, when greatest, may fruits of the Northern and Southern zones naturally tempt such a people thither. The country be set down 254,847,000 miles; when least is easy

of access from the Gulf, and above all, to 64,817,000, or a little more than a fourth of its the German—the freeman need not work side by greatest. Of course the light which it now reside with the slave. To those fertile fields sla- Aects upon us is nearly sixteen times as great as

/ respondent informs us that in the town where he when in cojunction with the sun. is visiting, San Antonia de Bexar, there are thousands of Germans doing all the mechanical

SUGGESTIVE COMPARISONS. work, and even the plantation labor of the coun- Cost of Education versus the cost of War-Systry around. A thousand bales of cotton have tem. There are in the United States, 23+ colbeen raised and picked in one little district by leges, with 1651 teachers, 27,159 students, and Germans alone! German labor is found to be an annual income of $ 152,314 from endowments; cheaper, and, of course, far more thorough, than $15,485 from taxation ; $184,549 from public slave labor. Everything indicates, he states, a funds; and $1,264,280 from other sources; makprosperous, thriving community. Schools and ing, in all, $1,916,628. Of public schools, for churches are being built; the rowdy, idle habits common and academic education, there are of Eastern Texas are not, comparatively, visible, 80,991, with 92,000 teachers, 3,454,173 pupils, and a spirited Anti-Slavery press is sustained and an income of $182,594 from endowments, In other words, a settlement of freedom is grow- $1,686,414 from taxes, $2,574,669 from public ing up almost in the heart of a Slave state !- funds, and $2,147,853 from all other sources ; The German papers which our informant sends reaching a total of $9,591,530. Add the first bear out the same account. They are large, sum total, and we find an expenditure, for popuhandsomely printed sheets, essentially “ Free lar education in all its departments, of $11,508,Soil” in tone, containing in these numbers seve- 158. ral extracts on the duty of foreigners in our coun

Here are eleven millions and a half of money try towards slavery. Who knows, says our cor- spent in educating twenty-four milllions of peorespondent, that a free Puszta State may not, in ple; and how much meanwhile does our economia few years, spring up here in Western Texas? I cal war system cost in a time of peace? As the

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man race

his fellow-man in this bondage, and remain a

-the pirates, that, both on land and member of our society; and that we bear our sea, “lurk privily for the innocent prey.”' testimony against it on religious ground, irre- But what shall be the character—the intellecspective of any political party or organization. tual character-of the men proper to compose

We desire very respectfully to address the this armed force ? No other question in this rulers of our land, and to be permitted, as a re- discussion is so important; and, perhaps, in the ligious duty, earnestly to plead with them not to whole range of earthly interests, there is not a sanction, by any act of theirs, the extension of more important question. The answer, which I slavery in our beloved country.

shall give to this question, is a very novel one: We fervently crave that the injunction of our so novel, indeed, that, were I not irresistibly imSaviour, to do unto others as we would have pressed with its truth and value, I should not them do unto us, may, in all their legislation, be venture to give it. felt to be of universal application to all classes of The punishment of its own offending citizens our fellow men, and that they may ever feel that is, confessedly, regarded as being, in all its stait is righteousness that exalteth a nation.

ges, a most solemn and responsible duty. Laws We would not weary you with many words, to this end are enacted with considerateness and but permit us to express our earnest desire and solemnity. It is claimed, that none but wise and prayer,

you may
seek in


just men are fit to enact them. Judges and jufor that wisdom which is from Him who hath rors are considerate and solemn in applying the made of one blood all nations of men to dwell on laws; and none, but the upright and intelligent, the face of the whole earth, and that acting in are allowed to be suitable persons for judges and his fear, you may individually and collectively jurors. All this is indispensable to maintain the witness his blessing to rest upon you.

moral influence and the majesty of the laws.Signed by direction and on behalf of a meet- But how fatally would this majesty be dishonored, ing of the representatives aforesaid, held in Pro- and this moral influence be broken, if all this vidence, Rhode Island, by adjournment, the se- propriety and all this consistency were, then, to cond day of the second month, 1854.

be followed up with the gross impropriety and SAMUEL BOYCE, Clerk. gross inconsistency of committing the execution

of the verdict, or decree, of the court-room to SPEECH OF GERRIT SMITH OF NEW YORK, ON WAR. clear is it, that the turnkey and hangman should

the hands of the profligate and base. Most

not fall below the lawmaker or judge, in dignity I have already admitted, that there are per- and excellence of character. I am aware, that sons, who would wrong us—who would even it was once thought, that the vilest man in the plunder and kill us.

I now admit, that Govern- community was the most appropriate man for ment is bound to provide against them. If on hangman. But sounder thinking requires, that the one hand, I protest against stamping the the hangman, if there must be a hangman, should masses with the desperate character of these rare be one of the noblest and holiest of men. individuals, on the other hand, I admit, that we Such is my argument-and, I trust, it is a are to guard against thesė rare individuals. conclusive one-in favor of a solemn and digniBut to argue, that, because of the existence of fied execution of the laws of Government against these rare individuals in France, or England, or its offending subjects. But cannot a similar, and any other nation, the nation itself is necessarily a no less conclusive, argument be made in favor disposed to make war upon us, is to make excep- of such an execution of its laws against foreign tions to the rule, instead of the rule itself, the offenders, also ? Most certainly. It is admitted, basis of the argument.

that the greatest wisdom and considerateness are Whilst, for the reason, that I believe, that necessary in deciding on so solemn a measure as there is no need of war, I believe there is no war. But, just here, the amazing impropriety, need of making preparations against it, I, nev- the fatal inconsistency, occurs, of intrusting the ertheless, admit, that there is need of Govern- execution of the declaration of war to those, who ment, of prisons, and of an armed police.- are, for the most part, profligate and base—the Whilst I hold, that a nation, whose Government very scum and refuse of society. Not only so, is just in all its dealings with its own subjects, but it is insisted, and that, too, by good men, and with foreigners, and which so far confides in, and by the friends of peace, that the profligate and honors, human nature, as to trust, that even and base are the peculiarly fit persons to fill up nations are capable of the reciprocations of love, the ranks of the armies—the peculiarly fit peralso—I say, whilst I hold, that such a nation sons to be “food for powder.' They believe, needs to make no provision against war, I still with Napoleon, that "the worse the man, the admit, that it is bound, in common with every better the soldier;" and with Wellington, that other nation, to have ever in readiness, both on “the men, who have nice scruples about religion, sea and land, a considerable armed force, to be have no busiuess to be soldiers.” A sad miswielded, as occasions may require, against the take, however, is this, on the part of the good hostes humani generis—the enemies of the hu-'men'I have referred to. They should insist, that

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