« ΠροηγούμενηΣυνέχεια »
Freedom are not open to any charge of aggres- it, so that it shall be said hereafter, so long as sion. They are now standing on the defensive, the dismal history of Slavery is read, that, in the guarding the early intrenchments thrown up by year of Christ, 1854, a new and deliberate act our fathers. No proposition to abolish Slavery was passed, by which a vast territory was opened anywhere is now before you ; but, on the contra- to its inroads. ry, a proposition to abolish Freedom. The term Alone in the company of nations does our
Abolitionist, which is so often applied in re-country assume this hateful chanıpionship. In & proach, justly belongs, on this occasion, to mark despotic Russia, the serfdom which constitutes
him who would overthrow this well established the “ peculiar institution” of that great empire, * landmark. He is, indeed, no abolitionist of Sla- is never allowed to travel with the imperial flag, el very; let him be called, an abolitionist of Free according to the American pretension, into pro
dom. For myself, with many or few, my place vinces newly acquired by the common blood and it is taken. Even if alone, my feeble arm shall treasure, but is carefully restricted by positive
not be wanting as a bar against this outrage. prohibition, in harmony with the general con
And here, before I approach the argument, science, within its ancient confines, and this proindulge me with a few preliminary words on the hibition-the Wilmot Proviso of Russia—is rigcharacter of this proposition. Slavery is the for- orously enforced on every side, in all the provin
cible subjection of one human being in person, ces, as in Bessarabia on the south, and Poland on o labor or property to the will of another. In this the west, so that, in fact, no Russian nobleman 13 simple statement is involved its whole injustice. has been able to move into these important ter
There is no offense against religion, against mo- ritories with his slaves. Thus Russia speaks for
rals, against humanity, which may not stalk, in Freedom, and disowns the slaveholding dogma of among the license of this institution, “unwhipt of jus- our country. Far away in the East, at "the
tice.” For the husband and wife there is no gateways of the city," in effeminate India, Slavemarriage ; for the mother there is no assurance ry has been condemned ; in Constantinople, the that her infant child will not be ravished from queenly seat of the most powerful Mabommedan her breast ; for all who bear the name of slave empire, where barbarism still mingles with civi. there is nothing they can call their own. With- lization, the Ottoman Sultan has fastened upon out a father, without a mother, almost without it the stigma of disapprobation ; the Barbary a God, he has nothing but a master. It would States of Africa, occupying the same parallels of be
contrary to that rule of right which is ordained latitude with the slave States of our Union, and by God, if such a system, though mitigated of resembling them in the nature of their bounda
ten by a patriarchal kindness, and by a plausible ries, their productions, their climate, and their s physical comfort, could be otherwise than perni-“ peculiar institution," which sought shelter in
cious in its influences. It is confessed that the mas- both, have been changed into Abolitionists. Alter suffers not less than the slave. And this is giers, seated near the line of 36 deg 30 min., not all. The whole social fabric is disorganized; has been dedicated to Freedom. Morocco, by Labor loses its dignity; Industry sickens; Edu- its untutored ruler, has expressed its desire, cation finds no schools, and all the land of Sla- stamped in the formal terms of a treaty, that the Fery is impoverished. And now, when the con- very name of Slavery may perish from the minds science of mankind is at last aroused to these of men; and only recently, from the Dey of Tuthings, when, throughout the civilized world, a nis has proceeded that noble act, by which, “In slave dealer is a by word and a reproach, we, as honor of God and to distinguish man from the a nation, are about to open a new market to the brute creation " -I quote his own words-he de. traffickers in flesh who haunt the shambles of the creed its total abolition throughout his dominions, South. Such an act at this time is removed from Let Christian America be willing to be taught all reach of that palliation often vouchsafed to by these examples. God forbid that our RepubSlavery. This wrong, we are speciously told, by lic" heir of all the ages, foremost in the files those who seek to defend it, is not our original of time”-should adopt anew the barbarism sin. It was entailed upon us, so we are instruct- which they have renounced. ed by our ancestors; and the responsibility is
slaves often with exultation thrown upon the mother carried into Nebraska in large numbers, and country. Now, without stopping to inquire into that, therefore, the question is of small practhe value of this apology, which is never ad-tical moment. duced in behalf of other abuses, it is sufficient, The census shows that it was of vital conse
quence. There is Missouri at this moment, with our own original act. Here is Illinois on the east and Nebraska on the west, all on the w case of actual transgression, which we can- covering nearly the same space of latitude, and hot cast upon the shoulders of any progenitors, resembling each other in soil, climate and propolar upon any mother country, distant in time or ductions. , , the place. The Congress of the United States, the potent efficacy of the" Ordinance of the North people of the United States , at this day, in this western Territory, Illinois is now a free State
, raunted period of light, will be responsible for while Missouri has 87,422 slaves, and the simple
to make Slavery
question which challenges an answer is, whether ted by the country. Meanwhile, the statesmen Nebraska shall be preserved in the condition of by whom it was framed and vindicated have, one Illinois, or surrendered to that of Missouri ? by one, dropped from this earthly sphere. Their Surely this cannot be treated lightly. But for living voices cannot now be heard to plead for myself I am unwilling to measure the exigency of the preservation of that public faith to which the prohibition by the number of persons, wheth- they were pledged. But this extraordinary lapse er many or few, whom it may protect. Human of time, with the complete fruition by one party rights whether in a private individual or a vast of all the benefits belonging to it, under the conimultitude, are entitled to an equal and unhesi- pact, gives to the transaction an added and most tating support. In this spirit the flag of our sacred strength. Prescription steps in with new country only recently became the impenetrable bonds, to confirm the original work ; to the end panoply of an unknown wanderer, who claimed that while men are mortal, controversies shall its protection in a distant sea ; and in this spirit, not be immortal. Death, with inexorable scythe, I am constrained to declare that there is no place has mowed down the authors of this compact ; accessible to human avarice, or human force, but, with conservative hour-glass, it has counted whether in the lowest valley or on the loftiest out a succession of years, which now defile bemountain top, whether on the broad flower span- fore us, like so many sentinels, to guard the sagled prairies or the snowy crests of the Rocky cred landmark of Freedom. Mountains, where the prohibition of Slavery,
(To be continued.) like the the commandments of the Decalogue, should not go.
But leaving these things behind, I press at once to the argument.
Those who now run through Wales on the 1. And now, in the name of that public faith, way to Ireland should, unless their time be very which is the very ligament of civil society, and limited indeed, turn aside from the iron pathwhich the great Roman orator tells us it is de way, and glance at the wonderful slate quarries testable to break even with an enemy, I arraign up Nant Francon. They will be repaid for their
I this scheme, and appeal to the calm judgment of trouble. And if a circuitous coach route be all who hear me.
adopted instead of the rail, there are Mr. I begin, by assuming that honorable Senators Asherton Smith's quarries, in the very bosom of will not substitute might for right-that they Snowdonia, and Mrs. Oakley's quarties
, near will not wantonly and flagitiously discard any ob- the beautiful Ffestiniog. Plenty of slate in ligations, pledge, or covenant, because they chance North Wales, if we will turn a little out of the to possess the power; but, that, as honest men, highway to look for it; but of all the quarries desirous to do right, they will confront this ques- in the Principality—of all in the world, perhaps tion.
-the place of honor must be given to those Sir, the proposition before you involves not which have Bangor for their shipping port, and merely the repeal of an existing law, but the which have poured such wealth into the coffers infraction of solemn obligations originally pro- of the Penrhyns and the Pennants. Penrhyn posed and assumed by the South, after a protract- castle, one of the best of all modern castles
, ed and embittered contest, as a covenant of peace,
built at a cost of a hundred thousand pounds, with regard to certain specified territory therein may be regarded as a slate trophy; its cost was described, namely: “ All that territory ceded defrayed by the fortunes of the Quarry owners, by France to the United States, under the name and it very properly contains rooms and furniof Louisiana ;” according to which, in conside- ture, and ornaments of slate. ration of the admission into the Union of Mis- It is alone worth a journey into North Wales
, souri as a slave State, Slavery was forever prohib- and a walk of seven miles from Bangor, and a ited in all the remaining part of this Territory day's heat or cold, or rain or snow, to see the which lies north of 36 deg. 30 min. This ar- pigmies at work high up Y Bron, “the pap," a rangement, between different sections of the name frequently given in Wales to rounded Union, the slave States of the first part and the summits. The excavation commences at a low free States of the second part—though usually level in the mountain; but as the workings have known as the Missouri Compromise, was at the been carried on for ninety jears or more, they time styled a COMPACT. In its stipulation for now extend more than half a mile into its heart
, Slavery it was justly repugnant to the conscience and form a vast amphitheatre. It is an amphiof the North, and ought never to have been theatre of terraces one above another, like the made; but it has on that side been performed. seats of the ancient Coliseum, but so rastly large
nd now the unperformed outstanding obliga as to eclipse them in every sense; while the tions to freedom, originally proposed and assumed workmen appear but mere specks, so high and by the South, are resisted. On these I now
On these I now so wide-spreading are the workings. The adopplant myself.
tion of this terrace-like mode of working is due Years have passed since this compact was em to the peculiar structure of slate. The slate is bodied in the legislature of Congress, and accep- not merely separable into beds or layers, nearly
horizontal, but it has innumerable lines of cleav-| tions are carried on. The very hard blocks are age nearly vertical ; and these lines facilitate cut with saws into slabs; while the looser kind the separation of the blocks from the vertical are split into roofing-slates by means of long face of the mountain. A trench is first worked wedge-shaped pieces of iron. into the side of the slate mountain; and when But the quarries themselves are only one part this has extended to such a distance that the of this great Penrhyn property-one end of a rise of the mountain causes the height of the commercial chain. We have said that the valtrench to be about forty-feet, another trench is ley on the side of which this slate mountain is commenced at the top of the former, and then situated is called Nant Francon. The quarries another and another, like a huge flight of steps are called by the Welsh name, of Dolawen, or up the side of the mountain. Meanwhile, the the still more Welsh name, of Braich-y-Cavn; or gradual widening of the lowermost trenches will Penrhyn, after the name of the first worker; or be effected by detaching blocks of slate. The Bangor, after the name of the shipping-port : but upper part of the mountain being of course it matters little what we call them, provided we narrower than the base, it necessarily follows | bear in mind that the mountain which yields the that the lowest trenches can be expanded farther slate is Y Bron. and wider than the upper. In fact, the lowest The mountain is on the west side of the little trenches have ceased altogether to be the trenches river Ogwen; and the quarrymen's cottages and of Y Bron, and have become vast semicircular villages are scattered about near it; but the most cuttings. No less than sixteen heights or ter- remarkable place in the vicinity, for its human races, each about forty feet above the one next and social interest, is Bethesda—a town whose below it, now exist; and all sixteen are advancing very name shows that it owed its origin to a simultaneously further and further into the heart body of persons among whom religious feeling is of the mountain. As the quarrymen proceed, strong. Bethesda is a quarrymen's town, a slate they will probably have to make other terraces, community. Dissenters are in full force all still nearer the summit of the mountain. over the Principality, and nowhere more so than
Two thousand men are digging, and blasting, at the quarries. We happened to be at Bangor on and levelling, some of them at a height from the the day when the Welsh Calvinistic Methodists ground equal to double the height of St. Paul's held their annual field-meeting in that town, cathedral, and all working open to the light of and shall not soon forget the sight; so neat, day, instead of burrowing underground like so clean, so earnest, so simple-minded, so honestminers. The blasting is extraordinary work, re- hearted did they all appear. They came from quiring no little firmness of nerve. The men the quarries, from Conway, from Carnarvon, are suspended by ropes from the edge of an up- from Beaumaris, from every place within many right crag of rock; they drill holes into the miles around Bangor; they sang their unprovertical face of the slate ; they put the blasting nounceable Welsh with good hearty lungs; and charges into these holes; they are hauled up sat on chairs or carts, or waggons, or reclined on again, and, when precautions have been made the grass under a bright blue sky and a cheerful for obviating danger, the charges are fired, the sun, to listen to discourses.
Such was a great blast takes place, and huge masses of slate be-day for the quarrymen; but for all ordinary occome loosened. At the upper part of the quarry casions they have their own chapels in their the slates are loose enough to be detached by own Bethesda. And they bave their retail shops, crow-bars; but, at greater depths the slate is too, where David ap Jones ap Price ap Davies ap more compact, and requires the aid of gunpow- Morgan ap Shenkin, and his brother tradesmen, der for its disruption. So many are the perils sell bread, cloth, pins, herrings, lucifers, candles, at Y Bron, that accidental deaths are painfully penny pictures, saucepans, leeks, lollipops, and numerous among the quarrymen. There are all the other necessaries and luxuries for a parts at which the slate is interrupted by veins working population. of intensely hard basalt or greenstone, the pre- While passing through Bethesda, on our sence of which is a sore trouble to the proprietor way from the quarries to Bangor, we for a time and the workmen.
catch a glimpse of the railway or tram along The men, the slates, the tools, and the work- which the slates are conveyed to the shipping ing tackle, are raised and lowered from one ter- quay. This tramway was perhaps the making race to another by means of inclined planes. A of the quarries, as a commercial speculation. drum and a brake-wheel are placed at the top Lord Penrhyn is said to have spent nearly two of each inclined plane; and, by dexterous man- hundred thousand pounds on the means of agement, trucks are raised and lowered with transport to the ships ;' and a most wise exgreat facility. The men not only blast the com- penditure of capital it was. The railway glides pact recesses, and split the loose blocks and between Bangor town and Penrhyn Park, carrywedges, but also separate these blocks again into ing its long train of little trucks down to the slabs, thin slates. They then square and trim docks and quays at the northern end of the them. On most of the terraces there are sheds Menai Straits. These quays are excellently or workshops, in which these subsidiary opera-'arranged; nothing can better aid the slates in
To be Continued
setting off ou their travels all over the world. I of last month. The Turks attacked and defeated The ships draw up close to the quays; the the insurgenis. railway runs along the quays ; and the transfer ASIA — Disturbances are reported in Asia Minor, from the trucks to the ships is made easily and and severe conflicts are said to have taken place rapidly. The quays running a thousand feet out at Kutaiah, Augura and other places. into the sea, are laden with slates in countless
Persia.—The Shah of Persia has officially an. number ; slates in blocks, and slates in slabs, and nounced his determination to reinain neutral during
the threatened war. slates in slices ; slates little and slates big ; slates
ENGLAND.-Lord Palmerston has announced in for builders and slates for schoolboys ; slates for
the House of Commons, that Smith O'Brien is to be home and slates for abroad. As to the extent
pardoned. and value of these quarries and shipments,
France. -It is reported thai the Rothschilds and we are afraid to say how great are the esti- the Bank of France, have advanced two hundred mates sometimes made. We have been told of millions of francs ($37,500,000) to the French gov. three thousand men and boys employed at the ernment. works—of eleven thousand persons supported DOMESTIC—Considerable excitement has been by the wages thus received—of eighty thousand produced by the seizure at Havana, or the steampounds a year expended in working the quarries, ship Black Warrior which touched there on her and yearly profits much larger than this; but passage from Mobile to New York. It appears unless we could tell more accurately, it will be that this vessel had on board 900 bales of cotton better to keep clear of such big, high-sounding Commander, Captain Bullock, in conformity with
for New York, but nothing for Havana, and the numbers as these.
the usage of the place, reporled the steamer 10 be in ballast, when boarded by the revenue officer. But that official visiting the ship several times, the
Captain at length informed him what loading he SUMMARY OF NEWS.
actually had, and being told that his ship would be The Cunard steamer Alps with European mails to tened to rectify his manifest, the tine allowed by
seized for an infraction of the revenue laws, he hasthe 18th ult., arrived at Boston, on the morning of law for making corrections not having expired. But the 7th, and on the evening of the same day, the the Cuban authorities refused to receive the corrected approach of the Atlantic was no:ified by her signal specification, and proceeded to take possession of gun. But this vessel was, unfortunately, twice run the vessel and cargo. Captain Bullock and his ofaground before she reached her port at New York. ficers and men, came home in the steamer Courier. The Atlantic left Liverpool on the 22nd ult. . This subject has been taken up in the House of the evening of the 8th the mail steamer Asia, which
Representatives at Washington. left Liverpool early in the morning of 25th ult., arrived at Halifax.
CONGRESS.—The homestead bill granting 160 A letter from the Emperor of France to the Czar, acres of unimproved land to any free white citizen proposing terms of accommodation, had been an of the Uuited States, of 21 years of age, who may swered by the latter, refusing to accept the offered apply for them, but upon condition that the land conditions. The Moniteur considers this reply as shall be occupied five years before a patent can be leaving no hope of a pacific conclusion. Omar Pa. 1 obtained, passed the House of Representatives on cha was strengthening his position at Kalafat; and the 6th inst. the fortifications at Constantinople were going on. A number of remonstrances against the Nebraska
England and France were making preparations bill, have been presented 10 Congress, and late acfor the contest. The former has given notice to counts encourage a hope that this bill will not pass Russia of an intention to send a fleet into the Bal- the House of Representatives. The amendments tic, the command of which is to be entrusted to of the Senate, and particularly ihat which declared Sir Charles Napier. English ships were making that the French laws in support of slavery in Lou. surveys off the entrance in the Baltic, The Prus- isiana shall 1103 be revived by this enactment, have sian feet in the Baltic is said to be under orders for rendered it unpalatable lo many of its advocates. se: vice. Hence a conflict in that sea is evidently On the 14th inst., the remonstrance of three impending
thousand ministers against the Nebraska bill was Austria continues to send troops to the southeast- presented in the Senate, and a petition two hun. ern frontier, but under the profession of intending dred and fifty feet long in the House. In the evening only to prevent disturbances in Servia, Montenegro of that day a very large meeting in opposition to and Bosnia.
the Nebraska bill was held in New York, and TURKEY.--The Greek insurrection in Turkey had another in the Chinese Museum, Philadelphia. become quite formidable. In Epirus the insurgents Twenty fonr persons, on their way from Califorhave taken the town of Arta, anıt besieged the Turks nia to the Atlantic States, were drowned by the in the citadel, and three thousand insurgents are upsetting of a boat, which was greatly over-crowdrepuited to be within ten miles of Jonia. An Aloed, while the passengers were leaving the shore banian detachment of Greek regular troops had for the Steamer, in Virgin Bay, on the 2nd inst. gone over to the insurgents. Armed bands of Alba- More than 80 persons were on board the boat. nians were going front village 10 village, arousing Many were saved through the active efforts of the people and distributing arms. luflammatory native men and women, and one native man lost placards were also in circulation.
his own life in endeavoring to save others. In Greece itself great excitement prevails, and in A bill has been reported in the Senate, and the lonian islands disturbances have taken place. made the special order for the 27th inst., for the di Salonica, the insurrection broke out on the 9th construction of the Pacific rail-road.
A RELIGIOUS, LITERARY AND MISCELLANEOUS JOURNAL.
PHILADELPHIA, THIRD MONTH 25, 1854.
EDITED BY ENOCH LEWIS.
Meeting was over, and I feel my spirit rejoice,
as I write, that she has been mercifully and wonPUBLISHED WEEKLY BY SAMUEL RHOADS,
derfully preserved through such a long and peril
ous journey, and leaves us with that peace which No. 50 North Fourth Street,
passeth all understanding. I believe she has PHILADELPHIA.
done much toward removing the prejudices of Price two dollars per annum, PAYABLE IN ADVANCE,
the people respecting the principles of our Socior six copies for ten dollars.
ety, and in encouraging Friends in their religious Postage on this paper, when paid quarterly or yearly duties—perhaps none more so; for thou very in advance, 13 cents per annum in Pennsylvania and 26 well knowest her devotion to, and zeal for, the cents per annum in other States.
cause of truth, that no difficulty which presented, however formidable, could prevent her from at
tending to apprehended duty-her life, her all (Concluded from page 418).
seemed to be given up to spend and to be spent As his memoranda extend no farther, a few for the sake of precious souls. Thou inquirest extracts from letters to his friends, of later date,
about our little H. B. Hunt,-she is a very inmay help to supply the deficiency.
teresting little girl, with an expressive counteI often
that the Lord may bless “ Springfield, 2d mo. 3d, 1835. the child, and that a double portion of the spi“To J. and H. C. Backhouse, - Deep feelings rit of the dear friend for whom she was named, of sympathy are awakened in my mind at every may rest upon her.” turn of thought on your long protracted and ar- To- Tenth month, 7th, 1836.-"My duous engagement, in the most exalted and no- mind has been frequently led into deep sympathy ble of all causes which human creatures can be with the travailing seed everywhere; it someengaged in, even that of winning souls unto times seems to be drawn into all parts of the God-in comparison of which, all other things habitable earth, where the sons and daughters of sink into insignificance; and from the near unity men dwell; and here and there I find a little I have felt with your movements, I believe there seed struggling for relief, and my soul is nearly is no cause for discouragement. It is a blessed united to it in the bond and covenant of everthing to be in a humble state of resignation to lasting love. I feel almost daily more alive to the mind and will of our gracious Master, and the sufferings of humanity and the groans of the to keep the word of his patience, under the in- oppressed, accompanied with the persuasion that fluence of that faith which has been the support a great work is on the wheel, and that changes of the Lord's servants in every age of the world. will be brought about altogether out of the As to the southern prospect, I incline to believe it reach of human control, both in church and state. will be best for you to attend to it. Doone thing at Words come far short of expressing the concern a time, and when that is done, set up the staff I feel for our Society, that Friends may
preand see which way it leans, and carefully follow served in the meekness of wisdom, under the diit, whether it inclines to the east, the west, the rection of Jesus of Nazareth, the ancient rock north, or the south. It seems to me, if you re- and foundation of this people.” main a little longer, though it may be in weep
- Fourth Month 12th, 1838.ing, you will sow much precious seed—your la- “Thy last, my very dear
is grateful to bors will be blest to many, bound up among the my best feelings. The accounts I have received sheaves which you have gathered in this land- of my dear and well-beloved - are and you, my beloved friends, will return in peace forting to my heart. Though the conflict may be. to your dear connexions, saying, Bless the long and sore, it cannot be doubtful to the wellLord, O my soul, and all that is within me, bless disciplined and courageous soldiers of the Lord his holy name.'
Jesus Christ, because the encouraging promise To
Eleventh month, 1835. “I ex- is, the Lamb and his followers shall have the pected dear H. C. B. would be released from victory. I have never known a brother or felfarther labor on our shores, when Ohio Yearly low-laborer in the glorious gospel of Christ, with.