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a generation or two, transport the colored popu- jism, or philosophy, the fact is certain. Wha sation, of less than three and a half millions, to hope then remains that this unfortunate people the Western Coast of Africa ? Especially, as it can ever be Americanized, and constitute an inis a measure of public peace and safety ; public tegral part of the State ?' The conviction that justice ; public benevolence ; public honor and this is impossible, that they are politically disnational prosperity.
franchised, that they are to remain a degraded In conclusion, the Committee, has only to say, caste, has sunk into the depths of their hearts, that African Colonization is the offspring of quenching every noble aspiration, repressing Christian philanthropy. It is allied to no scheme every manly effort, and crushing their spirits to of wealth or power. Amoral necessity gave the earth. birth to the enterprise. The suffering and de- Your committee, in view of the facts before graded condition of the colored people in the city them, and in consideration of the civil and social of London, in 1787, moved the hearts of Wilber- disabilities to which the colored people of Pennforce, and others of kindred spirit, to devise sylvania are subjected, recommend an appropriameans for their relief and improvement, and the tion of two thousand dollars to the Pennsylvania colony of Sierra Leone was the result.
Colonization Society, to be drawn and expended The same beneficent spirit, seeking to melior- as provided for in the bill herewith reported-by ate the condition of the race in this country, but the committee. with a scope immeasurably broader, was led by the light of British example to the adoption of similar measures, and through the agency of the FRIENDS' SCHOOL, CAPE TOWN, SOUTH AFRICA, American Colonization Society, formed in 1816, Established 22d of Seventh Month, 1840. Liberia, the germ of an empire, sprang into life. The pioneers and founders of the enterprise,
In the second volume of the Review, some acbelieving that the separation of the races is es- count was given of the life and character of sential to the highest improvement of both, Richard Jennings, and of the school which was sought to secure a retreat, where the African established in 1840 at Cape Town, South Africa, might enjoy every right and franchise of an and conducted by Richard and Mary Jennings. American citizen, and in the free use of every native endowment, stand erect in the conscious In that account notice was taken of the decease, dignity of manhood, in the land of his ancestors, in 1848, of the former, and the continuance of freed from his present social inferiority and po- the school under the charge of bis widow and litical disfranchisement, with every incentive to their eldest daughter. In the London Friend manly effort and virtuous aspiration. A retreat has been found near the equator, the
for last month, we find the following account native home of the race, comprising a territory of of this seminary, showing its continuance to a twenty thousand square miles, admitting of in- recent date, under the same instructors; and of definite extension in the interior, as the exigen- the seeds of Christian instruction which it is cies of the people may require. From the hum. scattering among the rude inhabitants of Southblest beginnings formed of materials the most feeble and helpless, nursed by private charity,
ern Africa. exposed to aggression from every ruthless ma- Satisfactory accounts have been received from rauder, and protected only by Almighty love, Mary Jennings respecting the Cape Town School, Liberia has escaped the perils of her infancy: from which the following Report has been comShe has even the spirit to call herself a State, a piled. commonwealth, an independent republic, and the “In looking back on the past year, ani reproudest monarchies of Europe have enrolled her tracing the goodness of our Heavenly Father to among the nations. Schools and churches adorn us, we see that we have great cause for thankfulher towns and villages ; the atrocities of the ness, that we have been preserved in good health, slave trade have ceased within her borders ; thou- and strengthened to pursue our duties in the sands of the emancipated exult in the blessings school. We think, after all our trials and disof freedom, and astonished Africa beholds a new couragements, we see improvement in the children order of things inaugurated upon her shores. that encourages us to labor on. There are seve
Liberia invites the return of the exiled to the ral interesting children now in the school, who home of their ancestors, to share the blessings of we think are desirous and endeavor to do what is her free institutions and ennobling destiny, to be right, and to walk in the narrow path. Díay we rivalled only, we trust, by the Empire of the be assisted to direct them in that way. One
little boy and his sister, the children of Malays, To a country so inviting, is it not a wise and read out of their Bibles, to their father, mother, humane policy to direct the attention of the co- and sister, every evening. A little Africander,
, lored race in this State? It has been decided about eight years of age, whose mother cannot that here they can never rise to a social or po- read English, takes great delight in reading to litical equality. Call this prejudice, or patriot- her what he has heard in the school, and tries to
explain it to her, as I have done : he also hears
THE BIBLE IN RUSSIA AND TURKEY. his father, who is learning to read English. A girl also, an Africander, about eleven years old,
The following notice of the circulation of the reads her Bible much at home. At the annual Bible in Turkey, will probably be interesting to Tea Feast, we have generally seen some of their many readers of the Review, though it comes to mothers about the door; but this year, some of us accompanied with some reflections of a kind their fathers were there also, and seemed much pleased with what they saw 'and heard. There which the Editor has no disposition to encourage. are 132 children on the books; 97 of these are
In the House of Peers, on the 10th March, colored children. The parents of these, as well the Earl of Shaftesbury, moving for papers
furas those of the whites, are equally desirous for ther to illustrate the state of religious liberty their children to learn as much as they possibly among the Christians in Turkey, called attention
The average daily attendance is 90; 35 to the manifesto of the Emperor of Russia, charg. boys, and 55 girls."
ing England and France with siding with the The Scriptures are read in the school every enemies of Christianity.” Lord Shaftesbury remorning, and once a week all who can read are sented this imputation; and cited ample evidence
2 expected to repeat some portion, which they have to show, that of late years Turkey has done everycommitted to memory during the week. Those thing she can to advance, and Russia everything who understand the language, appear to feel an " to suppress” the progress of Protestant Chrisinterest in this part of their education. Fourteen tianity throughout the world. He wished the Bibles and six Testaments have been given to Russians well North of Archangel, and the Turks the children during the year, and eight small well East of the Euphrates; but, called on to Diamond Testaments have been purchased by the choose, be infinitely preferred Turkish to Russian First-day scholars, with their tickets.
dominion. Lord Shaftesbury also showed that Thirty-five of the children write on slates, and the Turks readily allow the Bible to circulate, twenty-five in books; those who are old enough, that there are sixty-five regular Protestant learn the elements of grammar, geography, and teachers in Turkey, and fourteen schools in Conarithmetic. Only eight could read when they stantinople alone, and that the only hindrance first came to school. Many of the girls sew to the free scope of every religious movement neatly. Thirteen attend the First-day morning comes from the Greek and Armenian clergy. In reading-meeting, and between thirty and forty Russia, on the contrary, religious associations are that in the afternoon. Twenty-four books out of not permitted; no Bible in Russia is allowed to the Library have been lent to the children, and circulate; there are two millions of Hebrews in thirteen to other parties, as well as a great num- Russia, but no Bible in Hebrew is allowed; and ber belonging to Mary Jennings, during the missions among the Tartars are not permitted. year. It is thought about forty attend a place Lord Shaftesbury showed, that as early as 1846, of worship regularly, but it is difficult to ascer- the Turkish Goverment stepped in between the tain this.
upper clergy of “the Orthodox [Greek) faith" In the Fourth Month of 1853, James Ecroyd and the Protestants, and shielded the latter from and his wife visited the school, being on their prosecutions by the former, as bad as any practised way from Natal to England. In one of his let- by Turk or Romanist. Had the Sultan restored, ters, James Ecroyd says : “We have called to as demanded by Russia, the “ status quo ab antisee the widow of Richard Jennings, at the school quo,” all the rights granted to the Protestant belonging to Friends. She has three daughters, Rayahs by the Sultan would have been swept from 16 to 18 years of age, who assist her in the away. school. The average attendance is from 80 to The Earl of Clarendon had no objection to 90 children; the principal part of them appear produce the papers. He thanked Lord Shaftesto be from six to ten years of age. They are bury for the statement he had made; which came composed of Malays, Europeans, Africanders, opportunely to allay doubts as to the character Hottentots, Creoles, Mozambique Negroes, &c., of the contest and to stamp it with its true charand have a very singular appearance; the long acter. Nothing had occurred so calpable as the shining black hair of the Malay, and swarthy attempt by Russia to give this war a religious complexion, contrast with the woolly hair of the character. He believed that the manifesto had Mozambique, and the fair skins of the English. called forth but a faint and feeble response among The premises are spacious, and, as far as I could the upper and middle classes in Russia, because judge, the school seems to be well conducted.' they did not feel that their religion wus in dan
Believing that this school continues to hold an ger. In Turkey there has been no outbreak of important place amongst the population of Cape Mahometan fanaticism ; but Russi Town, the kind assistance which has hitherto been among the Sultan's Greek subjects inciting been given, it is hoped will not be with held. them to revolt. Lord Clarendon read a despatch Subscriptions and donations for its support will from Lord Stratford, received only half an hour be thankfully received by Elizabeth Backhouse, before he came to the House, to the effect that Micklegate, York.”
"the firman for establishing Christian evidence
the human race.
on an equality with Musselman throughout the, in 1851 as in 1811 ; and it was noticed that
Lord Clarendon made a forcible statement of the to the North Seas and the same thing is true. A
objects of the war. After saying that they were recent writer says, that Russian civilization has
This destruction of fish must be uncalled for,
The natural supply having failed for want of
This we believe has for a
long time been done by the Chinese, who have Nature has everywhere provided food for man. even succeeded in crossing breeds, as with aniEvery element is full of life, and constantly pro- mals. The mode of operating is very simple. ducing that which goes to nourish and strengthen There are but two fishes that produce their young
In the waters perhaps more alive-the whale, and a new fish, of which Prof. abundantly than elsewhere and more easily to be Agassiz has some specimens discovered in Caliobtained, are the means of sustenance. Man fornia, in 1852. All others lay their
and takes to the water as to the land, he seeks food the male afterwards passes over, impregnating or as soon from the one as the other; and every giving life to the deposits. If, then, the fishes where in their own element, from the seas whose fail in one stream, they can be renewed by taking bottoms have never been reached by lead and the impregnated eggs from the stream where line, to the brooks that come pouring down the they are laid, to supply another. In this way mountains and leaping from the hills, do fishes fishes may be had in greater abundance than abound. Their names and species are almost where nature supplies them, and they may be endless, and their habits of life have never in grown to furnish the table of the proprietor, or many cases been discovered. It happens unfor- for sale, as sheep or pigs can be on land. This tunately, that our manner of dealing with the pisiculture or fish-raising has been extensively finny tribes tends greatly to their destruction, carried on of late in France, where it is expected almost before we know their value or the means they will yet supply much food to the poorer of their preservation and propagation. This has classes. The Dutch have also established fish been seen not alone with us, where they are so nurseries in the neighborhood of the Hague ; and fast disappearing from the rivers and streams-- the Scotch on the river Tay have made a salmon from the bays and seas,—the cod and its asso- nursery of 500,000 eggs, that are expected to ciates, the salmon, shad, pickerel, perch, and their hatch this spring. In other parts of Europe this fellows—but thus it has been all over the world, process goes on with hopes of success, and the as though they were given for a barbarous state, rivers and bays may yet be as of old.
a and disappeared as civilization advanced. They We notice that in New York and some other
have diminished in Great Britain and Ireland as sections of this country, they talk of trying in fast as with us, though they have passed one the experiment. It is worth the trial to return
statute upon another for hundreds of years, to the salmon to their old haunts, and to fill the prevent it. It is mentioned in Ireland, in the ponds and streams with trout and pickerel, as in
century, in the very places where they now other days. There would be not only the uncomplain of their impoverished condition, that equalled pleasure of taking the fish, but how they “ complain more often for bursting their agreeable to go to our little brooks and water nets with the over great-take of fish, than for privileges in the country, as we would to a poultry any want.” Now many of the fishings have there yard, to be furnished for our dinner. Fishes may been abandoned. So in Scotland. Upon the not only be naturalized, but civilized, so to speak, Tweed but one-fourth as many salmon were taken domesticated. Though they cannot be taught
much, having but a very small amount of brain, mentation, and the process of distillation merely and that less solid than warm-blooded animals- separates the alcohol from the other ingredients the shark's being but 1-2500 of his body, and which enter into the composition of the liquid. the tunny fish 1-37,400, while in man it is 1-25— By distillation the alcoholic poison is more con yet they “ remember the hand that feeds them,” | centrated, and thus rendered more active and and by the voice of the master become quite pernicious than before ; but this liquor, after being tame. Dr. Balch, of Amesbury, has a nursery, thus concentrated, may be diluted to any degree, where this may be seen ; and a few years ago, a little girl down on the South shore, had so over
and the intoxicating quality reduced to a level
with that of the fermented liquors. come their timid natures, that they would come in answer to the names she gave them and feed
At the time when Friends, in a Society capacity, from her hand. There have been many instances took up the subject of distilled spirituous liquors, of the kind, and hereafter it may be a common rum, using the word in a literal sense, was very
extensively, if not generally in use, little diluted"
and deemed almost indispensable on numerous There is no man so great but he
The injury to health and morals
may need the help and service, and stand in fear of which the free use of ardent spirits produced, the power and unkindness of the meanest of being clearly perceived by the more observant mortals.--- Seneca.
and reflecting class, a concern to procure a re
formation soon arose in the Society. ConspicuDishonest gain can never bestow contentment,
ous among the laborers in this cause, we find the and seldom descends to a remote heir.-Hunter the name of Anthony Benezet, who by means of
the pen and press, endeavored to diffuse a just FRIENDS' REVIEW.
sense of the evils of intemperance among his
cotemporaries. PHILADELPHIA, FIFTH MONTH 13, 1854. As was natural and judicious, Friends began
their attack on the most prominent points. They In the brief notice given in our thirty-third commenced with an effort to banish from their number, of the proceedings of our late Yearly tables, their workshops, and fields the distilled Meeting it is stated that fifty-four of our members article. Time and experience were required to were ascertained to use, to some extent, distilled establish the conclusion that stimulating liquors spirituous liquors as a drink, and that four others were not required in the performance of any of had given it for that purpose to their workmen. those labors in which ardent spirits had been When we consider the extent of that meeting, deemed essential. Hence the fermented liquors and the great variety of circumstances in which which had not been subjected to distillation our members are placed, the number thus desig. were tolerated, and even encouraged as a means nated as having given the influence of their ex-of excluding the more stimulating and pernicious ample to a dangerous and pernicious practice, species. may be regarded as the gleanings of a vineyard But the experience which proved that the when the vintage is done. We should naturally labors which had been supposed to require the consider the Society, at least within our Yearly aid of ardent spirits, could be as well if not hetMeeting, as nearly rid of intemperance; particu- ter performed without them, also proved that the larly as we have no intimation that any of these same labor could be performed without the use individuals had even approached the verge of in- of alcoholic liqours in any of their forms. Hence toxication.
the obvious conclusion, that intoxicating bererage An important inquiry still remains, whether of any species, is not necessary to sustain the the conquest over intemperance is actually as strength of the laboring man; and a fortiori not nearly accomplished as it may appear. The in- needful for men in health whatever their employ. vestigation to which we are indebted for the
*I have some where seen it stated, that Admiral information referred to, was expressly limited to Vernon, when he commanded a fleet on the West distilled spirituous liquor. The remark of a witty India station, observing the injurious results author, who tells us that he uses the word rum to among the sailors, of drinking run in its unmixed designate the various species, because, though state, ordered their rations of liquor to be diluted
This the men disliked, and gave to the kinds are various, the effect is the same in this mixed ration a name which they had assigned them all, contains probably as much philosophy to their commander. He, it appears, wore a coat as wit. It is the alcoholic principle that pro- made of stuff called grogram, and not being duces the deleterious effects; and that is not the popular with the sailors
, they gave him, from luis
coat, product of distillation. The alcohol , or intoxicat-grog is said to have been fixed upon the mixture
Hence, the name
grog ing ingredient is developed by the vinous fer- of rum and water.
ment. But experience and science have proved
PIETY PROMOTED. that alcoholic beverage, whether distilled or not, Subscribers who reside within the limits of New is not only needless but actually pernicious to York Yearly Meeting, are informed that their the human system. The physical question being East Broadway, New York; from whom they can
copies will be forwarded to Dr. Stephen Wood, set at rest, the moral aspect of the case is left to be obtained during the week of the Yearly Meetclaim our undivided attention.
ing. Now we know that the fruits of intoxication are
Philada., Fifth month 13th, 1854. essentially the same, whatever the liquor which
HAVERFORD SCHOOL. produces it. We also know that the habitual
THE SUMMER TERM will commence on Fourth use of the less stimulating species, excites and sustains an appetite which is apt to become for admission may be addressed to Jonathan Rich
day the 10th of Fifth month next. Applications more imperious the longer it is indulged. To ards, Superintendent, at the School, or to what extent wine, porter, beer, &c., are used
CHARLES YARNALL, within the limits of our Yearly Meeting, is a point
Secretary of the Board of Managers,
3d mo. 25-tf. 39 Market. St. Philadelphia. upon which the investigation annually required, casts no light; and we may safely presume, that where used at all, they are used with moderation.
WANTED. But if the Society of Friends is to maintain the The committee having charge of Friends' Esposition which it long held, in relation to intoxi- tablishment among the Shawnee Indians, are de
sirous of employing two young men to labor on cating liquor, it appears reasonable to conclude the farm, (practical farmers are desirable.)that a further step must be taken in the road of They also want to engage a teacher in the School, reformation. We may justly and seriously inquire and a female to assist in the family; a middle whether our testimony against intemperance can
aged man and his wife for teacher and assistant
in the family would be preferable. Application be fully and consistently sustained, until the ban to be made to Simon Hadley, or John Hadley, Jr., of the Society shall have been extended over in- Sligo, Clinton County, Ohio, who will give any intoxicating beverages of every description. This formation necessary. Friends of good character, seems to be demanded by the progressive charac. and of religious experience are desirable. ter of the age. In the present state of the community, the exclusion of distilled liquors from our
MARRIED, -At Friends' Meeting, Spiceland, lips as a beverage, even if effectually accomplish- Henry county, Indiana, on the 26th of Fourth ed, though a good thing in itself, would leave the month, Ellwood Pleas to Sarah Ann, daughter work but imperfectly performed.
of Joseph and Rebecca Griffin; all members of Spiceland Monthly Meeting.
At Friends' Meeting House, in Moreau,
Saratoga county, N. Y., the 2d of Third month, FREE PRODUCE STORE, IN INDIANA.
CHARLES H. De Vol, son of Abner De Vol, to Ma
TILDA C., daughter of Lucius Carey, of the former We have learned by a letter recently received, place. that James and Alfred Johnson, father and son, have opened a Free Labor Store, at Richmond,
Died: -On the 12th of Twelfth month last, at Indiana, where they expect to keep as full an his residence, in Granville, Washington county, assortment of free labor goods and groceries, as, N. Y., EPHRAIM Potter, in the 48th year of his they can obtain in New York and Philadelphia. age: an esteemed member of Granville Monthly
Meeting. It is to be hoped that they will receive the patronage of the advocates of freedom, in the West, ville, Washington county, N. Y., NATHANIEL POT
On the 18th ult., at his residence, in Granwhether members of our Society or not.
TER, in the 87th year of his age; a highly esteemed elder of Granville Monthly Meeting of
Friends. Conciliating in his demeanor, prudent FRIENDS' MARRIAGE CERTIFICATES.
and consistent in conduct, a peace maker, and at
the same time the steady friend of good order Persons wishing Marriage Certificates, are in- and sound principles, he was both respected and formed that a handsome new copper-plate has citizens at large. Admonished by various sympbeen engraved, (to supply the place of the former toms of declining health, he seemed of latter years one, which was destroyed by fire,) in which conscious that the evening of his life had come, some improvements have been introduced in the and tranquilly looked to the glorious recom
pence of reward." arrangement of the blank spaces, &c. Copies can be had by applying to William J. Canby, No. in the 36th year of her age, Hannah C., wife of
In Belmont county, Ohio, on the 4th ult., 73 South Fourth Street, above Walnut, or to Wild William Briggs; a member of Flushing Monthly liam Macniven, No. 50 North Fouth Street.