« ΠροηγούμενηΣυνέχεια »
extracted from the Patent Office reports with all yield an average of 675 to 750 pounds; and their errors, and appear under the caption of with extraordinary care and cultivation it may "agriculture." As an instance of the absurdity be made to produce much more than this. The of this table, a return is given of seven million, value of the flax fibre depends altogether upon seven hundred and ninety-three thousand pounds the quality of the article, as determined by the of tax, for the state of Kentucky alone, which seed, the care in its cultivation, and above all appear to produce only seventy-five thousand the manner in which it has been prepared. The bushels of seed; while Ohio is reported as pro- average market value of Western flax, as at preducing only four hundred and forty-seven thou- sent prepared, is about 10 cts. per pound, the sand pounds of flax, and one hundred and eighty- poorest being worth about 6 cents, and that prenine thousand bushels of seed. By this it would pared in Wisconsin and some parts of New York appear that Kentucky produces less than one State having been sold as high as 16 cents per bushel of seed to every hundred pounds of pound. On the whole perhaps $200 per ton flax, and Ohio furnishes one bushel of seed might be taken as a fair average market price for to every two and a half pounds of flax; each the flax which reaches the eastern cities from the result being incorrect. The truth is that the West. The Riga flax laid down in an Amerihemp returns from Kentucky have been con- can port, with freight and duties may be estifused with the flax; and the flax returns from mated at present to be worth from $250 to $350 Ohio are very imperfect.
per ton, according to the quality. Irish flax Under these circumstances the only course would cost from $350 to $700; Belgium from by which to arrive at any proximate estimate $300 to $1000; and at Courtrai, and in the of the real extent of the flax crop in the environs of Tournay, Belgium, a very fine species United States, has been by personal investi- of flax is produced for the celebrated Brusgation and correspondence with well informed sels lace, which readily commands $1700 a ton, parties, in the districts where flax is mostly and could not be laid down in this country with Stown.
charges under $2250. This is grown with great From these investigations it appears that in care, the stalk being supported with branches of the States of Ohio, Kentucky, Indiana, Illinois, wood, from whence it derives its name (Lin Michigan, Wisconsin and Missouri, there have Ramé-sticked flax), and the subsequent manithis year been over two hundred thousand acres pulations are conducted with extraordinary nicety. of flax cultivated; of which Ohio alone has had It is estimated that one ton of this flax, when manueighty thousand acres; and that the object of factured into Brussels lace, is worth $300,000. tl.e grower has been almost exclusively the seed, which is in great demand in Dayton, Chicago tion of our country with regard to the production
Having thus hastily reviewed the present posiand other places for the purpose of crushing; of flas, which will be alluded to more carefully larve establishments existing in different parts of in a subsequent part of this article, let us glance the West, for the manufacture of linseed oil and at our position in reference to the consumption of oil cake.
the products of flax. The straw is generally esteemed of little value
By reference to the Treasury reports, Bureau and is frequently either thrown on the manure of Commerce and Navigation, for the year 1850, heap, or burned like brush to rid the farmer of a tolerable approximation may
be arrived at on its incumbrance. In other places rude attempts this point. It appears by these tables that we are made to convert it into a fibre suitable for imported in that year market; and in a few districts these endeavors have been attended with tolerable
and a fair article of flax fibre is sent forward to the
Of lax unmanufactured,
$176,197 00 “ linseed 602,094 pounds,
430,017 00 Eastern cities for disposal. But by far the
" linseed oil 2,818,314 gals. 1,632,811 00 greater part of the flax straw is entirely wasted; and can be bought at a merely nominal price;
“ linens bleached and unbleached 7,748,623 00 the seed paying the profit of the crop.
articles embroidered, 60,137 00 The fax being sown loosely for the seed; and little attention being paid to the proper prepara
thread and other manufaction of the ground for its reception, or to weeding
983,619 00 and cleaning it in its early growth, the amount of
$11,034,765 00 straw produced to an acre is comparatively small, not averaging over one or one and a quarter tons, Making in the declared value of the imports for while in Belgium and Ireland two and a quarter 1850, exclusive of twine, tow, netting, cordage and two and a-half tons are realized per acre. and other articles which hemp might have been Each ton of straw produces about 300 pounds of confused with, a total of over eleven millions of flax fibre suitable for heckling, so that an acre of dollars. ground in this country would average about 300 Now it is a well known consequence of an ad to 375 pounds product of flax fibre with proper valorem tariff, that manufacturers feel justified preparation, while in Belgium or Ireland it will in declaring the values of articles subject to duty,
at the lowest possible point in order to diminish | for the attention of American farmers and manuthe per centage of taxation. In many cases such facturers. The incubus of hand labor which has goods are entered by their agents at the mere so long hung over the whole subject, and which cost of labor and material. *
discouraged the prosperous yeomanry of our new It is believed that this system is carried out country from attempting to compete with the more extensively with linen fabrics than with over grown and down trodden peasantry of the almost any other article of import, owing to the old world, is now removed forever; and the power difficulty of detecting the differences of quality. spindle and power loom have placed, even in IreAnd there is abundant reason to believe that the land and Belgium, the spinning wheel and the item quoted at $7,748,623 (bleached and un- hand shuttle on the high shelf of traditionary bleached linens,) would be more nearly approxi- history. mated by the figures of $10,000,000.
The pulling and mowing machines of recent But assume the statistics of the table. It discovery, render it as practicable to gather the thus appears that the value of the goods in bond product of a prairie field of 1000 acres, as it used
$11,034,765 00 to be to secure by hand labor the product of one. Add for duties, freight, insur
The scutching, breaking, and heckling maance, charges and commis
chines now used in Great Britain perform their sions, 50 per cent.,
5,517,382 00 work more regularly and with far greater
rapidity than was formerly done by hand. The
$16,552,147 00 recent discoveries of Watt and Professor Wilso”, And we have as the wholesale market value, ex
that the guinmy substance around the fibres of clusive of profit to the dealer, the total sum of the plant, which has hitherto been supposed to sixteen millions five hundred and fifty thousand and difficult process of fermentation, is soluble in dollars. With the moderate profit of 10 per cent to the water at certain temperatures, will
, it is believed, jobber it is found that in the year 1850 the effect an entire revolution in the old method of wholesale dealers purchased in the eastern cities rotting fax, and even dispense with Schenck's for domostic consumption over eighteen millions more rapid system of hot water fermentation.
The of dollars value of an article which we throw
bleaching has been so greatly improved by away at home. The price of linens from 1848 chemical discorery, that very little grassing is to 1850 was unusually depressed, and the impor- required, and on common fabrics none at all. In tation lessened by that depression. It is believed
short the whole process, from the field to the that they average at the present time over 20 persive as the growth and manufacture of cotton
warehouse, is as simple and almost as inexpencent. higher than they did three
years ago; and that also from the natural increase of consump
while the average product is three times that of
cotton goods. tion, the extraordinary impulse given to trade by
Having thus given an outline of the general the unprecedented prosperity of the country, and
subject, the writer proposes to dispense for a while over in consequence of the rapid and steady ad- with statistics and figures, and to glance at the invance in price, the imports this year will be nearly in reference to the growth and manufacture of
teresting historical accounts which are accessibl2, twenty-five per cent. greater than in 1850. These flas in other countries, from the earliest ages of calculations are founded on careful examination of the subject, and will be approximately borne this branch of the subject, it is his intention to
the world. After devoting some attention to out by the census returns of 1853, when pub- return to the details of modern science as aplished.
Should this be the case, the declared value of plied to the various processes; and to attempt to linen goods thrè present year will be found to be prove, by undoubted authorities, the following in the neighborhood of eleven millions of dollars; propositions: and the real wholesale value of linen fabrics, likely to be remunerative to the American farmer
First, that there is no branch of industry more imported thread, linseed oil, flaxseed and other products of flax will be not far from twenty-five
than the growth of flax. million dollars.
Secondly, that there is no manufacture on the
same scale in the world which is more steadily This sum might just as well be paid to remunerate our own industry as that of Great profitable in all its departments than the linen
manufacture. Britain and Europe. There is no possible difficulty at present in any part of the
And thirdly, that no difficulty whatever exists in process
of the growth or manufacture of flax, which unfits it the prospect of establishing in the flax culture a
great northern staple, which may ulti.nately • In 1850, nearly all the foreign linens were con
rival our southern cotton in its cheapness, its signed to this country to regular agents. This year, usefulness, and its extent for home consumption owing to the demand for linens, they have nearly ali and for exportation.
ALPHA. been bought up directly by importers. See Lorulon Times, Sept. 7th, 1853.
(To be contini el.)
THE ATLANTIC BASIN.
quantity of cloud visible, and the direction of its
motion, was also to be the subject of daily obserFor some years past, the United States
vation. ernment, following the example set by the The arrangements for deep-sea soundings were governments of Europe, have been carrying on of the most complete description. Instead of topographical
, geological, astronomical, and ma- hempen line, 14,300 fathoms of iron-wire were rine surveys in and around their great country, provided, weighing 3025 pounds. Of this, 7000 the results of which have appeared in maps, fathoms were wound on an iron cylinder, fitted charts, and reports, highly creditable to all con- to a wooden framework, and having a fly-wheel cerned. The most important of all is perhaps and pinions, to facilitate the labor of hauling up. the “coast survey ;" for without an accurate With this apparatus, a sounding was taken in knowledge of the sea-board, the dangers of navi- lat. 31.59 north, long. 58-34 west, in which the gation are greatly multiplied. In the progress weight descended to 5700 fathoms—equal to of the work, it was found desirable to extend the 34,200 feet, or more than six miles; the time soundings to a greater distance from the shore occupied in the descent being one hour and a than had at first been contemplated ; and as in-half. The circumstances were eminently favorcreased knowledge brought wider views, the able—the sea perfectly calm; and as there had sanction of Congress was obtained for a project been no interruption in the sinking of the lead for running a line of soundings all across the when the wire broke, it was believed that even Atlantic, by which, among other results, it was then the greatest depth had not been reached. thought an idea would be gained of the form of “ There was no change of position during the the great ocean basin. The schooner Taney, sounding, as proved by the observations: the with competent officers and crew, was according- great weight and extent of the wire penetrating ly despatched on this novel service, the instruc- to such profound depths, seemed to serve as an tions being to ascertain the force and direction anchor to keep the little schooner steady." In of the wind, the hourly state of the weather, and this sort of work, it would appear that the rise all the meteorological conditions connected there- and fall of the ship is the great difficulty: even with, as thermal, dynamical, barometrical, and with a gentle heave the sounding-line is exthe like: the force and set of currents, their tremely liable to be broken, generally when be depth and width, their temperature, and the tween 1000 and 2000 fathoms have run out. prisition of their edges or limits : hourly observa- This is one of the deepest soundings on record. tions upon the temperature of the surface-water: That obtained by Sir James Ross in 1813, befrequent observations upon the temperature of tween Rio Janeiro and Ascension, when returnthe occan at various depths : deep-sea soundings: ing from his antarctic expedition, was 27,600 feet. vigias, (shoals), and all dangers about which But both are exceeded by that of Captain Denthere are doubts either as to existence or posi- ham, taken in October, 1852, when, between Rio tion : transparency and saltness, or the specific and the Cape of Good Hope, more than eight gravity of sea-water in the different parts of the miles of line were carried off the reel. ocean." The true set of currents was to be as- The observations made upon under-currents certained by determining the variation of the have led to the conclusion, that they are stronger compass three times a day; and during calms, than those of the surface; as only on two occacurrents were to be tried for by lowering boats sions were they found to be of less velocity than and sinking weights; and under-currents to be those flowing in a different direction above them. detected by sounding every thirty miles with 100 To test these currents, a large "chip log” leaded fathoms of line; and the “ limits and set” of so as to swim in a perpendicular position, was such currents, when discovered, were to be de- sunk to 126 fathoms, and the attached line made fined as accurately as possible. In the belt of fast to a “barrega,” (a small cask) to serve as a calms known as the “horse latitudes," the baro- float; and by the movement of the latter, the dimetrical observations were to be multiplied, and rection and rate of the underlying current could very particularly recorded, so as to test the value be seen. “It was wonderful, indeed,” says the of the supposition which gives an increased at- commander of the Taney, " to see this barrega mospheric pressure to those regions as one of the move off against wind and sea and surface-curconsequences of the trade-winds. The search rent, at the rate of over one knot an hour, as was for supposed shoals and dangers was not the least generally the case, and on one occasion as much important part of the service, since, if only as one and three-quarter knots. The men in the imaginary, their presence on the charts is a se- boats could not repress exclamations of surprise, rious and positive inconvenience, causing the for it really appeared as if some monster of the courses of vessels to be unnecessarily altered. Of deep had hold of the weight below, and such objects, eight were to be specially searched walking off with it.” The detection and meafor, among them the “False Bermudas ;” and it surement of these subınarine streams will do may be stated here, that not one of them was much towards adding to our knowledge of occan found, although deep soundings were taken in phenomena. They appear to lie at depths varythe localities assigned to them. And last, the 'ing from 50 to 100 fathoins ; and it has been
found possible, by careful contrivance, to mea-, documents. By this means, information is obsure their depth, independently of the water tained from the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian above and below them. What a view these facts Oceans; these being as yet the principal objects open of a vast circulatory system in the sea ! of investigation, from which wind, current, and
During the cruise, the Taney more than once track charts are constructed and published for crossed that part of the Atlantic known as the the use of mariners. Another series denotes the Mar de Sargasso ever since the days of Colum- trade-wind regions, including the calms and bus, and occupied by immense beds of floating the monsoons. The “tracks" have already been weed; but though a diligent look-out was kept, found eminently useful, vessels provided with the beds were not to be seen, nothing more being them having left the Atlantic ports and made visible than long lines of the weed lying parallel the voyage to San Francisco in a shorter time in the direction of the wind. “My frequent than ever before. The results shewed that, while examinations of this weed,” observes the com- American ships averaged 122 days, English ships mander, “ satisfy me that, wherever it may ori- took 167 days, French 182, and Dutch 190— ginally come from, it feeds and grows upon the facts which account for the
manifested waters of the sea, which is certainly not more by practical navigators to obtain possession of the strange than the plant which feeds upon the track-charts. air.”
In the construction of the various charts, each Besides the observations above mentioned, the five degrees of ocean are represented by engraved specific gravity of the water was noted at regular squares on the paper, within which concentric periods; and in the trials as to its transparency, circles show the direction of the wind; so that seventeen fathoms were found to be the limit, the direction in any part of the ocean for any the observers “ being able to see a large lead, month may be seen without difficulty. The painted white, at that depth.” The soundings number of times that the wind has varied and were taken
every 200 miles, on a line from New blown from any one of sixteen points of the comYork to the Canaries and Cape de Verds, both pass, and the number of calms, are also indicagoing and returning; and some interesting results ted.' “The object has been,” to quote the Obwere expected from an examination of the bottom servatory Report, “ to get at least one hundred over the volcanic region off Cape St. Roque, and observations for each month in every square of from thence to the mouth of the Amazon. But the ocean, which would require for the three the Taney proved too small and unseaworthy for great oceans 1,669,200 observations upon the the service in which she was employed ; and after direction of the winds alone.” For some regions, a cruise of nine months, it was found' necessary the observations are very numerous ; in others, to put back to New York in June, 1850. Since not one has been recorded, limited and that time, the Dolphin, a larger and more effi- marked are the commercial paths over the ocean, cient vessel, has been sent out; and on her re- according to the seasons.
Between the turn, we shall probably learn some definite par- route to and fro around Cape Horn, and the ticulars respecting the form of the basin in which routes around the Cape of Good Hope, there is a rolls the mighty Atlantic.
part of the ocean of immense extent that is selIn investigations of this nature, the more nu- dom traversed by any vessel.” Such regions merous the observations, the more trustworthy can hardly be explored without despatching veswill be the data founded on them; and to make sels for the special purpose. The charts already the inquiry as complete as possible, the ships of published, embrace the usual route from America the United States navy are each supplied with to Europe, and down south as far as the parallel from 15,000 to 20,000 fathoms of line, all care- of Rio; and it appears that ordinary navigators, fully measured and marked, so that deep-sea by studying then, may become as expert as the soundings may be taken on all favorable occa- most experienced "packet captains.” sions. A thirty-two pound shot is used as a Apart from the immediate practical interest sinking-weight; and whenever the trouble of haul- attaching to these returns, they have a high phiing up would be too great, the orders are to cut losophical value in their promise of clearing up the line after noting the quantity which has run what has so long been a profound subject of off the reel. Besides these, more than 1000 ves- speculation and inquiry—the mystery of the sels of the mercantile marine, acting under in- deep. And now that our own government are structions from the Washington Observatory, about to unite with the Americans in promoting are, while prosecuting their voyages, keeping a the great systematic survey, we may believe that record, three times a day, of winds, currents, the combined energies and resources of the two calms, rains, storms, thunder and lightning, fog, nations will, ere long, bring to light many new cloud, and drift, temperature of air and water, facts to help on their work. - Chambers' Elin. and all other noteworthy natural phenomena. As Jour. soon as any one of these vessels returns from her voyage, the log, or a copy, is sent to the Obser- We must not be concerned above the value of vatory, by assistants appointed at several of the the thing that engages us; nor raised above reaprincipal ports of the l'uited States to collect the son, in maintaining what we think reasonable.
REMOVING A RING FROM A YOUNG LADY's be three hundred years old, known by naturalists FINGER.
as the “Arbor Vitæ.” This portion of the bark, Dr. Castle, of this city, communicates to the Calaveras county, head of the St. Antonio, is no
which was brought by Mr. Alvin Adams, from Boston Medical and Surgical Journal, the fol- less than eighteen inches thick, its entire circumlowing ingenious method, devised by him, for ference being originally ninety-six feet. The extracting a young lady's finger from a ring entire height of this king of the forest, which which was too small for her. We give his story in his own language :
was felled in consequence of the ground being in “An interesting young lady about seventeen thickness thirty-two feet. Remaining parts of
litigation, was near three hundred feet, and its years of age had presented to her a gold ring, the bark will be brought and combined in secwhich she forced over the joints of her middle tions sufficiently large to form a circle of thirtyfinger. After a few minutes the finger commenced swelling, and the ring could not be re- cumference. This novel spectacle will be exhi.
one feet in diameter and ninety-one feet in cirmoved. The family physician, Dr. Was bited in the Crystal Palace, New York, and will sent for, but could do nothing. The family, and form, probably, one of the most noteworthy arti
, the young lady especially, were
now in the
cles to be seen in that great fair of the world. greatest consternation. A jeweller was sent for.
Baltimore Times. After many futile attempts to cut the ring with
In the 49th number of our last volume, a letcutting nippers, and to saw it apart with a fine saw, and bruising and lacerating the flesh, warm ter was introduced, containing a more particular fomentations and leeches were applied, but all description of this gigantic tree. This descripwithout affording the slightest benefit. Dr. tion, it will be observed, does not essentially difrequested my presence, with the compliment fer from that above given. The tree, however, that perhaps my mechanical ingenuity might suggest something. I at once proceeded to the appears to have been standing when the observahouse of the patient, and found the young lady tions were made on which the former description in a most deplorable state of mental agony, the was based; whereas it is now said to be felled. doctor embarrassed, and the family in high state It would be interesting to be informed by what of excitement. I procured some prepared chalk, and applied it between the ridges of the swollen process such a tree was prostrated. flesh, and all around the finger, and succeeded in drying the oozing and abiaded filesh ; then, with a narrow piece of soft linen, I succeeded in FORTY LINES ON FORTY THOUSAND EVILS. polishing the ring, by drawing it gently round
Genesis iv, 9, 10. the ring between the swollen parts. I then ap- Am I my brother's keeper ?” dost thou say, plied quick-silver to the surface of the ring. In With forty thousand wretched ones around; less than three minutes the ring was broken (by And in thy country's proud and boasting day, pressing it together) in four pieces, to the great
For scarce a tithe a fitting refuge found ! relief of all parties.
“ Am I my brother's keeper ?” Yes, thou art : “In a similar manner-without the chalk-I And canst thou doubt it, with such scenes in view? some time since extracted a small brass ring If thou hast God's love burning in thy heart, from the ear of a child, who, child-like, had in
Thou wilt not ask the question, but wilt do. serted it into the cavity of its ear. The opera- “ Am I my brother's keeper ?” cries the man tion was more painful and tedious—but was “ In purple cloth’d,” and with fine linen” gay, equally successful.
Spending on selfish ease whate'er he can, « The modus operandi. The quicksilver at
And jaring sumptuously from day to day. once permeates the metals, if clean, (with the “ Thou art thy brother's keeper”—Truth replies, exception of iron, steel, platina, and one or two Though faintly sounds her voice where lust huth others) and amalgamates with them. It imme- power; diately crystallizes and renders the metal as hard “I would have been,” will Conscience, in the skies,
All trembling answer, at the judgment hour. and as brittle as glass. Hence the ease with which metals amalgamated with quicksilver can "Am I my brother's keeper ?" Jisps the fair, be broken.”
Who decks her English form in robes of France, And wastes her gold on jewels for her hair,
Outlandish music and the foreign dance. THE MAMMOTH TREE OF CALIFORNIA. Thou art thy brother's keeper, and yet more, Those who wish to get an inkling of the mam- Thine be the task to give them of thy store,
Thy sister's also, desolate and said: moth, cloud-capped trees of California, will do
And kindly speak, and bid their hearts be glad. well to call at Adams & Co.'s Express establishment, beneath the office of the Times, and glance
“Am I my brother's keeper ?” proudly asks
The man of science poring o’er his books, at the huge mass of bark taken from one of while wrapt in study, musing o'er his tasks, these wonders of the forest, a cedar, supposed to De 'p into all things bui himselt he looks !