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as murder is at common law; and for two na-, the usefulness of our institution beyond its walls• tions to attempt to make that piracy which is We had expected that our school would have not so, under the law of nations, is an absurdity. attracted some pupils from a distance; but the You might as well declare it burglary, or arson, realization of this has as yet been prevented, or anything else. And we have ever since, by a chiefly, we believe, by the want of a suitable joint feet with Great Britain on the coast of Af- place for boarding young persons of color. rica, been struggling to enforce this miserable In addition to the usual course of instruction, blunder. The time will come, that all the as stated last year, arrangements were made by islands and regions suited to African slavery, the board with Edward Parrish, a very compebetween us and Brazil, will fall under the content lecturer, to deliver a series of lectures on trol of these two slave powers, in some shape or Chemistry during the winter months. Through other, either by treaty or actual possession of the his kindness and the interest felt by him in the one government or the other. And the states- objects of our Institute, the managers were enaman who closes his eyes to these results has but bled, at a very moderate expense, to give our a very small view of the great questions and in- scholars the opportunity of acquiring much valuterests that are looming up in the future. In a able information. The lectures were illustrated few years, there will be no investment for the by suitable apparatus and experiments, and were two hundred millions, in the annual increase of made very interesting by the clear and agreeable gold on a large scale, so profitable and so neces- manner of delivery. sary as the development and cultivation of the Those of the managers who were present can tropical regions, now slumbering in rank and bear witness to the intelligent attention and orwild luxuriance. If the slaveholding race in derly deportment of the audience, which consistthese States are but true to themselves, they ed not only of the pupils of the schools, but of have a great destiny before them.”

many of their parents and friends.

The study of Chemistry has since been pur

sued in the school with advantage. TO THE INSTITUTE FOR COLORED YOUTH.

A

very satisfactory semi-annual examination The Managers Report :

of the pupils of the high school was held in the That during the past year the schools in Lom- early part of the Second month. A number of bard Street have been conducted in a very inter- managers and a large company of the friends of esting and creditable manner by the same teach the scholars and of the institution were present. ers mentioned in our last report, viz., Charles L. The time allotted for the purpose, proved too Reason, principal of the High School, Grace A. short for recitation in all the branches taught, Maps, assistant teacher of the female depart. but those attended to were well performed. ment of the same, and Sarah M. Douglass, teach- The weekly examinations by the managers er of the primary school for girls.

have, however, afforded good opportunities for been so short a time in operation, that we made thoroughly testing the attainments of our classes.

At the date of our last report the latter school had At many of these, Friends interested in the inbut a brief allusion to it, but we are now pleased stitution have attended and questioned the boys to state our belief that, both in a moral and lit. closely, and have expressed themselves well saterary point of view, the teacher has exercised isfied with the appropriate answers given on va& salutary influence over the pupils and is very rious subjects. We have also had occasionally desirous to carry out the object of its establish- several visitors from the Southern States, who ment, to prepare the scholars for entering the were evidently much surprised at the progress of high school.

the pupils, and who very candidly expressed The great need of this preparation is continu- their satisfaction with it, although more or less ally manifest, those applying for admission being connected with that oppressive system which very deficient, particularly in arithmetic. Through would chain down all the nobler faculties of the her careful conscientious attention, several of her mind and repress all aspirations after the true scholars have been enabled recently to pass the dignity of manhood, for the low and selfish purexamination needful for admission to the high pose of making men instruments to acquire school, and we are informed by her reports that wealth and gratify ambition. there is commendable spirit on the part of most In the female department of the high school of the children to reach the required qualifica- there is also great improvement; several of the tion.

girls give evidence of talent, and will, we think We continue to maintain closely the standard by their diligent application and great interest, of attainment requisite for admission. This has in the pursuit of knowledge, be prepared, before limited the number of boys under the care of our long, to act as instructors of others. The exemprincipal, C. L. Reason, more than we hoped to plary deportment of their female teacher, and be the case, but we are confirmed in our belief the faithful, unassuming manner in which she that it operates favorably, by stimulating the performs the duties of her station, are very satpupils in other schools to more exertion to im- isfactory to the Board. prove and qualify themselves, thus extending An evening school for boys has been kept up

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the year,

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during the winter as heretofore, and was pretty Number of books loaned out during well attended. This was taught by our principal,

4210 Charles L. Reason. That he performed this Number of books loaned in reading service to the satisfaction of his scholars, was room,

1363 handsomely manifested by their delegating one of their number to present him with a valuable

Total,

5573 token of their regard, which was delivered with a very appropriate address, expressive of their Books remaining out,

215 sense of the value of his instruction.

Guarantees received,

389 The library and reading room continue to be well managed by our efficient superintendents called for, but very few persons have left with."

Many books not in the Library have been

. and librarians, James M. Bustill and wife. Or- out receiving instruction from those already proder and regularity are preserved, the books are

vided. well taken care of and extensively read. Many of the catalogues have been sold, and fines are the reading room,

There are now on the tables, for the use of collected when the rules are not complied with.

7 Nos. of The Builder. We have made some additions to the library

11

Civil Engineer and Architects' during the past year, chiefly periodicals selected

Journal. from the best publishers on mechanics, agricul

1 Practical Draughtsman, Book of ture and general literature; a few books of refer

Design. ence have also been added.

12

Journal of Franklin Institute. The Institution continues to be viewed very

3

Eclectic Magazine, for '54. favorably by the respectable and intelligent por

2

Greenough's Polytechnic Journal. tion of our colored population, and they are in

1 North British Review, for '54. creasingly disposed to avail themselves of its

2

Penn. Farm Journal, advantages, and by their example and advice to

1

London Quarterly. induce others to do the same. The number of pupils now on the register of the High School These have elicited a great deal of attention, is 37, of whoru 18 are males and 19 females. and have been highly valued. Their attendance is very regular

One of the most cheering scenes in the The pupils of the primary school number about Library is, the presence of a number of youth 30.

whose ages range fron nine to sixteen : these A report from the Librarian will accompany

children enjoy advantages never before within this. On behalf of the Board.

the

grasp of the colored youth of this metropoM. C. COPE,

lis. It is pleasant to witness the interest mani.

fested and the influence of this mode of mental Secretary pro tem.

and moral culture : pleasant to look into the

countenance of each as he pores over his volume, Librarian's Report to the Board of Managers : and endeavor to trace out the workings of his Esteemed Friends,

mind, the bent of his genius, and his future po

sition in the world. In presenting our first Annual Report, we Although the Library thus far may not have congratulate you that the anxiety, care, and ex- realized your expectations, we feel more than pense attending this Institution, have not been ever the force of the injunction “Cast thy bread in vain; though the location is felt to be a great upon the waters, for thou shalt find it after drawback upon its prosperity, many parents ob- many days." jecting to place their children in contact with

Respectfully submitted by the profanity and immorality that prevail here

JAMES N. BUSTILL AND WIFE. in great profusion.

Fifth
mo.,

1851.
A number of persons from other States have
visited the Library, who expressed themselves

CAPITAL PUNISHMENT UNLAWFUL. very much gratified with the beauty of the reom

(Continued from page 599.) and the liberality of the managers.

There are but two grounds on which the saA portion of the visiting committee have been credness of life can be maintained - either, Ist

, regular in attendance and have shown them- simply because it is human life; or, 2dly, beselves deeply interested in the library and read. cause the doctrine of its inviolability is necessary ing room.

for the prevention of murder, and, therefore, From the opening of the Library to Fourth essential to the general good. month 1st, 1854, cards of admission have been We may briefly examine the consistency and issued to 389 persons. The number of readers bearing of these respective grounds, in relation now using the Library is 345, of which 175 are to the practice of those who vindicate the judimales, and 170 females

cial destruction of life.

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First,—Then, if human life be absolutely sa- charging him from the custody and power of socred, simply because it is human life, this prin- ciety-it is, more properly, to send him into the ciple, by its most obvious application, would pre presence of God, to receive the ultimate punishsent an insuperable objection to the infliction of ment of his crime, as a moral offence, at that death for any crime, under any circumstances, higher tribunal. or by any authority. But to plead that life should As we shall afterwards have occasion to disbe taken to avenge the wilful destruction of it, prove the further assumption implied in this is just what we might expect from those who reasoning, viz., that to take the life of the crimihold that life is no more sacred than property,– Dal will tend to prevent murder, we here confor property is sacred, except under forfeiture, tent ourselves with simply denying the assertion. for the purpose of compensation.

We hold the absolute sacredness of human This would be to place the two things on pre- life, but contend, that so far from this implying cisely the same footing. This consequence of or demanding life for life, the practice violates their reasoning our opponents would not be will the principle, and defeats its own object. ing to accept; yet it follows inevitably from the The argument in favor of capital punishment, principle that life must be taken to avenge its founded on the nature of the crime of murder, destruction, and it is plainly inconsistent with so closely allied to that just considered, cannot the doctrine of its absolute sacredness. This be supported. No matter what be the nature of ground, then, it is clear, cannot be taken by the crime, when viewed in its whole character those who punish murder with death, if they and consequences, if, according to the general will maintain their present practice. We, how- principles laid down respecting the province of ever, may and do adopt it, with perfect consist the civil ruler, he can only undertake to punish ency.

crime as an aggression upon the civil rights of Secondly,- There remains only one other the community. God himself administers moral ground on which life can be held inviolable, viz., law—the magistrate may not contruvene its sancbecause the doctrine of its sacredness, as enforced tions-he may not enforce them. by capital punishment, is necessary to the pre- The nature of a crime may determine the vention of murder.

kind and degree of those punishments which This principle, we may remark, cannot be held man may legitimately employ, but it cannot give along with that which we have already noticed. the right to inflict such penalties as belong only The two are incompatible. The latter proceeds to a ruler sustaining the complex relationship of upon the surrender of the former. It is for our Creator and Moral Governor. opponents, therefore, to make choice of the one If this principle be a sound one, it entirely or the other, and take their stand upon that ex- destroys the argument founded on the nature of clusively. The second reason gives up the ab- the crime; and if it be admitted that the Jewish solute sacredness of life as such, and descends to code superseded that which went before, * this the lower ground of expediency.

argument must be given up on another ground, We must bear in mind the admission, that for the Mosaic law did not discriminate this crime individuals have no natural right to take life. from others, as the only offence to be punished The reason under consideration takes it for with death. granted, that the members of a civil community It may be proper to notice in this place ancan delegate to their ruler a power which they other argument, which has been deemed of some do not individually possess the right to exercise. consideration by the advocates of capital punish

We would deny this proposition, even if the ment. It is argued that the act of inflicting jurisdiction proposed to be given to the civil death, as a punishment, cannot be morally wrong, ruler related to only some of those social con- since God himself has, more than once, ordained cerns in which its exercise would not affect the it by express injunction. eristence of man. But we most emphatically It will not require any lengthened observadeny the assumption, that the right to take away tions to show the futility of this plea, as a warlife-an act which, in its exercise and conse- rant for capital punishment, in the absence of a quences, reaches into the exclusive province of Divine permission. It clearly involves a twothe Creator and Moral Governor of man-can fold assumption :-1st, That man may exercise be given by any assemblage of individuals to a the same prerogative over the life of his fellowfellow-creature. It appears almost indisputable man as the Creator himself; and 2d, that men that no single man, nor any number of men, in may act towards each other, in the social relawhatever capacity, can have a right to put an tions of life, under the Christian, as they did end to the moral probation of a fellow-creature under the Mosaic dispensation. before God. The civil ruler cannot derive au

* In a preceding chapier of the volume from which thority to do this from the fact of its perpetra- this article is extracted, the author examines the pastion by the murderer.

sage in Genesis, chap. ix. ver. 5, 6, and arrives at the To put a man to instantaneous death is not, command to punish murder with death. This he re

eonclusion that the declaration to Noah contained a in a strictly civil respect, so much to punish him, gards as merged in the Mosaic law, and totally superas to put him beyond civil punishment, by dis- ' seded by the Chris:ian dispensation.

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be sufficient to remark, respecting the authority, because beyond his legitimate prerofirst of these assumptions, that if, in the absence gative. "And surely, if there be anything reof Divine warrant, all prerogative, as well as all specting which that limitation of human authoduty, arises out of the RELATIONSHIPS sustained rity, which pervades all the ordinances of Proviby one being to another, and the kind and extent dence, might be expected to obtain, it is in the of such duty, or prerogative, is determined by power of one man over the life of another. The the nature, or kind, of such relationships, then whole analogy of God's government is against the plea under consideration cannot be main- man's independent assumption of such a power. tained.

The Divine conduct can be no precedent to the In order to prove that this is a sound princi- creature in this case. The judicial prerogatives ple in theology, as well as in moral and political of man in his civil capacity are limited; and noscience, we have only to suppose the several re- thing, in the absence of Divine prescription, can lationships in which we stand towards each other warrant him in taking the life of his fellow-man, and toward God, to be annihilated. If, for ex- became the Creator himself has exercised this ample, that relation of creatureship which man right. This consideration would, of itself

, be a sustains to the Divinity, did not exist–if man sufficient reply to those who would single out the existed independently of God, then, it is clear, crime of murder from amongst the capital crimes the very foundation of the Divine claims upon of the Jewish code, and retain the penalty on him would be taken away. Man would no longer the ground of the nature of the crime itself. owe the same duties to God, and solely because It must be manifest, that those who speak of he no longer stood in a relation of dependence. the infliction of this penalty not being morally

The same is true in regard to the several du- wrong in itself, overlook the essential distinction ties of the family of man one to another. The between a direct Divine legislation and one simmutual duties of parent and child arise out of ply human. There is an infinite disparity be the relation of natural parentage. The social tween the two; they admit of no comparison. It duties of men are founded upon their relation to might with equal relevancy and logical propriety each other, as members of the same race, and be urged, that the infiction of death for Sabbaththeir common relationship to the Father of all, breaking cannot be morally wrong, since the and so on, throughout all the various departments Divine Being once ordained it. of human duty.

We would strenuously argue against the auDuty, we say, originates in relationship, and thority of civil government to inflict death, on so does prerogative—the prerogatives of God, of the ground of the acknowledged fallibility of parents, of civil governors (which are but the human judgment, and the eternal and irreparaaggregate of individual prerogative,) all arise out ble consequences involved in a mistake. of the mutual relationships subsisting between In the absence of Divine authority, this adthe parties; and the kind and extent of preroga- mitted liability to false judgment would furnish tive exercised, is, in every case, determined and a strong presumption, that this prerogative was limited by the nature or kind, of these several uever designed to be exercised by man; for this relationships.

liability to error arises, not only from the posiThe more this principle is scrutinized and tive defect and wilful falsity of evidence in many tested, the more will its soundness be made ap- cases, but also from the imperfect appreciation parent. If, then, we consider the difference be- of it when true. Even if the records of judicial tween that relation which all men stand in to- administration did not afford a single instance wards God, as their Creator and Moral Governor, of mistake, the mere uncertainty of judgment and that which one man sustains to another, it would disqualify any civil authority for enforcing will be evident that there must be a vast dispa- its laws by the punisbment of death. rity in prerogative-that the Divine must im- If the advocate of capital punishment fails to measurably exceed the human; and hence it prove an express Divine permission, there can follows, that many acts may not be morally be no power or right over human life for penal wrong when done, or commanded to be done, by purposes. God alone is the author of life-He God himself, which might, and would be, if per-only can take it away. The fact, that the Al. formed on human authority alone.

mighty has, from the beginning of the world, But the argument, that the infliction of death controlled this prerogative, proclaims His excluas a punishment cannot be morally wrong, since sive right to exercise it. The prerogatives of the Divine Being once ordained it, assumes, that civil government are founded on human authowhat was right in God himself, cannot be wrong rity—social combination cannot confer any other as the act of man, irrespective of the entirely powers upon the civil ruler than those already different and disproportionate relationship in the possessed, in right, by each individual member. two cases. The principle cannot on any ground The whole purpose of civil institutions is simply be maintained. Many acts, which would be right the enforcement of personal rights by combinaon the part of the Almighty Ruler, or when per- tion. This concert and delegation cannot give formed in obedience to his command, would be the right to adjudge and punish crime as moral, wrong in the highest sense, as the act of man's / but simply as it affects those interests which go

vernment is instituted to secure and preserve. ABOLITION OF SLAVERY IN VENEZUELA. Individual man, in virtue of certain natural and moral relationships to God and to his fellow. Herald, under date of April 15th, says that the

The Caraccas correspondent of the New York creature, may have certain duties and authority liberation of the slaves passed off well. The proof a moral description, but these he cannot trans, mulgation of the act by the Governor of Caraccas fer to any other party_certainly not to a civil

was attended with a civic and military procesgovernor, simply because he cannot transfer such relationships to another. Civil government re- ters joined. It appears that, by a decree of July

sion, in which President Monagas and his minispresents only a very limited portion of man's 21, 1821, all children born of slave mothers right and authority, as man-only that portion after that time were to be free at twenty-one, which

may be transferred by conventional agreement. The jurisdiction of government can only final emancipation much under thirty-three years

consequently there were no slaves on the day of extend to the civil consequences of actions. Capi- of age. The owners are to be compensated actal punishment cannot, therefore, be inflicted on cording to the valuation affixed by law, at which the ground that the moral turpitude of murder slaves could purchase their own freedom. It is deserves or requires it—the plea is absurd and not known how many slaves existed at the paspresumptuous.

sage of the manumission act. The above corMan's individual relation of creatureship to respondent represents that the liberated slaves God precludes any right over his own life-he

continued to attend upon their masters and miscannot possess it. If the civil ruler assumes it he usurps, not the right of the subject, but the general and immediate emancipation taking place

without of the bloodshed and turmoil which

any lutely sacred to all but the Creator himself. Its are predicted so freely by the friends of slavery destruction terminates the moral probation of whenever abolition is talked about. man as a subject of the Divine government, and affects his immortal interests—the very nature of the crime of murder, which is pleaded in vin

The wise man is cautious, but not cunning; dication of a literal retaliation, thus becomes an judicious, but not crafty; making virtue the argument against it. The nature of the conse

measure of using his excellent understanding in quences involved, and the awful liability to mis- the conduct of his life.-W. Penn. take, in the infliction of an irreparable injury

THE SOLDIER OF THE CROSS. upon the innocent, prove that the power to execute the punishment of death cannot be main- A captain led a soldier on, tained on any ground of nutural right inherent O’er many a battle-field; in the individual, or attaching to the office of the

And many a fight was nobly won,

With sword, and spear, and shield, Civil Ruler. The penalty of death, for any crime whatever, must, therefore, we think, on Ost times he saw a comrade go every ground, be pronounced unlawful to man.

To share a peaceful home,

While still through danger, toil, and woe, (To be continued.)

'Twas his sad lot to roama.
A NEGRO CALCULATING BOY.

And much that soldier wondered why
At the United States Hotel, yesterday, was

'Twas thus ordained to him, stopping a colored boy, named William Marcey,

To march so oft at battle-cry,

With aching heart and limb. whose extraordinary mathematical powers have greatly astonished all who have witnessed his Fear not, thou soldier of the Cross! demonstrations. He will add up columns of

Press on through pain and toil,

Though all thy gain be counted loss, figures any length, divide any given sum, multi

Yet thou shalt share the spoil. ply millions by thousands within five minutes from the time the figures are given him, and

Fear not, He holdeth now in store

Rich treasures yet for thee ; with such exactness as to render it truly wonder

Perhaps ere the last fight is o’er, ful. Yesterday noon, in presence of a party of Rest will thy portion be: gentlemen, he added a column of figures, eight in line, and 108 lines, making the sum total of

A rest far sweeter for thy toils,

E'en in this world of woe; several millions, in about six minutes. The feat

A portion richer for thy spoils, was so astounding, and apparently incredible,

His goodness may bestow. that several of the party took off their coats, and, dividing the sum, went to work, and in two hours

Fear not! should Earth deny to thee

A lengthened rest from woes, after they commenced, produced identically the

Eternal rest must surely be same answer. The boy is not quite seventeen Thy long and blest repose, years of age; he cannot read nor write, and in

When from the last unequal fight, every other branch of an English education is

Angels shall bear thee on, entirely deficient. His parents reside in Ken

A conqueror through Immanuel's might, tucky, near Louisville.-Cincinnati Gazette.

To stand before the Throne. (A. WILLIS

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