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the orthoepy has but little changed, now that a thousand-greater than that of the city of New beautiful city covers their slopes and crowns York, in 1791. their summits, and the Dutch language is no ROCHESTER is emphatically a Child of the more heard. When settlements and farms in- Wilderness, only forty years of

age.

It is at the creased upon Long Island a ferry was established. First Fall of the Genesee, a few miles from A broad flat-boat for man and beast was provided, Lake Ontario, and upon the spot where, fifty and the rental of the privilege to navigate the years ago, Allen, a Tory of the Revolution, built channel was appropriated to the building of the a mill to supply the scattered settlers in the old City Hall in Wall Street, New York, where wilderness all over western New York. When Washington was inaugurated President of the public spirited and far-seeing men were making United States. A ferry house was built upon earnest endeavors to open highways from the the Brooklyn side, where the farmers ate and Hudson to the Lakes, and resolved, in 1807, to drank, and parties from New York went to erect a bridge over the Genesee River at the devour delicious fish, served in Epicurean style. First Fall, Enos Stone built a log-cabin there. Long years afterward the ferry house continued He cleared a few acres and planted corn, but the to be a solitary tenant of the soil, where now is wild beasts destroyed it. His chief enemy was so much life—so much of brick and mortar, a huge she-bear, who long bafiled his attempts to merchandise and confusion.

destroy her. Early in the autumn of 1811 his A friend of the writer, has given him, in a rifle bullet brought her from a tree, mortally letter recently written, a picture of Brooklyn as wounded, and he had but little trouble afterit appeared to him in boyhood. The house stood ward. upon the high bank, some thirty or forty feet In 1810, Micah Brooks, Hugh M'Nair, and above the water, and the road to the little ferry Matthew Warner, acted as State Commissioners wharf below was cut through the bank, where for laying out a road to connect the SusquehanFulton Street now terminates. At the bottom na with Lake Ontario; and a little later they of the bank, about one hundred and fifty yards were busy in surveying a route by which to conbelow the ferry house, was a large fresh water nect the turnpike at Canandaigua with the Misspring, from which almost every vessel that came sissippi Valley, through the Allegheny River. into the harbor procured a supply. To that when they were upon the site of Rochester, spring the friend alluded to went with a boat's they slept upon straw and bear skins in the only crew, in 1791, and filled casks with water, to house in the city, the log-cabin of Mr. Stone. supply their vessel anchored in the stream. Then Some of the fine old forest trees which they New York was a comparatively small city. The blozed on the route of their surveys, ara yet ship yards (foot of Catharine Street) were upon standing in the groves of Mount Hope Cemetery, its extremest verge; the City Hall Park was at Rochester, living monuments which speak of close by the green slopes that terminated in the the progressive spirit and energy of many of “ Fresh Water Pond,” where the Halls of Jus- those whose mortality slumbers beneath their tice now stand, and beyond were orchards and shadows. General Brooks was one of the earliest “milk farms," whose "bars" opened into the advocates, in public and private, of the Erie “Bowery road to Boston.”

Canal and other internal improvements; and in For twenty years longer, Brooklyn remained in 1816 he offered a resolution in Congress to inalmost an embryo state. Three churches were quire “as to the expediency of establishing a erected, but the worshippers were chiefly from post-route from the village of Canandaigua, by the adjacent farms. The ferry house, so long a way of the village of Rochester, to the village of solitaire, began to have a few companions, and Lewiston, &c. Nine years later he saw, not only some of the more progressive people aspired to post-roads and frequent mails there, but a great the dignity of villagers. But opposition to the artificial river, bearing upon its bosom the vast measure was strong and pertinacious, and it was soil-products of the West, and the manufactures not until 1816 that Brooklyn became an incorpo- and merchandise of the East, flowing over the rated village. It then received its vital spark. Genesee, near the original bridge. He lived Commerce expelled families from the lower wards ten years longer, and, at a public meeting in of the city of New York, and many sought plea- Rochester, then a city of almost twenty thousand sant residences over the water. Emigration thith inhabitants, he lifted up his voice earnestly in er became fashionable; steam succeeded horses favor of a great and immediate enlargement of in the propulsion of ferry boats; the village de that mighty artery of inland commerce. Since veloped strength, dignity, and beauty; put on then seventeen years have elapsed, and he still city airs, and in 1831 the whole little township lives, enjoying a ripe old age, and hoping not to of Brooklyn, with its kernel at the ferry house, close his eyes forever until the great work shall was incorporated a City. Since then (not twenty be accomplished. Hawley, Ellicott, Eddy, Watyears,) its progress has been wonderful. Wilson, and others of his associate-backwoodsmen liamsburg, Bedford, Flatbush, and Gowanus, are of New York, who inspired Clinton with the already hiding beneath the fringe of its mantle. idea and importance of such a work, and the Its population to-day is more than one hundred' zeal to use his private and official influence in

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prosecuting it to completion, have passed hamlet of 1813. In 1822, it began to feel the away. The cities and villages along the canal prospective advantages of the completion of the are their monu:nents, upon which à generous Erie Canal, which was to terminate there. It posterity will yet inscribe their names and epi- was incorporated a village that year, and in 1832, taphs.

twenty-one years ago, it was incorporated a city. Nathaniel Rochester, a patriot of the Revolu. Now it contains a population of about fifty thoution, became a resident of Western New York in sand. The marshes are drained and covered, 1810; and in 1812, in company with two others, and where, thirty-eight years ago the little Bafprocured from the Holland Land Cɔmpany a falo Creek wound its way into Lake Erie, along huadrel-acre lot, at the Falls, for a settlement the low banks which were covered with trees and to be called RTSHSSTER. The patriot became a shrubbery, long lines of wharves, with forests of resident of the village bearing his name in 1816, masts, and stately warehouses filled with merand lived there until his death, in 1831, when chandise and produce, now present themselves. the log-cabin of Mr. Stone was surrounded by a The aggregate of commercial operations, best permanent population of eleven thousand people. illustrates the growth of this modern Tyre upon In the very year when Rochester became joint the American Mediterranean Seas : proprietor of the wild tract, "inhabited only by In 1852, there arrived at the port of Buffalo, in usk-rats,” paran religious rites were celebrated, nine hundred and twenty-nine sailing vessels, where now is the centre of the city of Rɔchester. with an aggregate of one hundred and thirty-five There, in the winter of 1812 and '13, the Seneca thousand tons, and eight thousand eight hundred Indians were quartered upon the ground now and fifty-one men and boys, as crews. During traversed by a portion of St. Paul's Street; and the same period, a thousand and sixty-two sailin January, 1813, the “sacrifice of thanksgiving”ing vessels left the port, with the same average pis celebrated for five days. The life of a white amount of tonnage, and number of men and boys. dog was offered up at the door of the council. The value of imports was, in round numbers, house, while separate bands of men and women, thirty-five millions of dollars; and the amount ornamented with feathers and trinkets, each hold- of duties collected was about seventy thousand ing an ear of corn, danced around the council- dollars. This amount of imports is exclusive of fire! In 1812 the population of Rochester was the hundreds of thousands of dollars value in 15; in 1820 it was 1500; in 1830 it was earth-products and merchandise brought by ca11,000; in 1810, it was 20,000; and now (1853) nal-boats and railway-cars. During the year, six the number is about 40,000!

steamboats, nine propellers, and eight schooners, The little log flour-mill of Ebenezer Allen has were built at Buffalo; and four steam-boats, of passed away; but in its stead, there are now eighteen hundred tons burden each, one of six thenty-two large mills, with one hundred runs hundred and fifty tons, two propellers, four schoonof stone, capable of grinding more than twenty ers, a brig, and a steam-tug, were in process of thousand bushels of wheat daily. Flour is the construction. There are twenty-eight steamers, great staple product of Rochester; yet every thirty-one propellers, and one hundred and thirtyother kind of business incident to a numerous four sailing vessels, with an aggregate of fifty-six and thriving population, is flourishing there; and thousand five hundred and twenty-three tons, the future growth of the city will doubtless now owned at Buffalo. exbibit a result as wonderful as that of the During 1852 the value of exports from Buffalo, past.

by the Erie Canal, was twenty-one millions fortyBUFFALO is the Child of Traffic! It is at the nine thousand nine hundred and eight dollars, mouth of Buffalo Creek, at the outlet of a great producing eight hundred and two thousand eight chain of lakes whose waters, twenty miles below, hundred and six dollars, in tolls. The value of make the leap of Niagara. Buffalo was origin- imports by the same channel was forty-one milally laid out in 1801, by the Holland Land Com- lions eight hundred and ten thousand three pany, upon a bluff or terrace, and partly upon hundred and ninety-eight dollars. The whole the marshy ground between the high land and amount of productions delivered in Buffalo, by the creek. In 1813, it contained a few scattered the canal, during the year, was three hundred houses, but no signs of even a respectable village and thirty-seven thousand six hundred and twenty appeared in the horoscope of its future. It was tons.

It was tons. In these statements no account is made then made a military post, which invited a visit of the immense amount of property carried to from the British and Indians on the frontier, and taken from Buffalo, by the various express with whom our people were then at war. They companies. came in December, and laid every house in ashes, The future prospects of Buffalo are brilliant in but two. When peace came, and there seemed the extreme. Within the past year two new a probability of the opening of a water communi- lines of railway to the city have been completed, cation with the Hudson from that point, enter-namely, the New York City and the State Line; prising men, with the old inhabitants, began and three other lines are rapidly progressing toearnest efforts there; and in 1817, one hundred wards completion. houses had arisen from the ashes of the little Such, in brief, is the record of the birth and

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growth of three flourishing cities in the State of ous perusal of this valuable epistle, but the prací New York. Look westward of the Alleghanies, tice of appropriating a portion of time to religious and greater wonders meet the vision.Harper's retirement, either singly, or in such small comMonthly Magazine.

panies as circumstances may permit to convene.

The Society of Friends more than any other deASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATIONS IN PERSIA. nomination of Christians, have been taught to

At the sitting of the London Astronomical So- rely on the assurance that where outward circumciety, extracts were read of a letter to Sir John stances prevent the assembling of larger numbers, Herschel, from Mr. Stoddard, an American Mis- even two or three, if gathered in the Saviour's sionary versed in Astronomy.' The letter is dated name, will experience his presence to be among Oroomiah, Persia, October 29, 1852. Mr. Stod- them. And if even two or three cannot come todard begins with an account of the surprising gether in one place, there is nothing to exclude distinctness with which distant objects are seen the same consoling presence from the solitary in Persia. The snowy peak of Arrarat, he re-worshipper. lates, is just as bright and beautiful when two It would be well for those who have enjoyed hundred miles distant, as when we stand near its the advantage of an education among Friends, but base. Though accustomed to watch the heavens who have, either from choice or the force of cirin different parts of the world, he had never seen cumstances, been placed, in great measure beyond any thing like the splendor of a Persian sum- the pale of religious society and influence, often mer evening. “Were it not for the interference of the moon, we should have seventy-five nights to recur to the principles of their education, and in three summer months, superior for the

to remember that the divine law is not moulded

purpose of observation to the very finest nights or modified by climate or circumstances. which favor the Astronomer of the New World." It may be asserted, without forming invidious He distinguished the satellites of Jupiter and or uncharitable comparisons, that the standard of Saturn with the unassisted eye; deemed alto- morals which the profession of Friends tends to gether telescopic objects before.

support, is of a higher order than that which is

maintained by the world in general. If, then, the FRIENDS' REVIEW.

members or professors of our Society, when scat

tered, either singly or in small numbers, among PHILADELPHIA, TENTH MONTH 8, 1853. people of other professions, or of no religious pro

fession, maintain their principles, in life and conThe feeling address from our brethren in Eng- duct, their example can scarcely fail to exercise land to their members and others in Australia, a salutary influence on all around them. But in which has been kindly furnished, with some in- proportion as they abandon the practice to which troductory observations, by a valued correspondent, their profession, consistently supported, would is probably little less applicable to some of the lead, and adopt the language and habits of others, members of our Society on this side of the Atlan- that salutary influence must be diminished or lost. tic, than to those to whom it is specially directed. The declaration of our Lord to his disciples, "ye Besides those that are scattered over the extended are the salt of the earth,” is still emphatically regions on the upper waters of the Mississippi, true. But that salt, to preserve its savour, must be it is well known that a considerable number of kept free from adulterating mixtures. members of our Society, and other professors with us, have cast their lots, for a time at least, if not permanently, on the shores of the Pacific. Though From a letter recently received by a friend in a number of Friends, or professors, are located at this city, dated at Pyrmont on the fifth of last San Francisco or its vicinity, it is not known that month, we learn that our dear friends Eli and any meeting of Friends either for worship or dis- Sybil Jones have accomplished an interesting and cipline, has been established there. As those who edifying visit to the few under our name in Norare thus situated are unavoidably almost totally way. They left that country on the 16:h of Eighth cut off from the benefits and restraints of religious month, and on the 19th arrived at Minden, in communion, there is great danger of their losing | Germany. It is understood that the only meetings a proper sense of the importance and advantages of Friends in Germany are held at Minden and of regularly organized religious society.

Pyrmont, but at a village seven miles from the If, through the medium of this periodical, the former, a small company, of nine individuals, address of our English Friends should be pre- have been drawn to sit down together to wait on sented to any of our members or professors, in the Lord. Among these people, and the Friends California, or other remote localities, the Editor of Minden and Pyrmont, our above mentioned would affectionately recommend not only the seri- ) friends were engaged in the fulfilment of their

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gospel message. It appears that a visit to those | dear friend bore a painful illness of eight days professing with us in the south of France is con- with Christian fortitude, manifesting by his peacetemplated as a sequel to their labors in Germany. day time, and that he was ready to obey the call.

ful close that his day's work had been done in the

At her residence, in Brunswick, Maine, The present number contains the first of a series

on the 17th of 9th month, 1853, Eunice Jones, of essays on the culture and manufacture of flax, relict of Stephen Jones, in the eighty-eighth year to which the Editor would respectfully invite the of her age." An esteemed member and Elder of attention of the readers of the Reriew. It is ex

Durham Monthly Meeting. pected that the facts which appear in the first or early essays, will be fully corroborated by un

FRIENDS' ASYLUM. questionable statistics, before the series comes Wanted a Friend capable of keeping accounts, to a close.

making purchases and rendering general assisIt is well known that the use of cotton has be- tance, at Friends' Asylum. come so interwoven with our domestic arrange-ington, Superintendent, at the Institution near

Application may be made to Dr. J. H. Worthments, and into the commerce and manufactures Frankford. of Great Britain and America, that it is too late to disentangle the connection, unless a substitute

WEST TOWN SCHOOL. should be found. As a large part of the cotton

A Teacher is wanted in the Boys' Classical Dewhich supplies the markets and manufacturers of partment. Application may be made to either of the world, is produced by the labor of slaves, the undersigned. William Evans, Samuel Hilles, cotton may be justly regarded as one of the pil- Pennock Passmore, Thomas Evans, Samuel Bet

tle, Jr. lars which support the system of slavery. If flax,

Phila. 9th mo. 19th, 1853. the growth of temperate climates, should prove to be capable of superceding, either partially or

HAVERFORD SCHOOL. wholly, the demand for cotton, it may be reasonably hoped to contribute to the overthrow of a sys- month 12th. Applications for admission may be

The Winter Term will begin on Fourth day, 10th iem, which originated in violence and wrong, and addressed to Charles Yarnall, Secretary of the which, wherever tolerated, paralyzes the industry Board of Managers, No. 39 High Street, Philadel. and morals of the community.

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MARRIED, -At Westfield Meeting House, on

ENGLISH PUNCTUALITY. the 8th day of the 9th month, ZACHANIAH REESE to Luzena Cook; Jesse Baldwin, son of Isaac Bald. worth School, after the usual vacation, out of 291

It is stated that at the recent opening of Ackwin, to MARY JANE, daughter of John White; SAMUEL ROBERTS, son of Judah Roberts, to Rebec- children only eleven failed to attend on the day CA, daughter of Moses Coffin, deceased, all of appointed ; and of these all but three were known Westfield Monthly Meeting.

to be prevented by sickness. At Friends' Meeting House, Newberry, Clinton County, Ohio, on the 20th ult., Thomas

FLAX IN AMERICA, BRANSON to MARY JANE, daughter of Calvin Wasson.

With some observations on the history of its cuis -, At Friends' Meeting House, in Lagrange, ture and manufacture in other countries, and Duchess County, New York, on 5th day of 9th mo., WILLIAM ÖSBORN, of Quaker Hill, to CONTENT

their prospects in our own. W., daughter of the late Stephen Moore, of the

“ Inventress of the woof, fair Lina flings former place.

The flying shuttle through the dancing strings; At Friends' Meeting House, Highland,

Inlays the broidered west with flowery dyes;

Quick beat the reeds, the pedals fall and rise. Morgan County, Ind., on the 14th ult., BENJAMIN

Slow from the beam the lengths of warp unwind KIRBY to Asenath C. HADLEY.

And dance and nod the massy weights behind !-
On the same day and at the same place, Taught by her labors from the fertile soil,
Johx B. GRIFFITH to ASENATH Bowles, all of Immortal Isis clothed the banks of Nile.-
West Union Monthly Meeting.

And fair Arachne, with her rival loom,
Found undeserved a melancholy doom.

Dr. Darwin's Loves of the Plants." Canto. II. DIED,— At his residence at Haddonfield, New Within the last two or three years an extraorJersey, on the 25th ult., in the 67th year of his dinary degree of interest and attention appears ace, BLAKEY SHARPLESS, for many years a resident of this city, a valuable member of Haddonfield • In the 45th and 46th numbers of the last volume Monthly Meeting.

of the Review appeared an interesting article from the

“Connecticut Valley Farmer," on the Flax ManufacAt his residence in Highland county, ture; which, though containing some important statisOhio, on the 18th inst., in the seventy-ninth year tical errors, was on the whole well written, and calcuof his age, Isaac KENWORTHY, a worthy member lated to advance the object it had in view of drawing and Elder of Clearcreek Monthly Meeting. This attention to the general subject..

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to have been awakened in this country, from , some of the considerations which seem to him various causes, to the subject of the cultivation most important in reference to the flax question and manufacture of Flax.

in America; also to glance at the historical Whether this interest has been aroused by the facts of its progress in other countries; and to plausible but chimerical theories of the Chevalier furnish carefully prepared statistical tables of the Claussen, for the conversion of a fibre, grown and average profit of its cultivation and manufacture. prepared by nature in the precise state suitable One naturally feels considerable diffidence for spinning, into a tangled and irregular mass however, in discussing a subject of such deep wholly useless for any practical purpose; or whe- importance in all its bearings; not only in relather it is due to the sober convictions of a por- tion to the agricultural and commercial interests tion of our citizens that we were importing many of this country, but also to its hopeful prospect millions of dollars annually, of an article of which for the establishment of a great free staple, which we ought to be large annual exporters to the old may ultimately rival in its growth and manufacWorld; or whether both of these causes may ture, the cotton of our Southern States. have operated on the excited state of public feel- This difficulty is further increased by the iming at the North in reference to the question of possibility of obtaining any published or authoslavery, are matters of little consequence at pre- rized statistics on the subject. After a careful sent to discuss or determine.

search of the patent office reports for the year The last two considerations are undoubtedly 1850 for instance, the agricultural department of a serious and practical character. As to the of which fills a volume of 700 pages octavo, no visionary experiments of Claussen, which have useful information whatever was obtained. The been so widely published and circulated under word flax does not appear to occur in the whole the title of “Flax Cotton,” they may be passed range of elaborate sectional and State reports, or lightly and charitably over, for the sake of the recommendations; and the only table in which it general good they may have done in turning in- is included is full of such gross errors, and the creased attention to the culture of the raw mate- flax returns are so entirely confounded with those rial, in Ireland and this country. The old farmer of hemp, that the statistics are worse than useof the fable, who enjoined on his children with less. his last breath, the search for an imaginary trea- What is still more remarkable, in the valuable sure, buried somewhere on his plantation, did and standard work of Professor De Bow on the them no practical wrong. True, they never found “ Commercial Statistics of the Western and the hidden wealth in the precise shape they had Southern States,” comprising about 1700 octavo been led to anticipate. But the extraordinary pages of closely printed statistical information on overturning that the land received in their en-their local products and their general interests, thusiastic search, produced to them so runs the and brought down, in the last edition, to the fable—in increased crops for several years there- close of the year 1832, there is not a word of after, a much larger treasure than the old gentle- allusion in the text to the growth or manufacture man had promised them.

of flax
proper,

in America.* Perhaps it needed a like ambiguous and A passing table of the flax manufacture in brilliant announcement, to rouse up the dormant Great Britain occupies a few lines of the article enthusiasm of our countrymen to the importance “British Manufactures;” and the unfortunate of this great national question; which, when census returns of 1850, alluded to above, are turned into a practical and philosophical channel, may accomplish for our agricultural and commer- * Nothing else seems to have escaped the learned cial interests more than the Chevalier Claussen Professor. Accurate tables are given of wheat, barever predicted.

ley, oats, Indian corn, buckwheat,beans, peas, potatoes, It fell to the lot of the writer, during a visit hay, pea straw, wheat straw, oat straw, barley straw.

turnips, carrots, mangel wurzel, meadow hay, clover to Europe some years since, to examine with con- rye straw, and grasses of every description. Beeswax, siderable care the position and progress of the honey, silk cocoons, maple sugar and a hundred other cultivation and manufacture of 'flax, in those secondary items are treated of. countries whence we derive our principal supply (Pharmiurn Tenax) which grows in swampy grounds

He devotes one page to the New Zealand hemp of linen fabrics. Since then, in conjunction and furnishes good material for cordage; and which with other parties, he has taken an active interest he thinks might be available for the swamps of the in the establishment of large works for the intro-south; but does not furnish a line on flax proper duction of the regular linen manufacture into (Linum usitatissimum). To enable the reader to apthis country. It may not therefore be presump- lines he devotes to ceriain products of the south, with

preciate the oversight, I have estimated the number of tuous in him to suppose that, in the course of advice for cultivation and use. Some of which are as these investigations, some facts of general interest follows: may have come under his observation, which Tobacco,

1000 lines. would repay the reader for a perusal, as well as

Silk, contribute to the information now so eagerly

Rice,

Sugar, sought for on this subject. He proposes there- Cotton,

15600 fore to present, in as brief a space as possible, Negroes,

18500

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