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whose sake they suffered the loss of all, and fol- “Here, then," says the Reviewer, "we have lowed him in the regeneration and self-denial, a mass of most unquestionable evidence, gathered and are now entered with him into that rest from almost every part of the world, in support which remains for the people of God.
of our assertion, that gibbets are in no degree CHRISTOPHER MEIDEL. necessary in a State, but may be abolished, not
only with perfect safety, but with a certain and
large advantage." CAPITAL PUNISHMENT UNLAWFUL.
It is stated, in one of the publications of the (Continued from page 638.)
Society for the diffusion of information on this Capital punishments have never been so few subject, that in France, with a population double in England as in the reign of Alfred the Great; that of England and Wales, only twenty-five perand, it is said, the effect produced was a very sons were executed; while in the latter the general, and, for those times, a most remarkable number of executions in the same year (1831) security from outrage. Whereas, during the amounted to fifty-two, being four times as nureign of the infamous Henry VIII , seventy-two merous as in France. thousand thieves were brought to execution, In Prussia, during ten years ending with 1827, being an average of forty every week, the very but eighty-seven persons underwent this punishsame crimes all the while rapidly increasing. ment, while the number of those who suffered
The case of Russia, referred to by the Reviewer, in England and Wales, during the same period, is striking. “The empress Elizabeth, on as- was 806; or, allowing for the difference of cending the throne, pledged herself never to in- population, about eight times as many as in flict the punishment of death, and throughout Prussia. her reign of twenty years she kept her promise. In Holland and in Austria, as well as in the So satisfactory was the result, that Catherine, German States, sanguinary punishments are exher successor, says, in her “Instructions for ceedingly rare; and in Belgium, since the year framing a new Code of Laws for the Empire, 1830, although, some crimes are still nominally experience demonstrates that the frequent repe- capital, the scaffold has been laid aside as a remtition of capital punishments has never yet made nant of national barbarism. men better. »
The Parliamentary Returns prove that, in The testimony of the French ambassador, London and Middlesex, during the three years on his return from St. Petersburg, 1791, is most 1827-28-29, when the committals for six offences satisfactory. He states that Russia under the wore 672, forty-two persons were executed; operation of tbis law was one of the countries while, for the same offences, during the three in which the least number of murders were com- years 1830-31-32, only five were executed, and mitted."
yet the committals diminished to 618. These The testimony of Howard respecting various facts prove that severity is not the most effectual places on the Continent is to the same effect. in suppressing crime.
The case of Tuscany is well known to every Some crimes, it is true, have continued one who has made the least research on the sub- to increase since capital punishment has been ject. In 1765, the Grand Duke Leopold, at the abolished, but these very crimes increased in a instance of the Marquis Becarria, entirely abol- far greater ratio while they remained capital. ished the punishment of death in his dominions, The following important statements are foundeven for murder. After this experiment had ed on Parliamentary Return, No. 618, 1843, extended over twenty years, the Grand Duke for Middlesex and London. “Taking the thirtysays, “Instead of increasing the number of two years ending 1842, and dividing them into crimes, it has diminished that of smaller ones, two periods of sixteen years each, we get the foland rendered those of an atrocious nature very lowing striking results :-In the first sixteen rare.” During the whole period, only five mur years, all who were convicted of murder, thirtyders were committed; "while," the Reviewer four in number, were executed. Notwithstanding remarks, “in Rome, where death was inflicted this inexorable rigor, 188 persons were comwith great pomp and solemnity, no fewer than mitted for murder during this period. In the sixty murders were perpetrated in the space of second period, clemency began to prevail, and three months.” On the repeal of this enact- during the sixteen years of the experiment, out ment in Tuscany, by Napoleon, crime rapidly of twenty-seven persons convicted, only sevenincreased; and it was only when the gibbet teen were banged; and yet there were but ninety began to be withdrawn that murders became persons committed for murder during the whole rare again.
period. With only 63 per cent. of executions, The example of Belgium is no less remarkable. instead of 100 per cent., the crime diminished After a must successful experiment of abolition, more than one-half, although the population was upon a return to capital punishment the convic- greater.” tions for murder rose, within five years, fifty-five From the same Parliamentary Return is deper cent.
America confirms the same conclu- rived another illustration : During thirty sion.
years, ending with 1842, the years 1815, 1817,
1818, and 1829, were the only years that wit-, Commitments for Murder and Attempts to Murnessed the execution of all who were convicted der, in each of the five years ending of murder in England and Wales—sixty-six in 1826. 1831. 1836. 1841. 1846. number; and in the years respectively following
661 770 1,023 1,221 1,459 each of these years, the crime of murder collectively increased 12 per cent. In four other
The extent of this kind of evidence available years, 1836, 1838, 1840, and 1842, in which on behalf of our views, must not be judged of the greatest proportion of commutations hap- by the very limited quotations adduced. The pened, only thirty-one were executed, out of materials of proof, in the shape of statistical eighty-three condemned ; and in the years re- facts, are not only ample but superfluous ; they spectively succeeding these, the crime collectively are, however, accessible to almost every one-it diminished 17 per cent. Thus, when you hang is, therefore, unnecessary to support this part of all without mercy, you increase the crime ; when our argument at any greater length. you save above half, you materially lessen it.” While the punishment threatened might opeFrom the same source we extract the follow-rate to deter some from the perpetration of mur.
der, it will be found that the crime still increaing even more striking result :-"1. From 1834 to 1841 (inclusive), in the counties where ses, because of the inefficiency of the law upon
those who should have been chiefly kept in view all who were convicted of murder were execu
in its formation. ted, the number of murders in the years following after executions remained as nearly as pos- death increases the crime, and that a diminution
If experience proves that the punishment of sible the same.
2. In counties were commutations of the extreme penalty took place, (during and further, that these results occur in the re.
of murders follows the disuse of the gallowsthe same period), the years following the mutations exhibited a diminution of murder of of the necessity of criminal executions. The
lation of cause and effect—it is absurd to speak 35 per cent. 3. In the counties where a large above statistics, however, by no means show the proportion of the persons committed were acquitted on the ground of insanity, the commit. actual decrease of crime consequent upon the ments for murder diminished in the succeeding while the law was capital, a large number alto
discontinuance of capital punishment, since, years 32 per cent. And, 4. In the counties where there were no commitments, and no con
gether escaped even prosecution, from the reluc
tance of witnesses. victions at all, the commitments in the following
Were it not for a lingering impression in the years were collectively fewer by 23 per cent.
minds of our statesmen and the majority of “Thus,” says another commentator on these Christian ministers, that the ancient law against Returns, * “ it appears, on the authority of these murder, resting on Divine authority, still reofficial tables, that the crime of murder flour- mains in force, it would be difficult to account ishes most under a system of invariable execu- for the pertinacious doubts, and even obstinate tions ; that it prospers more then, than when resistance, with which they continue to meet the the
mercy of the crown interposes with commu- statistical evidence derived from past experience, tations of sentence; that it prospers more than in favor of abolition. Supposing their judgment under acquittals on the ground of insanity; and to be entirely free from prejudice on scriptural lastly, that it even thrives better than under a grounds, we might naturally expect to find them total failure of justice, through the acquittal of ready to join issue with the abolitionist on someall who stand charged with the crime."
thing like the following terms :-“ Let it be One more fact is added to those alrcady stated : but proved to us, from the history of past legis-"In the three consecutive years—1834, 1835, lation, that the substitution of other penalties and 1836, no executions whatever took place for for that of death, answers only just as well as crimes in London and Middlesex, and these were when it is in any extent enforced, and we are the only years in which no conviction for murder prepared to surrender the point. We ask not occurred.” See Parliamentary Return, No. 21, that you should produce any balance of facts in 1846.
favor of abolition, but simply show that one is These statements show, most clearly, that a as efficacious as the other.” Instead of any diminution of the number of executions is fol. such reasonable challenge as this, however, the lowed by a proportionate diminution of murders. abolitionist, after obtrusively and persistently Experience at various periods, and in all coun- volunteering the deposition of evidence which tries, is against the punishment of death. Crime would place bis cause in a greatly advantageous has always flourished most under the most san- position compared with mere weight for weight, guinary laws. How fearfully the crime of mur- is met by something not unlike complacent or der has increased under the operation of the even supercilious affectation of forbearance toward death penalty, the following table will show: the doubtful character of data supposed to be
pressed into the service of an enlightened and •“The Punishment of Death Reviewed,” by Frede- mistaken benevolence. rick Rowton, Esq.
The time has arrived when our leading jour
To be continued.
nals, secular and religious, might, we think, violent and undistinguishing, that it was judged without compromise of their really high preten- necessary to remove the Christian Indians who sions and character, give a more prominent place were then residing on or near the Lehigh, under to this controversy about the law of murder. the instruction of the Moravians, to Philadelphia. And are there not multitudes of Christian men Although these Indians, as well as those on the and ministers, having influence at command, who Susquehanna, were entirely peaceable in their treat the subject with such a slighting notice, or curt disregard, as could only be justifiable if they permitted to remain at their quiet habitations.
conduct, and totally averse to war, they were not possessed some secret information from heaven
The Christian Indians residing on the Lehigh, which supported them, but whom, as the argument stands, there is reason to suspect, it would be being joined in the 11th month by John Papunehove to do otherwise ? Truth will conquer, nev- hang and twenty one Indians from the Susqueertheless, to the comfort and reward of those who hanna, they were conducted to Philadelphia, and are in the right.
after some difficulty they were located at Province Island, a few miles below this city. It was near
the end of that year, 1763, that a small band of FRIENDS' REVIEW.
inoffensive natives, residing at Conestoga near PHILADELPHIA, SEVENTH MONTH 15,
Lancaster, were inhumanly massacred by a 1854.
lawless horde from Paxton and Donegal. And The letter from Friends of Philadelphia, ad- though neither these people, nor their Christian dressed to certain Indians of the Delaware tribe, brethren who had joined the Moravians, adwhich appears in the present number, with the ministered any cause of offense, so ferocious and response, is supposed to be now published for violent was their antipathy, that a considerable the first time. At the head of these Indians we force marched towards Philadelphia, with an find John Papunehang, who appears to have been avowed intention of butchering all the Indians a man of exemplary piety. In the account which who were there under the protection of the John Woolman has left of a visit which he paid to Government. The citizens of Philadelphia, to the Indians residing on the Susquehanna, however, made such preparations for their re. above where Wilkesbarre now stands, in the ception, that these rioters found it most prudent to summer of 1763, he mentions being at a meeting abandon the murderous attempt. among them, in which it appears he was very
The humane inhabitants of the city, among imperfectly supplied with interpreters, at the close whom the members of our society took a conof which he remarks, “ Before the people went spicuous part, exerted themselves to protect and out, I observed Papunehang (the man who had relieve these suffering people. These Indians been most zealous in laboring for a reformation were afterwards frequently heard to say, that in that town, being then very tender) spoke to one during their troubles, the sight of a Quaker made of the interpreters; and I was afterwards told that them feel happy. he said in substance as follows; 'I love to feel
With a view of finding an asylum for these poor where words come from." After a subsequent persecuted people in New York, they were sent meeting he remarks, “When the last mentioned across New Jersey, under a strong military escort, meeting was ended, it being night, Papunehang to Amboy. But when about to embark, orders went to bed; and one of the interpreters sitting by were received forbidding their entrance into the me, I observed Papunehang spoke with an territory of New York. They were therefore harmonious voice, I suppose a minute or two; compelled to return to Philadelphia, where they and asking the interpreter, was told that he was were placed under a guard both by day and night. expressing his thankfulness to God for the favors This journey to Amboy and back was performed he had received that day; and prayed that he in the First month, the most inclement season of would continue to favor him with that same, which he had experienced in that meeting.
We soon afterwards find John Papunehang Though Papunehang before agreed to receive the employed as an ambassador of peace to the hostile Moravians, and join with them, he still appeared Indians, to endeavor to persuade them to lay kind and loving to us.”
down the hatchet. But his efforts were not imBefore John Woolman set out on this visit, mediately successful. Peace, however, was tidings were received of hostilities having been effected about the end of the year 1764. resumed in the western parts of Pennsylvania ;
In the spring of 1765 these Indians left their and while on his journey other rumors of a similar asylum in Philadelphia, and mostly proceeded to character were heard. But in the autumn of that the Susquehanna, near to their former resiyear, the alarms became so great, and the antipa- dence. thies of the people towards the natives became so At the head of the signers to an address to the
Governor, expressive of their gratitude for favors of contradicting others, are improper, and should
At meals, children of suitable age should be enjoy their quiet settlement on the Susquehanna, admitted to table with the family, when confor the Six Nations who professed to hold authority venient.--This privilege will improve their over the Delawares, sold a tract of land to the manners, and tend to prevent bashfnlness and
awkwardness.-J. Mott. English, in which their settlement was included; and though the Governor of Pennsylvania en
METHOD AND ORDER. deavored to secure them in the possession of their land, they soon found their condition so Method is the hinge of business; and it repleasant, that they concluded to abandon their quires order and punctuality. These we must improvements on the Susquehanna, the result of teach our children principally by example. Let
them see that we rise early, have regular hours, seven years labor, and remove to the north west
as much as may be, for the employments of the of the Ohio. A settlement was accordingly day; that we are careful to do one thing at a formed on the Muskingum, about 200 miles from time, and every thing in its right time;
that its mouth, to which the name of Shonburn or stick to the business we have in hand, as far as Welhiek Thuppeck was assigned. It was about unexpected incidents allow; that we adopt the the time of this removal that the letters alluded to maxim, “a place for every thing, and every thing were written.* J. Papunehang died there near in its place. Let them be taught also, that the end of 1775.
what is worth doing, is worth doing well. “Let not ambition mock their useful toil,
It is for want of method and order, that some Their homely joys and destiny obscure ; people, who have much to do, get but little Nor grandeur hear with a disdainful smile done. They are frequently in a hurry, have The short and simple annals of the poor.”
many things begun, but none finished.
Whatever children hear read, or spoken of in DIED, -At her residence in Vermillion Co., In- terms of approbation, will give a strong bias to diana, on the 29th of Fourth month last, SARAH, their minds. Hence the necessity of guarding wife of William B. Walthall, an esteemed elder conversation in families, as well as excluding and member of Vermillion Monthly Meeting, books and companions that have a tendency to aged 36 years.
vitiate the heart.-J. Mott. In this city, on the 5th inst., Ruth SMITH, relict of the late Giles Smith, of New Bedford; T. Papunehang, and others of the Delaware Mass., in the 91st year of her age; a member of New Bedford Monthly Meeting.
nation who lately lived on the Susquehanna, In this city, on the 7th of Ninth month
and are now removed to settle on the Ohio. last, Ann Smith, daughter of the above-named
Brethren,-Your friends at Philadelphia often Friends, and member of Baltimore Monthly remember the old friendship which was estabMeeting, in the 57th year of her age.
lished between your fathers and ours, and hath been maintained between you
and us at all times,
and even when thick clouds hung over our heads, Good manners add lustre to virtue. Their
and it was so dark we could scarce see each object is to oblige, and pay proper attention to
other. others. In order therefore to inspire children
Brethren,- We are glad these clouds are now with such a disposition, we should endeavor early to infuse the spirit of that precept hear you are set out on a long journey, and in
scattered, and the sun shines clear upon us. We “ Honor all men ;” and teach them, that kind tend to settle in a country very distant from us. ness and civilty are due to all : that a haughty, We desire you may hold fast the chain of friend. positive, or contemptuous manner, is not only ill ship, and keep it bright on your part, as we shall bred, but unchristian ; and especially to he be careful to do on our part, so that our childavoided in our behaviour to servants, or those in inferior stations in life. To these they should
ren may see our love and regard to each other never be suffered to behave with haughtiness, by our example to maintain the old friendship.
as brethren, and may, when we die, be incited nor even to speak with a commanding tone of voice; as it will have a direct tendency to cherish Opas and our fathers had for your fathers, was
Brethren,--The love and friendship which pride and self importance.
the effect of the love of God, through our Lord It is also necessary to guard children against Jesus Christ, in their hearts, which constrained vulgar habits, as loud talking and laughing them to desire and pray for yoa, that you might Whispering in company does not comport with good manners, and mimicry is the favorite obedience to the teachings of his Holy Spirit, a
, amusement of low minds. Speaking, when it
manifestation of which is given to every man, to interrupts reading or conversation, and the habit lead and instruct them in the way of eternal life See Heckewelder's narrative.
and happiness; and it hath given much true
For Friends' Review.
pleasure and thankfulness to us, to see and hear, main your true brethren in Christ and bounden that some of you have been made sensible of friends. this. We fervently desire you may grow in grace Welhiek Thuppeck, the 21st day of March, and in this saving knowledge; then you will be 1773. as light to the people among whom you may live, John Papunehang, Joseph Pepi and they, seeing your good works, may be
William Chelloway. brought to the same happy experience, and give
In the name and on the behalf of all the glory to God, and live in peace and good will Christian Indians, moved from Susquebanda with you and with one another.
over Alleghann river. Brethren,-We consider the journey is long, and that, when you get to the Alleghany, you will want some refreshments and provisions to enable
to travel further. We have there- EDUCATION IN THE FREE AND SLAVE STATES fore directed one hundred dollars to be paid to John Etwain, and desire that he may
pur- Pursuing the comparison which we commenced chase whatever will be most useful and neces in our last number, we find in the six Eastern sary for you and your
wives and children. States, Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Brethren,- We heartily wish and pray for your Connecticut, Rhode Island and Vermont, 1,498,happiness, both in this world and that which is 158 white persons over twenty years of age, of to come, and shall rejoice to hear that the bles- whom 50,911 are reported as unable to read and sing of God attends you.
write. This makes one in 29.4 of the adult Signed on behalf of Friends in Philadelphia, white population unable to read and write. But the 8th day of Eighth month, 1772,
we find in these six States, 305,404 white perIsrael Pemberton, John Reynell,
sons including all ages, born in foreign countries. James Pemberton, Anthony Benezet,
These foreigners furnish, no doubt, more than John Pemberton, Abel James,
their proportion of uneducated. In the same Henry Drinker. six States we find 13,476 free colored of
twenty years and upwards, with 1878 adults, who To Israel Pemberton, John Reynell, James cannot read and write. This is about one in
Pemberton, Anthony Benezet, John Pemberton, seven. From this and the facts stated in our Abel James, Henry Drinker, and the rest of last number, it appears that the adult colored the Friends in Philadelphia.
population in New England do not furdish so BELOVED BRETHREN, --Your very kind letter large a ratio of totally uneducated, as the whites
, was read to us by Dr. John Etwain, on Beaver of Virgiaia and North Carolina ; and fall a litCreek, and by David Liseberger, at Welbiek tle, and but a little, below the whites of South
Carolina Thuppeck, (Good Spring,) where we are now settled in love and peace.
The three States, New York, New Jersey and The chiefs and head men of the Delawares of age, 2,911,041, among whom are 172,469
Pennsylvania, contain whites over twenty years received us very kindly with our teacher, and adults who cannot read and write. This is one seem well inclined to the Christian religion; in 16.9. The white foreigners in these threc many come to hear the word of God, and we States, number 1,018,133. The free colored of wish with you that we may be a shining light twenty years old number 68,624, of whom unto them.
21,190, or one out of 3.2, are reported as unable to Brethren,- Not only we who had so many in- read and write. This shows a great want of edstances of your friendship and love, which we ucation among this class. There is, however
, never will forget, but all our nation, know that no law in either of these States to prohibit their you and your
fathers have always been kind and instruction. It can afford no rational consolagood friends to us and our fathers. We thank tion to them or their friends, to learn that the you heartily for all your favors, but particularly whites in North Carolina and Arkansas appear the last present of one hundred dollars, which to be almost equally neglected. John Etwain has left to the care of John Papu- The six new free States, Ohio, Indiana, Illinehang and our missionary, and which, by our nois, Michigan, Wisconsin and Iowa, have consent, hath been laid out for corn and divided whites over twenty years of
age, 2,081,235, among us. We remember you as often as we whom 194,017, or one in 10.7, cannot read eat of it.
and write. Of these Indiana furnishes the Brethren,-You may be assured that we esteem greatest relative number of uneducated of and love you; continue to pray for us and the any free State in the Union. The white foreignother poor Indians, and we will pray God for ers in these States, number 571,528. The free you, to bless you in this world and the world to colored over twenty years, are 33,084, of whom come, and we will, by the grace of our Lord 8,883, or one in 3.7, cannot read and write. Jesus Christ, not only continue in unshaken The old slave States, Delaware, Maryland, friendship with you and your children, but re- Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina and