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constituents, namely: Schreibosite, of which there, evidently from some place where there is little are no natural specimens on earth.
or po oxygen. Now the moon has no atmosphere, ORIGIN OF METEORIC STONES.-It was long and no water on its surface, or we should find it supposed that these bodies were identified with out by its refracting power. There is no oxygen the shooting stars, but that error was of easy de- there then. Hurled from the moon, these bodies monstration. For in all the periodically return-1-these masses of almost pure
iron-would flame ing occasion of shooting stars, there is not a case in the sun like polished steel, and on reaching on record where the fall of a meteoric stone has our atmosphere would burn in its oxygen until accompanied them. Then we can obtain the ele- a black oxide coated it; and this we find to be vation of the shooting stars, and withcut difficul- the case with all our meteorites-the black color ty learn their velocity. They are often far be- is only an external covering. yond the circle of our atmosphere, and travel at Dr. Smith presented these views with much the rate of sixteen miles a second, while we know clearness, directness and earnestness. The room that nothing can revolve around the earth at a was crowded throughout the delivery, and swifter rate than five miles a second. Shooting nothing but an oppressive want of time prevent
a stars then are cosmic bodies, revolving around ed an interesting debate from .following it.the sun as a centre. They are self-luminous too. American and Gazette. But meteoric stones could not strike the earth in their fall, coming at the rate of sixteen miles a se
ATTRACTIONS OF CHRISTIANITY. cond, without producing very different impressions from what are recorded of their fall. Nor Not long since there occurred in the Polynecan these stones be self-luminous in our atmos- sian Islands a striking illustration of the attracphere. They are of heavy iron. They cannot tions which Christianity, as a pioneer of peace, be mere connections of nebulous matter, as some has for even the most benighted and barbarous. have maintained. They bave not the form that The inhabitants of one of the Marquesan Islands, nebulous matter would assume on condensing. being scourged by their bloody feuds, had heard Evidently, then, they are not identical with shoot a vague rumor of what it had done for the Sanding stars.
wich Islands; and one of their chiefs came in They are not of terrestrial origin. The num- person to beg for Christian teachers. They had ber of those who think that they are, is too limit- somehow got the idea, that Christianity would ed to require a set refutation of that theory. put a stop to the wars almost constantly waged
They are not of atmospheric origin, aggregated among the tribes of his nation, and hence his from different directions, hardened like hail, earnest desire to have its doctrines communicated though from different causes. Their form for- to them.”-Advocate of Peace. bids that suspicion. Whence then are they?
Dr. Smith evidently accepted the “lunar theory.” They were masses thrown off with great
SACRIFICE OF LIFE IN THE WAR OF 1793. force from the moon, revolving around that body In the Westminister Review for June, 1844, until in the great eccentricity of their orbits, were the following remarks in a review of Alithey fall within the circle of our atmosphere; son's History of Europe : "It appears from auonce within which, and with velocity greatly re-thentic documents which Mr. Alison has collecttarded, our earth becomes their centre. They ed, that from the commencement to the close of may be thrown out from the craters of volcanoes the revolutionary wars, the levies of soldiers in a long time ago, and been thousands of years re- France exceeded four millions, and that not less volving before their orbit brought them in con- than three millions of these, on the lowest calcu, tact with our sphere. Laplace and Cerago, who lations, perished in the field, the hospitals, and once held this theory, gave it up, but were com- the bivouac. If to these we add, as we unquespelled to do so or surrender another belief of tionably must, at least an equal number out of theirs, that they are identical with shooting stars. the ranks of their antagonists, it is clear that One twentieth of the surface of the moon is vol- not less than six millions of human beings perishcanic, and if the craters, as revealed by the tele- ed in warfare in the course of twenty years, in scope, are only in the usual proportion to the the very heart of civilised Europe, at the comheight and depth of the volcanoes, there need mencement of the nineteenth century of the be no doubt that they have sufficient ejecting Christian era. But even these stupendous numforce to hurl large masses of volcanic matter to bers give no adequate conception of the destrucimmense distances. Remember, beside, that the tion of human life directly consequent on the attracting power of the Moon is but one-sixth wars of the Revolution and the Empire. We that of the Earth, and that bodies thrown from must add the thousands, who perished from want, its surface experience in consequence but one-outrage, and exposure, and the hundreds of thoussixth the retarding force they would have when ands subsequently swept away by the ravages of thrown from the Earth's surface.
that pestilence which took its rise amid the reLook again at the constitution of the meteor- treat from Russia, and the crowded garrisons of ite,-made up principally of pure iron. It came the campaign of 1813, and for several years af
terwards desolated in succession every country, sionary Society has "expended $817,383, the
“ in Europe. And even when we have summed Bible Society, $41,500, and the Tract Society, up and laid before us in all the magnitude of $23,800; a total of $882,683 ; less than it costs figures, the appalling destruction of human life to build a line-of-battle-ship, and keep it in serhere exhibited, we can still only gather a faint vice a year.” There are in all christendom, and remote conception of the sufferings and the nearly, if not quite, three thousand war-ships; evils inflicted by the awful scourge. Death in and yet, a nation has been civilized and christianthe field is among the smallest of the miseries of|ized at an expense less than that of building one war; the burned villages, the devastated harvests, of these ships and keeping it in service a single the ruined commerce, the towns carried by as- year! All this by an average expenditure of sault, the feeble and the lovely massacred and less than $30,000, a year; while Christian Euoutraged, grief, despair, and desolation carried rope alone spends for war purposes in peace, into innumerable families; these are among the $1,000,000,000; more than thirty-three thoumore terrific visitations of military conflicts and sand times as much ! Will not Christians ponder the blackest of the crimes for which a fearful re- such facts ?-Advocate of Peace. tribution will be one day exacted at the hands of those who have provoked, originated, or com
JORN FREEMAN, AN ALLEGED FUGITIVE. pelled them.”– Herald of Peace.
page 40 of the current volume, an account
was given of the arrest, under the character of a COMPARATIVE COST OF WAR AND OF MISSIONS. fugitive slave, of a highly respectable colored The American Board of Foreign Missons
man named John Freeman, who resided at In
represent, in their last annual report, the Sandwich dianapolis. This man, notwithstanding ample Islands, where their missionary operations began security for his appearance was offered, was deabout thirty years ago, as now christianized. tained in jail at a heavy expense to himself,
A fourth part of the population are members, while his friends were in search of evidence to in regular standing, of Protestant churches. Not establish his freedom. Proof was at length obless than sixteen hundred new members were tained that the slave, in whose name Freeman added to these churches the past year. In the was arrested, was then residing in Canada. same period, $24,000 were contributed in these Freeman was therefore set at liberty, but the churches for the support and propagation of the expense incurred in procuring his liberation, apgospel. The language is reduced to writing, and pears to have been about $1500. We find by read by nearly a third part of the people. The the “Free Democrat,” published at Indianaposchools contain the great body of children and lis, on the 11th of last month, that a suit, instiyouth. The annual outlay for education, chiefly tuted by Freeman against the claimant, for by the government, exceeds $50,000. Nearly damages for false imprisonment, has been retwo hundred millions of pages have been issued cently decided in the Marion Circuit Court, by from the press in various works, making quite a the award of two thousand dollars and costs of respectable library, pre-eminent in which stands suit. the Bible. The first article of the constitution promulgated by the king and chiefs in 1840, de- THE COMPASS UNTRUE.-Public attention, clares that “all the laws of the island shall be in says the “ London Examiner,” has been again consistency with God's law." The laws and ad-drawn to another investigation instituted by the ministration of the government, since that time, Marine Board at Liverpool, into the conduct of have been as consistent with this profession, to Captain Noble, of the late Tayleur, which ended, say the least, as those of any other Christian like the previous investigation, in pronouncing government. Mr. Lee, the chief justice of the him entirely free from blame. He appears to Islands, in his report to the government, the have been a most skilful man; his ship was not present year, says, “In no part of the world, are short-handed, nor in any good degree ill found, life and property more safe than in these Islands. though she might not be quick in stays and might Murders, robberies and the higher class of felo- be long in wearing. He took every possiblenies are quite unknown here, and in city and at least customary-precaution with the comcountry, we retire to our sleep conscious of the passes : he examined them, he had the most skil. most entire security. The stranger may travel ful professional men to examine them, and the from one end of the group to the other, over Board endorse his explanation. Nevertheless mountains and through woods, sleeping in grass the compass is said to have been the real cause huts, unarmed, alone and unprotected, with any of the calamity. The “Times" adverts to a faet, amount of treasure on his person, and with a not now noticed for the first time, but most imtithe of the vigilance required in older and more portant: civilized countries, go unrobbed of a penny, and Here follows the extraordinary part of the unharmed in a hair. Where does the world af- report : “ This Board would call particular -atford a parallel of equal security ?”
tention to the fact that numerous instances have And how much has all this cost ? The Mis- I been brought under their consideration of com
passes having proved greatly in error on board of slaves, can be enforced by no milder means than
. Neither the principles from our statute book. of this important science, nor the details of prac
In the 4th volume of the Review, at pages 496 tice and of mechanical arrangements to provide and 536, a suggestion was offered, whether as a against deviation, are at all fixed. There can be matter of economy it would not be advisable to no reason for supposing that such irregularities purchase, at the expense of the United States, are confined to the Irish Channel. If there, no such slaves as make their escape from the South doubt the same things occur at other portions of and are found and identified in any of the free the earth's surface. The result can be stated in States. The enquiry was suggested by the case of a few words—the mariner's compass is a most Thomas Sims, whose recovery was said to involve uncertain guide. Cannot our scientific men sug- an expense of more than $22,000, of which about gest a remedy ?
$10,000 fell on the general government, and
nearly an equal sum on the city of Boston. Of FRIENDS' REVIEW.
the expense incurrred in the case of Burns, the PHILADELPHIA, SIXTH MONTH 10, 1854.
recent fugitive, it is not known that reliable
estimate has yet been made. Probably, when By a letter from Ireland we are informed, that the items come to be collected, the amount will the Yearly Meeting of Dublin was attended by
be more than double the expense of the Sims about five hundred Friends, including the men
But even this sum, large as it is, to be ap. and women. The meeting, which commenced plied to such a purpose, sinks into comparative on the first of last month, continued in session
insignificance when compared with the demoralifive days, and terminated without a jar in word
zing influence of such exhibitions as the court feeling. But no particulars respecting their pro- template an array of twelve hundred citizens of
house and streets of Boston presented. To con. ceedings have yet come to hand. We understand that our friends Eli and Sybil
our boasted model republic, furnished with the Jones, and their companions from Ireland, no.
instruments of slaughter, prepared at a moment's ticed in our last week's number, arrived at New warning to spread death and destruction among a York in the Asia on the 1st inst.
promiscuous assemblage of their fellow citizens,
whose offence arose primarily and principally In our last number notice was given of the ex
from their abhorrence of slavery, must be painful citement produced at Boston by the arrest of an
to any feeling mind. Boston certainly is not the alleged fugitive slave, who was said to have es- United States ought to enact, must be enforced af
place where such a law as the government of the caped from Alexandria, Virginia, and of the death the point of the bayonet. of a man in the contest.* On the 2d instant the Commissioner gave his decision in favor of the
But to revert to the pecuniary part of the quesclaimant, and the man was conveyed to a vessel tion, let us soberly enquire whether a plan emprepared to transport him to the region of slavery. bracing the liquidation by purchase of the claims So great was the excitement and manifested op
of the masters of fugitive slaves, is not worthy of position to the surrender of the fugitive, that he grave and earnest attention. was escorted to the boat by a military force said
Though the constitutionality of the acts of 1793 to amount to twelve hundred men. It appears
and 1850 for the reclamation of fugitive slaves is that $1,200 were at one time demanded for the at best extremely questionable, and the right of ransom of the slave, and that arrangements were
the masters to any compensation for the escape made for the payment, but the ransom was sub- of their alleged property, is, when tried by any sequently refused. It is understood that the indig- just moral standard, worse than nugatory, yet the nation manifested in the case was greatly in
force arrayed in support of such claims, and the creased by the passage of the Nebraska bill. If general acquiescence of the free States in such a the law of 1850, for the reclamation of fugitive construction of the federal Constitution, seem to
render hopeless any prospect of resisting those This man was at first reported to have been shot, claims by any other means than a compromise. but it appeared from further exnmination, that he was Now it is essential to a just and permanent com. stabbed.
promise that it should involve no dereliction of
principle; and in whatever light the possessors of the arrest of fugitive slaves is usually accomslaves may regard them, the great mass of the panied, would be totally prevented ; and the riot. citizens of the free States are unalterably convinc- ous efforts at rescue would be unknown. In short
, ed of the intrinsic injustice of slavery. Hence every the reclamation of fugitives from labor, would be law which supports the system, however, or by divested of its most repulsive characteristics, and whatever authority enacted, must be regarded by although the people of the free States might them as radically iniquitous. They may feel grumble a little at this mode of draining the treabound, as peaceable citizens, to submit to these sury, the hostile feelings, which seldom fail to be laws, but cannot be readily convinced that their aroused by every attempt to seize and carry off an active support is a duty. Indeed, the supposition alleged fugitive from labor, would no longer be that our duty requires an active support of an un. awakened into life. righteous law, involves the conclusion, little less If we estimate the relative advantages of this than blasphemous, that the Divine law may be plan, it may be readily perceived that those in superseded by human authority. Consequently favor of the North, are of a moral character, and a compromise to which the conscientious citizens those in favor of the South, are of a pecuniary naof the free States can cordially agree, must not in- ture. The peace of the North would be no longer volve the delivery into slavery of any one found disturbed by the outrageous seizure of innocent within their jurisdiction. Happily, the fulfilment persons, charged and chargeable with no crime, of the obligation imposed by the 4th article of the and the holders or claimants of eloping slaves constitution, if we regard the principle rather than would be more generally paid for them, than they the language, does not require the delivery of the now are, or ever can be under the present system. person. According to the vocabulary of slaveholders, the slave is property; and the escaping
MARRIED, -At Friends' Meeting, Macedon, N. slave, when found in a free State, is claimed as Y., on Sixth day, 26th ult., RICHARD R. MACOMBER, properly. If claimed as owing a debt of service, of Farmington, Ontario county, N. Y., to SARAH that debt must be susceptible of calculation in JANE, daughter of William Dean, of Macedon. dollars and cents; or if claimed, as the sugitive slave always is, as property, the value of that pro
DIED, -On the 12th ult., at her residence, Elm perty may be computed. If, then, in either case Grove, Henry county, Indiana, in the 30th year of the value is fully paid, the obligation is answered. Friend and member of Spiceland Monthly Meet
her age, A BIGAIL, wife of Isaac Gause, a beloved Jf, then, instead of the law of 1850, or that of ing. 1793, an act was passed providing that whenever
in this City on the 24th ult., SARAH JONES, a fugitive slave legally held in that condition, was a beloved member of Philadelphia Monthly found in a free State, and clearly identified, an es- Meeting, aged 71 years. timate by a proper tribunal, of his market value After a short and severe illness, at his reshould be made, and paid to the claimant out of sidence, in Marion county, Indiana, on the 10th the treasury of the Union, the spirit of the consti- of Fourth month, in the 82d year of his age, tutional compromise would be preserved. The Monthly Meeting. Having submitted to the yoke
JACOB CARSON, a beloved member of Fairfield treasury of the Union would probably be less of Christ in his youth, he was enabled to support, drained than by the cost of delivery under the through his long life, a course of conduct consisexisting law; the feelings of the people where the tent with his religious profession. fugitive was found, would not be agonized by the transaction, and the fugitive would be at liberty to
SLAVERY EXTENSION. enjoy such domestic comforts as he had collected around him. The minutiæ of the plan would be
In the National Era, of the 1st inst., we find easily managed; our business at present is to sug
the following article, said to be extracted from gest and advocate the principle.
the Southern Standard, published at Charleston, Under the system proposed, if the question of South Carolina. It is not easy to believe that the claim and identity of the fugitive should still any sane man of the present day can deliberbe confided to the same class of commissioners, ately propose such measures, as are here indithose officers would be placed in much more cated, with an expectation that the people of elevated positions than at present. They would the United States will consent not stand between a slave and his freedom, ready
so totally to to consignthe trembling and agonized victim to an
disregard the principles on which our governirritated master, but they would stand between the ment was ostensibly founded, as to engage the United States and the claimants of fugitive slaves
, energy and force of the Union in the establishto see that no claims were allowed which were ment and support of a system, against which not legally supported. The violence with which not only Christianity but common humanity
turns with abhorrence, and which the civilized , to Brazil as the next great slave power, and as
zon. Instead of courting England, we should ing Congress, and which have, in great measure, will come when a treaty of commerce and alliconstituted the business of that body, and the ance with Brazil will give us the control over success which seems to have attended those of the Gulf of Mexico and its border countries, to
ther with the Islands, and the consequence of forts, we can bave very little reason to expect this will place African slavery beyond the reach that the slaveholding interest will be satisfied of fanaticism, at home or abroad. These two with any thing less than the unquestioned as- great slave powers now hold more undeveloped cendency of that interest. Slavery and freedom territory than any other two governments, and being in their nature irreconcileably antagonisti- they ought to guard and strengthen their mutual cal, it remains for the people of the United'interests by acting together in strict harmony
and concert. States to decide which shall predominate. Shall Considering our rast resources and the mighty we leave the elevated ground on which our na-commerce that is about to expand upon the botion first took its stand, and instead of present som of the two countries, if we act together by ing to the admiration and imitation of the world treaty we can not only preserve domestic servitude, a model republic, labor to establish and perpetu- firmness and judgment, we can open up the Af.
but we can defy the power of the world. With ate a despotism more degrading than the powers rican slave emigration again, to people the noble on the south of the Mediterranean exbibit? Can region of of the tropics. We can boldly defend the freemen of this enlightened age and country this upon the most enlarged system of philan- .
thropy. It is far better for the wild races of be beguiled into the absurd attempt to give sta- Africa themselves. Look at the 3,000,000 in bility to a fabric, composed of materials as incon- the United States who have had the blessings, gruous in their nature as those which constituted not only of civilization but of Christianity. Can the feet of Nebuchadnezzar's image? It may any man pretend to say that they would have be hoped that the stone cut out of the mountain been better off in the barbarian state of their which has smitten the fabric of slavery, will get sappress, by force, this emigration, increased the
native wilderness; and has not the attempt to increase to fill up the earth, while the image it- horrors of the “middle passage” ten-fold ? The self, falling into dust, way become the sport of good old Las Casas, in 1519, was the first to adthe winds.
vise Spain to import Africans to her colonies, as
a substitute for the poor Indians, who from their But, however justly we may acknowledge and peculiar nature, were totally unsuited to bear the revere the all-directing hand in the destinies of labors of slavery. Experience has shown that dations, we are not to forget that improvements this scheme was founded in wise and Chris- . in civil society are promoted, and evils warded tian philanthropy. Millions of the black men, , off, by appropriate means. While means for the memory. The time is coming when we will boldly
yet unborn, will rise up to bless his benevolent extension and perpetuation of slavery are strenu- defend this emigration before the world. The ously applied, the advocates of justice and right hypocritical cant and whining morality of the have in their power the means to counteract latter-day saints will die away before the majesty them; and it is their imperative duty to use ductions, which are to spring from the cultiva.
of commerce, and the power of those vast prosuch efforts, to circumscribe the area and clip tion and full development of the mighty tropithe wings of this overbearing despotism, as cal regions in our own hemisphere. If it be Christianity and a sound policy shall dictate. mercy, to give the grain-growing sections of The article referred to, is as follows:
America to the poor and hungry of Europe,
why not open up the tropics to the poor Afri“A general rupture in Europe would force can? The one region is as eminently suited to upon us the undisputed sway of the Gulf of them as the other is to the white race. There Mexico and the West Indies, with all their rich is as much philanthropy in one as the other. and mighty productions. Guided by our genius We have been too long governed by psalm-sing. and enterprise, a new world would rise there, as ing schoolmasters from the North. It is time it did before under the genius of Columbus. to think for ourselves.
The folly commenced in With Cuba and St. Domingo, we could control our own government uniting with Great Britain the productions of the tropics, and, with them, to declare slave importation piracy. Piracy is a the commerce of the world, and with that the crime on the high seas, arising under the law of power of the world. Our true policy is to look nations, and it is as well defined by those laws