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war, we could get little more than what my is good reason to believe, that many of these younger brother and I procured from the forest persous were sincere-hearted, for some of them by our own labor; and not having been acous- who were not then members of our Society, aftomed to the use of the axe, we made out but terward joined in religious fellowship, and bepoorly. We struggled along through the winter, came united in bearing a Christian testimony and constantly attended Friends' meeting at against war, by patiently suffering the spoiling Peach Pond, which at that time was pretty large of their goods. When I consider that our meeton first-days; and before spring my father pur. ing was then mostly held in silence, and look at chased a farm and mills in the town now called the wide spreading of the Society in those parts Stanford, about forty-five miles from Ridgefield, and elsewhere, and the new meetings set up, I to which we commenced our removal as soon as am bound to say surely it is the Lord's doings the roads became settled.

and marvellous indeed. A few days before our family were ready to take I frequently listened to the disputes I have their departure, the British troops landed and mentioned and felt an interest in them, yet the burnt the stores collected by the Americans at impropriety of such engagements just before sitDanby, as well as the town, after which they ting down in meeting, appeared great; and alproceeded up the country within a few miles of though, through adorable mercy, all were not us, so that we were apprehensive of being pre- carried away from the fear of the Lord, yet there vented from following our goods, which had been is reason to apprehend that many were hurt by sent forward to our new residence. We staid them. It is but justice to the memory of my one day anxiously awaiting the approach of the father to say, that I never knew him to be presarmy, whose progress was marked by rapine and ent at any of them: he was a man of sound disbloodshed; but they took another road, and on cretion and exemplary in his conduct and conthe day following we arrived in safety at our versation, even before he was evidently brought proposed habitation. As this is a place in which under the government of religious feeling.

have seen much to admire, and passed through About the sixteenth year of my age I was many scenes, of a pleasing as well as peculiary again favored with serious impressions. My father painful nature, I purpose to record some of these had come forth in the ministry, and we began to in my simple style, that such of my descendants have the company of Friends who were travelling as survive me, may know how marvellously the in the service of the Gospel; and beholding the Lord hath dealt with me, both in mercy and in seriousness of their demeanor and the sacrifices judgment.

they made in these acts of dedication to the cause In the fourth month, 1777, I arrived with of religion, together with the great sufferings of my father's family at Stanford. The country Friends, by reason of rapacious men who disthen presented a wild and uncultivated appear- trained their property, because they would not ance, only a small part of the land in the neigh. violate their peaceable testimony, my heart was boorhod being cleared, and many of the fields en- deeply affected. I thought of what I had read closed with the logs which had been cut off of when a child, of the sufferings of Friends in the them. There were but two families of Friends beginning, and my judgment was convinced that near us, viz: Benjamin Hoag and Paul Hoag those who stood faithful now, were upon the same from New England, and most of the other inbab- foundation ; and that wars and fightings were in itants were of the rougher sort. A small meet- opposition to the precepts of the Gospel, which ing of Friends was held about four miles from us teach us to do unto others as we would have

in a log house belonging to Paul Upton, who others do to us. I now lost that martial spirit with his wife Phebe Upton have been valuable which had so much actuated me at the commencemembers of our Society from their first settlement of the war-my love for Friends increased, ment here, and were truly as a nursing father and I delighted to go to meetings. Several young and nursing mother to many who have been Friends had lately come forth in the ministry in brought forth in religious services. I can bear a lively manner, and others who were more expetestimony to their worth from the fresh remem-rienced, travelling to and fro in that work-we brance of their pious and affectionate care over often had their company at our meetings, and me, kindly, though prudently noticing me in my large numbers of people not of our Society attend. first coming forth in the ministry. The meeting ed them, and the work of Truth prospered. was often attended by a number of raw, rustic Some who had been oppressors of Friends, and looking people, most of whom were not Friends; others who had been of bad conduct, became seand they would often gather together near the rious, joined the Society and continued to be usehouse, before the meeting time, and engage in dis- ful members. putes about the war, sometimes with bigh words In taking a retrospective view of my past life, and angry looks; but when the appointed hour I saw that I had lost ground, and bewailed mycame, Phebe Upton would come to the door and in- self as one astray in a waste howling wilderness form them; upon which all controversy would cease, -I was afraid to be alone, or in the company of and the company sit down with apparent rever- good people, for I thought they could discern ence to wait upon the Father of mercics. There I my situation and would reprove me; and indeed

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« Paid seven

their very looks seemed to administer reproof to Memoir of MARY Knott, of Dublin, Ireland, me.

So sensible was I of the loss I had sustain- who died on the 13th of Second month, 1853, ed, that I was ready to conclude I should never aged 69 years. obtain forgiveness ; but in process of time I felt

(Concluded from page 581.) a secret hope raised in my soul, that, like the Twelfth month 26th, 1839. prodigal, I should be received into favor, for visits to-day, to the poor, sick, or afflicted; one which I was very thankful, and a belief arose in in particular, left a pleasing impression on my my heart, that one day I should bear a public mind. The exercise of the sympathies of our testimony to the goodness of Israel's Shepherd, nature brings a pure and unalloyed pleasure unwho careth for the lost sheep. My love to my known to those who float down the stream of friends increased greatly, and I delighted to be time, thoughtlessly indulging in selfish gratificain their company, although the natural diffidence tion, as though they were to live for themselves. of position prevented me from entering into con- Visiting the abodes of poverty is calculated to versation, and I rarely spoke, except to answer a raise feelings of gratitude to the Author of all question or to deliver a message ; and I often ad- good, and ought to cause us to number our blessmire at the confidence of some of the young peo- ings. I desire in sincerity to exclaim, "What ple, when I observe their forwardness and wish shall I render unto the Lord for all his benefits ?" to take the lead in conversation. My mind was First month 15th, 1848. "I desire that the often filled with the love of God, which over- ploughshare of affliction which, in mercy, has flowed toward my fellow creatures, so that it been sent to break up the fallow ground of my seemed as if I could lift up my voice like a trum- heart, may do its work, and bring me into more pet, to declare unto others the goodness of the resignation of mind to the dispensations of ProLord, and invite them to come and partake there- vidence who doth not willingly afflict the chilof.

dren of men. He makes use of inward or outWhilst under the preparing hand for the min. ward trials, and at times both, to draw us from istry of the Gospel, I was preserved from running the things of time, and to prepare the mind for before I was sent, and from giving to others what the reception of His Holy Spirit. 0! for an was designed as food for my own soul to live upon, increase of faith and patience !" which it is to be feared some have done to their First month 21st, 1849. “ Yesterday forty own great hurt, compassing themselves about years I became a wife; and now, in taking a with sparks of their own kindling, and in the end view of my married life to the present time, have had to lie down in sorrow. Such do not have to acknowledge that I have largely partaprofit the people, but run into disorder and cause ken of the mercies of the Most High. He has confusion. God is a God of order, and leads out seen meet also to administer the bread of adverof all confusion and mixture, into beautiful or sity and the water of affliction, and I can experder and harmony, so that bis church becomes imentally acknowledge that all things here be“ as a city set upon a hill, which cannot be hid.” low bear the stamp of uncertainty. Even the

The revolutionary war continuing, the suffer- fairest gourd may be blighted.” ings of Friends greatly increased. They were Eleventh month 7th, 1852.

« This day stripped of nearly all their personal property, and sixty-nine years I became an inhabitant of this sometimes where they had large herds of cattle, world, and the awful query arises, have I been the last cow was driven away. But even wicked living to myself, or to the glory of my great Cremen respect consistency; and those who suffered ator: has every succeeding anniversary found most were such as had indulged too freely in po- me increasingly anxious about the things that litical disputes and conversation, while the op- belong to my salvation ? Within the last

year, pressors were evidently more favorable toward two of my beloved sisters have been called from those who meddled not with the prevailing con- this world of shadows ; and I undoubtedly tentions, but patiently and quietly suffered as believe their ransomed spirits are now, through the peaceable followers of Him, who said, “My redeeming love, enjoying the fruition of joy unkingdom is not of this world.” The collectors speakable and full of glory." would frequently go away without taking any- During the last year of her life, our dear thing from such ; and when compelled to distrain, friend was engaged, as far as her strength adthey manifested much reluctance.

mitted, in making such arrangements, in regard

to outward matters, as appeared likely to pro(To be continued.]

mote the accommodation and comfort of her

dear husband, like a person preparing for a jourIndustry is certainly very commendable, and ney. The decease of two beloved sisters, of supplies the want of parts.

whom brief memorials appeared in the last AnPatience and diligence, like faith, remove nual Monitor, had impressed her with the necesmountains.

sity of being also ready. Her accounts connecNever give out while there is hope; but hope ted with benevolent objects, were all settled; not beyond reason; for that shows more desire and in connection with things of this kind, to than judgment.

which much of her time and talents had been

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devoted, it may be stated, that in her inter- “A circumstance once occurred which brought course with others, she was concerned always to me into deep mental conflict, in consequence of uphold, in their integrity, the Christian princi- wishing to do what I believed was required of ples and testimonies of our religious Society. me, and the fear of involving in trouble some

She never wholly recovered from the effects that I loved; I could have no peace unless I of the fall alluded to in the preceding memo- obeyed what I believed to be my Heavenly randa : and, during the last few years, her health Father's will. Oh! the depth of mental congradually declined. She was able to attend Alict that I had to pass through in the struggle meeting only two or three times in the course of between duty and love ; on bended knees I the last summer ; but whilst her soul was stayed begged my Heavenly Father to help me out of on God her Saviour, she enjoyed the company the difficulty, and in his mercy he was pleased of her friends, especially of those who, as min. to hear me, and brought me through and spoke isters of the gospel, visited her at her own home. peace to my soul. One of the last visits of this kind that she re- "O! the danger of circulating, or even received, and gratefully records in her memoranda, peating, anything that could injure the character was from a dear friend, Sybil Jones, from New of another. Our duty is first to mention it to England, and this appears to have been pecu- the individual of whom it is spoken, and never liarly blessed to her comfort and encouragement. afterwards to open our mouths on the subject to

As her end drew near, she seemed like a ser- another. vant in waiting for the coming of her Lord; and “O! that the precept of our divine Redeemer, during the last two days of her life, renewed "Whatsoever ye would that men should do to and striking evidence was afforded that she knew you, do ye even so unto them,' were more thoHim in whom she had believed, and was gra- roughly carried out by professing Christians, ciously sustained by the faith and hope of the than I fear is the case. Gospel.

“I am glad that my remaining strength alOn the 12th of the Second month, 1853, she lowed me to do this; it seems a relief to me. I took an affectionate leave of her husband, and of do not seem now to have any duty upperformed, two intimate friends, after which she was much to keep me here. I have no objection to this exhausted, but said, “What matter! I seem appearing in the Annual Monitor, because it is now to have done with all

, unless my brother or a precept I wish to impress upon all; but I parsister should come.” The latter arrived about ticularly desire that nothing may be inserted, five o'clock, P. M., to whom she said, “I am but what might be useful to others ! what may glad thou art come to see how comfortable I be deeply interesting to the relative circle, is not am, neither pain of body or of mind, nor any suf always instructive to the public." fering except my breathing.” “What signifies In the morning she was very weak, and said, any suffering with such a glorious prospect be- “If I am passing away, let me go quietly:fore me? The pearl-gate is open to receive my Come, Lord Jesus, and receive my spirit, for thou spirit. I see my Saviour's face, looking down hast redeemed me! I must wait my appointed upon me and saying, 'Thy sins are forgiven,- time." thy iniquity is pardoned. It is not for anything About nine o'clock, when the doctor came, that I have ever done; but for the sake of Je- she addressed him thus : “Doctor, I wished to sus : it is all of his free grace. Through life see thee once more before I enter into glory." my earnest prayer has been, that, if consistent After this, she expressed but little, and lay with the Almighty's will, I might not become mostly very still; her limbs had become cold, a burden to others, by out-living my faculties, and when the doctor came, about four o'clock, and this prayer has been fully answered; my she did not notice bim; ber pulse had nearly faculties are as clear and bright as ever they ceased, and those around did not expect to hear were. It is happy for those who have not the her voice again. To their surprise, when the burden of unfulfilled known duty; who feel love clock struck five, she asked, “Is that four or to all, and are at peace with the whole world; five ? the last two hours have seemed very long; this makes a death-bed easy; it is my state. Í I do not feel as if I were going from you just yet. àm too weak to hear the Bible read, but it is not In the course of the evening, she said she should needful, so many precious passages are contin- like to see the servant, (a Roman Catholic,) if ually passing through my mind. Give my love able, to take leave of her. She lay quiet for to all my friends,-to every one.”

awhile, and about eight o'clock said she could now During the night, she had great difficulty of see Biddy, whom she addressed in the following breathing for a short time; after reviving, she manner :said, “It is a great favor to be relieved; I “ Well, Biddy! I wished to see thee before I was going, but I have some muscular strength depart, to tell thee that during our short acquaintremaining; yet, from the state of my pulse, the ance I have felt a regard for thee. Thou hast end must be

After this, she dicta- been kind and attentive to me; and I hare deted the following paragraph on the subject of sired for thee that thou mayest acknowledge the detraction.

Lord in all thy ways, and, in faith, yield obedi.

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ence to all His commandments. If thou dost | in official stations. This necessarily involved so, He will guide thee by his counsel, and after. much expense, which fell heavily on himself. wards receive thee to glory.

The pamphlet contains several cases, striking“Dost thou think our Heavenly Father needs ly illustrative of the injurious effects produced the aid of a sinful man to forward the work of on the minds of prisoners, by their being comsalvation, which He has already finished in of- pelled either to admit their guilt, or to tell an fering up

his beloved Son, a propitiation for the untruth. sins of the whole world? And He hath also It is observed, “The most impressive sermons given us the invaluable records of the Holy may be preached to them, they may acknowledge Scriptures, which are able to make us wise unto their guilt, and be melted to tears by a review of salvation, through faith in our Lord and Saviour their past lives, and be almost persuaded to emJesus Christ. They likewise tell us, that no man brace the gospel; but all this is to no purpose, can save his brother, or give to God a ransom so long as they are determined to carry out their for his soul; and any one who says he can, is a natural desire to escape conviction and avoid blind leader of the blind, and awful will be his punishment, by availing themselves of the plea condemnation.

of 'not guilty. They feel that they cannot be “ Thou seest I have neither priest nor minis- Christians in sincerity and truth, and yet deny ter to prepare my soul to meet my Great Judge; their guilt. Alas! how serious a reflection is this but I have had the Minister of ministers with on our administration of penal justice ! that a me, and now behold his glorious face looking confession of guilt should involve the criminal in down in love and unmerited mercy upon me, danger, and prevent his availing himself of those surrounded by his holy angels, waiting to con- privileges and chances which by a falsehood may vey me to the celestial city in his own good be enjoyed. What discouragement to truth! time.

What a premium to falsehood! The number of “I wish thee, in all thy trials, on bended those pleading guilty is consequently small comknees, and at any other opportunity through the pared with those who pursue an opposite course; day, during thy working hours, to lift up thy but yet in nearly all those instances in which heart unto Him, that He may, strengthen and this line is adopted, it will be found to be so taenable thee to bear them, and to do thy duty; ken by individuals of the better class of offenders, if thou dost, He will not forsake thee in the and those whose career of vice has so effaced alí hour of extremity. Thou hast been very atten- sense of propriety and honesty; so that the evils tive to me, and I feel obliged to thee; and now of the system effect chiefly those who recommend bid thee farewell, and hope we shall meet in a themselves rather to favor than otherwise. better place.”

“I have not only found it to impede my useAt ten o'clock, when arrangements were being fulness among prisoners—not only to prevent made for the night, she said, “I am as willing their enjoying that peace of mind which follows to remain as you are to keep me; if the Lord from a full confession of sin before God, and a has any more work for me to do, he can give me

determination in his strength to avoid every strength.”. After taking a little water, and hav- transgression in future-not only to be the cause ing the pillow adjusted, she said, “I am very of much artifice among prisoners that have been comfortable.” These were her last words: a change of countenance was soon perceived, and real object of all punishments, the reformation of it was evident, at half-past ten, that all was over.

the criminal--but have known instances where The dismissal of the freed spirit was so gentle, it has endangered the liberty and life of the inthat those who watched beside the bed were not nocent and ignorant. In the eyes of a large class sensible of the moment when breathing ceased. of highly respectable persons it is considered to -Annual Monitor.

bring dishonor upon our judicial proceedings; it implies that verbal truth is of no consequence.

This system debases the sacred and exalted charThe Plea of "Not Guilty," or the evils arising acter of the judge, at least among the lower from the present mode of arraigning pris- classes of society; it stands opposed to all the

wise and enlightened measures in our jurispru“Putting awas lying, epeak every man truta with his neighbor." dence; and, moreover, it militates against the

Divine injunction, which says, "Let every man A few years since, a pamphlet bearing the speak truth with his neighbor.' above title, was published by W. C. Osborn,

W. Osborn, it seems, continues to take a deep Chaplain of Bath Gaol. It is an earnest and interest in the subject, and watches favorable luminous exposition of the inconsistency and im- opportunities of introducing it to the notice of morality of the system, which are greater than influential persons. There are many individuals could be imagined by those who have not given capable of giving efficient assistance to this cause, the subject much attention.

in various ways, who, perhaps, only require to W. Osborn engaged in an extensive corres- have their attention directed to it to induce them pondence, and communicated with many persons 'to do so.-Y.

London Friend.

oners.

CAPITAL PUNISHMENT UNLAWFUL.

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has done, save and except the single instance in The question is, whether the power over hu. which the Divine Ruler became the King of his man life attaches to civil government as of natu- people Israel. ral right? It relates not so much to the right of all prerogative and duty: Civil institutions

Relationship, we have said, is the foundation of man individually, as to the right of a regularly constituted government. Yet it is difficult originate in a conventional relation. The true to conceive how the legitimacy or illegitimacy of theory of civil government is, we apprehend

, any prerogative exercised by the State can be that which represents it as an expedient upon proved, without investigating the rights of each which men agree for the promotion of the genemember of the community. The State authority ral welfare, by placing certain individuals in the

relation of their representatives, and the execucan only be the aggregate of such right.

tors of their will. It is the creature of common It may be assumed, as an indisputable propo, consent, originated for certain definite objects. sition, that life is the gift of God. The fiat and It is to deal with the civil interests of a people

, power of the Almighty alone can lodge the ra- and these only. No combination of men can tional and immortal spirit in the material organi- consign to it any more extended or superior juzation which is to be the instrument of its mani.

risdiction. It embodies the aggregate of every festations under the present condition of being individual's right and authority in civil matters, It is this union of the spiritual and material that to protect and maintain them. we mean by the term life. It is the authority

As originating in human authority and resting violently to terminate this union of body and upon it, civil government is subject to certain soul that we deny as a prerogative of man, in limitations, not only in the kind of jurisdiction the sense of natural right.

exercised, but also in regard to the sort of sancIt might appear to be almost a self-evident tions or penalties to be employed in the mainteproposition, that that which God alone can give, nance of order, and the administration of civil he alone can have authority to take away, unless, justice. It has derived all its functions from the by express permission, he delegate this power; combination of individual men. As sustaining it is then indeed, to all intents and purposes, many of the natural and moral relationships of himself, and not man who does it.

human beings, its individual members and subEvery proper view of the constitution and rejects may have certain kinds of authority, and lationships of man will, we think, show the certain rights and duties, which they cannot power over life to be entirely unauthorized.

possibly transfer to their civil representatives We have already, more than once, insisted and rulers. But the right and authority to take upon the very strong presumptive proof that human life, they cannot consign to political gove man does not, either individually or collectively, ernments, simply because they do not possess it possess

this power, to be found in the fact, that themselves. No 'individual man possesses the from the beginning the Divine Being had made right over his own life; he cannot, therefore, reit matter of express direction. If such a power sign it into the hands of society-nature does had belonged to man, or to society, the Almighty not give it. The suicide, by the act of selfwould have left it unnoticed, like any other legis- destruction, invades the sovereign rights of the tive regulation which it was lawful for man to Most High. institute, until the establishment of the Jewish The mere circumstance of a number of men government, over which he himself directly pre-coming together, under a regular organization, sided.

for certain worldly objects cannot be considered Some theorists there are, who pretend to find to originate any prerogative which was not prea Divine authority for everything done by a viously and naturally possessed by each one of government. These parties, however, involve them, if they could, separately, have enforced or themselves in great embarrassment, when re-exercised it. A derived authority, like that of quired to reconcile the flagrant errors and out- government, cannot exceed that which resides in rages of legislation and government, with the its original.' If no man has power over his own ex-officio inspiration of legislators and magis- life, how is it probable, that he can have it over

that of another ? and this, too, merely as a right The Divine right of governments is a thing of civil reprisal; for no other sort of jurisdiction which its advocates have never yet been able is it competent to man to delegate as a citizen, even to explain, much less to vindicate. The or to exercise as a ruler. For the citizen to del. theory is not intelligible to themselves; they egate even a moral authority over himself, not cannot, therefore, define it to others. It is a to speak of the right over his life

, to the civil mere fiction, invented, it is to be feared, for any- governor, would be futile and absurd—it is, in thing rather than the honor of God, or the in- fact, impossible. But if it were even possible

, terests of a people. Civil government, like every it were, virtually and ostensibly, to attempt to other prudential expedient for promoting the withdraw himself from beneath the supreme Well-being of man, but not of immediate Divine and exclusive jurisdiction of the Moral Governor institution, rests on human authority, and ever of the world, and, therefore, profane. For the

trates.

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