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and America, he visited almost every institutioning, as far as possible, the condition of their of a charitable or philanthropic character which dwellings. The Provident Bedding Association, came in his way, encouraging its promoters supported by the contributions of a few individin their laudable efforts, suggesting any im- uals, an unobtrusive charity, of which not nuch is provements in the management or organization known, was entirely under bis direction; and we which he considered would increase its efficiency, are assured by those who have watched its operaand exhibiting proof of his cordial sympathy and tions, that it has supplied many indigent famico-operation with all who, like himself, were in- lies with comforts otherwise unattainable, and terested in the alleviation of human suffering. that those of the poor who have availed them
Religious institutions, or rather institutions selves of its offered advantages, erince the most connected with religious efforts, and designed to grateful appreciation of the services it has renbear more particularly on the moral and spiritual dered them. condition of society, were, if of an unsectarian In common with all eminent philanthropists, and expansive character, objects of his warm ap- he felt a deep and abiding interest in the maproval. Of this class was the British and Foreign nagement of Houses of Correction, and the reBible Society, to which he was ardently attached. formation of the hapless creatures immured Its noble object, and its broad and catholic basis, withia their walls. At the early part of his life, recommended it at once to his adoption, and he Prison Reform had not been inaugnrated, and our not only supported it at home, but embraced gaols were receptacles of wretchedness, vice, and every opportunity of aiding its operations when guilt, in their most appalling forms. William abroad.
Forster was one of four members of the Society To those who had the most superficial acquain- of Friends, who, in the year 1813, visited some tance with the deceased, it is almost superfluous persons in Newgate who were about to be eseto say that his susceptible nature rendered him cuted; and we learn from an interesting memoir peculiarly sensitive to the sufferings and priva- of Mrs. Fry, compiled by Susanna Corder, that tions of the poor, and that his benevolent heart“ it has always been understood that the repreprompted him to suggest or readily concur in sentation of these Friends, particularly of Wil. any judicious measures for the relief of distress. liam Forster, first induced her personally to in There was, in fact, scarcely a local charity with spect the state of the women, with the view of which he was not more or less connected. Asso- alleviating their sufferings occasioned by the inciated with the late J. J. Gurney, Esq., Mr. clemency of the season.” It must have been a Thomas Geldart, and others, he contributed his source of heartfelt satisfaction to the deceased, earnest and valuable assistance in the origination that the vivid impressions produced on his mind of the Norwich Soup Society, which has con- by this visit to the condemned cells of Newgate
, tinued in operation ever since, and conferred im- led him to enlist so effective an agency in the portant benefits on the indigent classes of this cause of prison amelioration. The state of discicity, especially in seasons of more than ordinary pline, at this period, in our gaols—or rather the rigor, when the comforts of life were, through utter want of it—and the idleness, riot, and vice, want of employment or the high price of food, al- which were allowed to go unchecked, were a distogether placed beyond their reach. He also grace to a civilized—not to say Christian—countook a deep and uniform interest in the Blind try; and the improved treatment of prisoners
, Hospital, the District Visiting Society, and the which has since obtained, shows to what useful Norfolk and Norwich Hospital, with the latter of and important results the efforts of individual which he was at different times officially con- philanthropy may be conducted when guided by nected as a member of the Board of Manage- Christian principle, and sustained by intelligent ment.
zeal and untiring perseverance. His efforts, however, for the relief of the des
Naturally arising from the attention devoted titute, were not restricted to the casual supply of to prison discipline, Mr. Forster's especial intetheir wants by eleemosynary aid. His experience rest was excited by the unhappy state of juvenile impressed him with the importance of encourag- offenders in our gaols. The reformation of this ing provident habits
poor, and, with numerous and neglected class of criminals was a this view, he not only paid them frequent domi- subject which lay near his heart, and he labored, ciliary visits, but entered cordially into the forma- it is believed, to reform the habits and improve tion of the Provident Coal Society, which has the character and pursuits of the youthful inproved so great a blessing to the poor, especially mates of our city gaol. To what extent his amiduring the present winter, which will be long able intentions were successful, we have no remembered for its intense severity in connec- means of knowing, as his modesty rarely allowed tion with an unprecedented high price of fuel him to refer to his private efforts; but the subject and an increase in the cost of food, which has of reformatory, schools was one which frequently left numbers without the means of preparing it occupied his thoughts, and he evinced great infor the table. In his visits to the poor he incul- terest in the newly-formed institution at Buston, cated the advantages of temperance and cle: nli- in this county, which he considered to bare ness, and urged upon them the duty of improv-strong claims on public support.
'The subject of education claimed a large share ,ties, and to devise the best means of alleviation. of his regard ; and though his own convictions It is not our intention, however, to detail the arled him more particularly to promote the system rangements and plans of co-operation with Enof instruction advocated and adopted by the gland which were made by this committee to British and Foreign School Society, he watched carry out its benevolent objects. One of its most with interest every educational effort to elevate perplexing difficulties was the acquisition of the character and develop the intellectual capabi- trustworthy information as to the state of the lities of the rising generation.
more remote districts, and the selection of suitIn the winter of 1846–7, William Forster vi- able channels through which to distribute the sited Ireland under circumstances of peculiar in- means of relief. From this difficulty they were terest. In the summer of 1846, with a prospect relieved in a great measure by Mr. Forster, who, of an abundant harvest, the entire potato crop of under the impression that it was his duty to unthat country, with a few exceptions, was des- dertake a journey through the distressed distroyed in one week. The money value of the tricts, conferred with his friends in London on loss, including a deficient crop of oats, was com- the subject, and being encouraged by their apputed by the Government to amount to sixteen proving counsel, he started on his errand of millions sterling. The announcement of this mercy on the 30th of Nov. 1846.
He was acdreadful calamity did not produce at first the companied in different parts of his route by Enalarm which might reasonably have been expect- glish and Irish friends, with whom, to use the ed. The idea of millions being reduced to starva- words of the published narrative of the circumtion, was one not easy to be realised. Many stances," he visited the counties of Roscommon, hoped that the details of the calamity were exag- | Leitrim, Fermanagh, Donegal, Sligo, Mayo, gerated, and others who did not know the abso- Galway, Longford, and Cavan. Most of these lute dependence of the vast mass of the Irish counties were closely inspected, and especial atpopulation on the potato crop, did not believe the tention was paid to the wild and desolate parts consequences would be so direful as were appre- of each. It was not until the 14th of April, hended. Soon, however, doubts and hopes were 1817, that he completed this engagement; which dispelled. Proofs of impending famine fearfully had been prolonged greatly beyond the expectamultiplied. The appalling fact that the life of a tions at first entertained by himself and friends; nation trembled in the balance, soon became pa- and which he prosecuted in the depth of a very tent to all, and details of suffering and horror inclement winter, deprived of many of the comspeedily aroused a feeling of universal sympathy. forts to which he was accustomed, and his feelAll the resources of individual and national mu- ings often painfully excited by witnessing so nificence were speedily called into requisition. much misery beyond his power to relieve.” Relief associations were organised, large sums of In the execution of this arduous engagement, money were raised, and the whole machinery of which afforded full scope for philanthropic exerbenevolence was put in motion to relieve the dis- tions, Mr. Forster waited upon or saw almost tress of a famishing people. The Indian Relief every person of influence in the north-west of Fund, the Irish Relief Association, the General Ireland, and stimulated the upper classes in their Central Relief Association, and the British Relief exertions to relieve the distress which surroundAssociation, poured in the proceeds of their res- /ed them; he opened a correspondence with indipective organizations. Ladies, also, formed as- viduals and local bodies in the remote districts, sociations in different parts of Great Britain, and engaged many trustworthy agents for the some for supplying clothing, and some for pro- distribution of the funds confided to the commoting industrial occupations among the female mittee; he personally visited the abodes of the peasantry; and, before any committee was form- famishing, took the full guage of the existing ed, a large quantity of private contributions was wretchedness, and in cases where the exigency poured into every part of the country, chiefly appeared to demand it, undertook the immediate through the agency of the clergy of the Esta- distribution of relief by advances of money. blished Church.
The full value of his services in this sphere of Foremost, or at least prominent, in every en- labor can scarcely be calculated. He hardly alterprise of Christian benevolence, it was not to lowed himself sufficient time for rest and sleep; be expected that the Society of Friends would and no atmospheric influences, however inauspishrink from the fullest participation in this labor cious, were allowed to damp his ardor or relax of love. Towards the close of 1816, a meeting his exertions. Younger and more robust men of members of that body was convened in Dublin quailed before the amount of labor through. determine
pur- which his unflagging zeal sustained him; but sued in the painful emergency, and, after agree- there was little doubt that he overtaxed his ing to form a separate organization, a Central strength in the prosecution of his arduous though Relief Committee was appointed in the Irish self-imposed task. Ile was strongly and pecumetropolis to raise the needful funds by subscrip- liarly affected by the harrowing scenes which tions, to obtain authentio information respecting he was called to witness, and which far exceeded the character of the distress in different locali-Tin horror any which his imagination had pic
upon the course of action to be
and with the combined effect of grief on road, that his fellow travellers found it necessary his tender spirit, and excessive fatigue on his to stop at a road-side or ferry-house near the physical system, he returned to England, with a Holstein river. The attack was of an inflammaconstitution much debilitated by the severity of tory character, and, from the first, serious apthe exercises through which he had passed. It prehensions were entertained both by himself may be interesting to our readers to know that the and his companions as to the result; but the total amount of relief in money and food placed alarming symptoms had so far subsided at the at the disposal of the Central Committee of the end of the second week as to induce them to Society of Friends at Dublin, during the visita- make arrangements for moving on to Knoxville, tion of the famine, was nearly £200,000. The where more suitable accommodations could have supplies sent from America were on a scale of been procured. Before, however, this could be unparalleled liberality.
carried into effect, fever came on, which was folThe subject, however, which awakened Mr. lowed by stupor, and he quietly passed away on Forster's benevolent feelings, probably more the morning of the 27th of January, than any other, and from a very early age, was His mortal remains were interred in the that of slavery and the slave trade. Against the Friends' burying ground at Friendsville, and atrocities of the slave system, his spirit, as a man those who mourn his loss may take comfort in and Christian, revolted. He was an active mem- the assurance that, through the merits of the ber of the London Anti-Slavery Society, and Saviour he so faithfully followed, he has entered was ever ready at the call of duty to embark in his eternal rest. any enterprise which commended itself to his A gentle spirit has thus passed from among us, judgment to advance the interest of the slave. and one more of “the excellent of the earth” has It was on one of these errands of mercy to the escaped from its sorrows and pollutions. Simple, United States that he was arrested by the hand but conciliatory in his manners, he was enabled of death.
to accomplish very much in which men of larger In the year 1849, the Yearly Meeting of the pretensions would have failed. He was of a reFriends issued an address to the sovereigns and tiring disposition, averse to notoriety, and on that others in authority in Christian states, on the account, and not from any want of moral courage, subject of the slave trade and slavery. Mr. his voice was seldom heard at public meetings, Forster offered his services to be the bearer of even in support of subjects in which he was this address to the sovereigns of Continental Eu- warmly interested. An intimate attachment subrope, and, in furtherance of this object, he ob- sisted between him and Joseph John Gurnes, and tained interviews with the Kings of Belgium, in many respects they were kindred spirits
. We Prussia, Denmark, Sweden, &c., the Emperor of know not on whom the mantle of either may have Austria, the Queen of Spain, and the President fallen, but we scarcely expect to see the men who of the French Republic. ^ He remained for some will wear it with equal worthiness. Faithfully time in each place, obtaining interviews with did each of them serve his generation, and persons of influence, and circulating information calmly did the sun of life set on their departing connected with the object of his visits and other moments.-Lynn Commercial Gazette. matters of philanthropic interest. He was al. ways courteously received, and it is hoped that THE INDIAN STATISTICS OF TIIE UNITED STATES. his efforts to impress on the minds of the sovereigns of Europe the rights of humanity, were just published by order of Congress, is one show
Among the tables in the Census of 1850, as
, not without a salutary effect. In the summer of 1853, he undertook, in of the United States at three different periods,
ing the number of Indians within the territory company with his elder brother and two other viz.-in 1789, 1825, and 1853. The total numFriends delegated by the Yearly Meeting, to con- ber in 1789, was 76,000. In 1825, 129,306. In vey the address of the society to the American
1853, 400,764. continent. He had twice before visited the United States, and on the second occasion distribution for the two last periods, as derived
We subjoin the names of the tribes and the (though that was not the immediate object of his from the best authorities : journey,) he saw many of the leading senators of the Slave States and conversed with them on the subject of slavery. In prosecution of this last St. John's Indians, Maine 300 engagement, he left home in September, and in Passa maquoddies, do.
379 company with the other members of the Deputa- | Penobscot,
277 tion obtained interviews with the President, the Marshpee, Massachusetts, 320 Governors of most of the Slave States, and other Terring's lond,
10 persons of distinction, by all of whom he was well Martha's Vineyard, do.
310 received. On proceeding from Friendsville in Troy,
50 East Tennessee, where he had had some religious Narragansetts, Rhode Island,
420 service with the Friends residing there, he be- Mohegan, Connecticut,
300 came so unwell, when about eight miles on the 'Stonington, do.
Nanes of Tribes, and Location in
and all ages,
1,000 Senecas, New York,
1,300 Tuscaroras, do.
4,500 Oneidas, do.
978 Onondagas, do.
100 Stockbridges, do.
100,000 Brothertons, do.
Oregon and Washington Indians, 23,000
11,500 Nottoways, Virginia,
29,000 Wyandots, Ohio, 542 553 Indians of Missouri valley,
43,430 Shawnees, do.
Indians of the plains or Arkan-
20,000 Delawares, do.
80 Ottowas, do.
377 247 Wbole number of both sexes Wyandots, Michigan Territory, 37
129,366 400,764 Pottawatomies,
EDUCATION IN LOUISIANA.
The Louisiana State Superintendent of Schools
has recently visited all the districts of the State, Miamies and Eel River, Indiana, 1,073 766
and has published a long report on the state of Menomonees, Illinois, .
education. He says that, in several parts of do.
the State, the local directors, or school comSacs and Foxes, do.
6,400 2,373 Pottawatomies and Chippewas,
mittees, were found to be totally incapable of
performing the duty assigned them, "for the Indiana and Illinois, 3,900
, Creeks, Georgia and Alabama, 20,000 25,000 very potent reason that they themselves do not
know how to read or write." A large proportion Cherokees, Georgia, Alabama,
of the teachers' warrants contained the marks, Tennessee and North Carolina, 9,000 19,130
instead of the signatures, of the school comChoctaws, Mississippi and Ala
mittees. More than two-thirds of the members 21,000 17,000
of the school committees in several districts could Chiekasaws, Mississippi,
not sign their names.- - Massachusetts Spy. Seminoles, Florida,
5,000 3,000 Biloxi, Louisiana,
55 Apolashe, do.
WATER-BEAUTIFUL Pascagoulas, 121
There are many well known laws of matter, do.
which have the appearance of being divinely prodo.
vided for the benefit of man. Thus, by a very Caddies, do.
peculiar law, the rivers and fountains in our clido.
mate are prevented from freezing to any great do.
depth. The effect of heat upon bodies is to exdo.
pand, and cold to contract them. If this law Natchitoches, do.
was constant in its operations, in respect to water, do.
ice would commence to form at the bottom of Piankeshaws, do.
lakes, rivers, and brooks, then they would rapidly Delawares, Missouri,
1,800 1,132 freeze upwards and destroy every living thing Kickapoos,
2,200 475 therein. This is provided against by a peculiar do. 1,383
law. The water in our rivers and lakes, above do.
327 151 40 degrees, Fahr., when exposed to a greater dedo.
1,100 437 gree of cold, cools rapidly at its surface, which Osages, Arkansas Territory and
surface water is condensed and sinks. This proMissouri,
5,200 4,941 cess of surface cooling and sinking goes on rapidPiankeshaws, do.
207 100 ly until the whole water has been cooled to 40 Cherokees, Arkansas Territory, 0,000
deg. which is 8 deg. above the freezing point. Quapaws,
700 314 Below this temperature the chilled surface of
1,375 water, instead of condensing into less bulk, ac
55 tually expands (becomes lighter) and remains at Sioux,
8,000 the surface, and the cold is very imperfectly proChippewas,
8,500 pagated downwards. The surface in the end Stockbridges, Munsees, and Chris
freezes, and the ice may thicken, but at the depth tian Indians,
165' of a few feet below, the temperature is not under
40 deg., which is indeed high when compared Our friends will please to observe that the plan with that which we frequently experience in our was adopted in the early stages of this periodical, atmosphere during winter. If water in cooling of publishing the obituaries of none but those below 40 deg., obeyed the same law which it who were members of our religious Society, and does in cooling to that point, our rivers, streams fully or nearly grown to maturity. If notices of and lakos, would become masses of ice, upon children, not exceeding four or five years old, which our warm summer would make but little impression, and the cheerful climate which we
or persons not in membership, have ever apnow enjoy would be less comfortable than the peared in this paper, it must have been an frozen regions of the poles. Upon such delicate oversight. As this has been our rule, it is hoped and beautiful adjustments do the order and har- that no unfavorable construction will be put upon mony
of the universe depend. - Scientific the omission of such notice in any particular case. American.
Died,-At Easton, Maryland, on the 31st ult.,
Edith, relict of Dr. Thomas H. Dawson, in the PHILADELPHIA, FOURTH MONTH 15, 1834. 630 year of her age. This dear friend, with a
meek and quiet spirit, was concerned to maintain Notwithstanding the notices previously given of the doctrines and testimonies of our religious soour beloved friend William Forster, a space is al-ciety through much privation and trial. Her
heart and house were open to receive her friends. lotted in the present number to an account, con- She was a much loved and honored mother, and siderably more extended than any previous one, it has been her practice, since their meeting has of his labors and character, extracted from an been discontinued, to have her children (both English paper, which seems to show the estima- married and single) collected together at her tion in which he was held by those among whom in reading the Holy Scriptures, and in silent re
house, on First day morning, and spend an hour the greater part of his life was passed, and to tirement before the Lord. whom of course he was intimately known. This
At his residence in Queensbury, Warren may be considered as the testimony of his neigh-county, New York, on the 31st of First month bors and acquaintances, but it is presumable that last, William B. CARPENTER, in the 52d year of we shall be favored with a more ample and appro- his age, a member of Queensbury Monthly Meetpriate memorial of his life and gospel labors from ing. His sickness was a protracted one, which
he bore with Christian resignation, and quietly some department of the religious society to which
departed without a struggle, leaving a comfortahe belonged, and to the service of which he devoted ble hope that through adorable mercy he has so large a part of his time, and the energies of his been permitted to enter into that rest prepared for highly gifted mind. The life and labors of such a
the righteous. man, if correctly described, must furnish many
In Winslow, on the 22d of Twelfth instructive lessons to those who are striving to fol- month last, SARAH C. VARNEY, wife of Levi Varlow in the path which he trod. Whether we ney, and daughter of John Cartland, aged 41 view him as a minister of the gospel, as a dispen- friends have the consoling belief that her end
Although suddenly called away, her ser of charity to those who were suffering the pri- was peace. vations of famine, or as the advocate of the despised and down-trodden slave, well may we
At the same place, First month 8th, PHEBE
Nichols, daughter of Stephen Nichols, aged 26 anxiously enquire, upon whom has his mantle years. She bore a long illness with cheeriulness, fallen? or who is willing to take it up?
and died in peace. Piety Promoted.—This work is now printed CARTLAND, aged 78 years. He was seized with
At the same place, First month 24th, JOAN and will be ready for delivery after next week. Sub- paralysis, which deprived him of speech, but was scribers can then obtain their copies by applying to mercifully favored with his senses, and gave satisWilliam Evans, No. 134 South Front street, above factory evidence that he was ready and willing Dock street. Besides the eleven parts of Piety to meet the great change. The above-named Promoted heretofore published, this edition con- Monthly Meeting.
Friends were esteemed members of Vasselboro' tains a new Introduction and an Appendix, containing numerous narratives compiled from the Memorials published under the direction of Phi- BIBLE ASSOCIATION OF FRIENDS IN ladelphia Yearly Meeting, and from other sources,
AMERICA. making together about 180 pages of new matter. The stated Annual Meeting of the Bible Associa. The work is for sale at Friends' Book Store, No. tion of Friends in America, will be held at the 84 Arch street, price three dollars for a single Fourth month 15th, 1854, at 8 o'clock.
Committee-room. Arch st., on Seventh day evening, copy, or seven copies for eighteen dollars. It is
Friends generally, of both sexes, are invited to in four volumes, making together 1824 pages.
JOHN CARTER, Secrtary.