« ΠροηγούμενηΣυνέχεια »
Georgia, contain, over twenty years of age,, A reader of the usual share of intellect, but 1,251,785 whites, and 88,042 free colored, among almost, if not altogether, ignorant of mathemawhom are 232,806 of the former, and 46,426 of tics, may obtain from this volume a very satisthe latter who cannot read and write. Thus it ap- factory conception of the nature and application
the uneducated are among the whites nearly one in 5.4, and among the free colored one of the mechanical forces, and of many
of those in 1.9 or rather more than half. The white fo-truths which can be presented to the mind in reigners in these six States are 96,732. their utmost fulness and force, only through the
The nine new slave States, Kentucky, Ten- medium of mathematical demonstration. nessee, Alabama, Louisiana, Arkansas, Missouri, Mississippi, Florida and Texas contain 1,494,401
The descriptions of the numerous machines whites over twenty years; of whom 280,086, which have been invented to facilitate the operaor one in 5.4 cannot read and write. The free tions, and to lighten the labors of the practical colored over twenty, are 21,589, including farmer, must render this volume a valuable ac8,805 or one in 2.4, who cannot read and write. quisition to those who are engaged in agriculThe white foreigners in those nine States are tural pursuits. Indeed, it may be said that no 215,025.
It hence appears that the whites over twenty practical farmer, who desires to understand the years of age in the free States, number 6,493,- nature of the business in which he is employed, 434, and in the slave States, 2,746,186, the for- and the best manner of effecting the operations mer exceeding double the latter by more than million ; yet in the free States the totally illite which he is daily performing, ought to deny rate are 317,397, and in the slave States 512,- himself the privilege of studying the volume be892; or in the ratio of about three to five. Be- fore us. The writer evidently possesses an acsides there are in the free States more than six curate and extensive acquaintance with his subtimes as many whites of foreign birth as there
ject. are in the slave States.
The following is the introductory chapter In fine, the adult whites who cannot read and Write are, in the
free States, nearly one in 20.5; which will furnish our readers with a specimen but in the slave States nearlv one in 5.4.
of the author's manner and style: Who then are the friends of their country, No farm, even of moderate size, can be well and especially of the rising generation, those furnished without a large number of machines who are laboring to restrain the system of sla- and implements. Scarcely any labor is performed very within its present limits, and to promote its without their assistance, from the simple operapeaceable extinction every where, or those who ations of hoeing and spading, to the more comare exerting their ingenuity and influence to ex- plex work of turning the sod and driving the tend its dominion over the virgin soil of the thrashing machine. It becomes, therefore, a
E. L. matter of vital importance to the farmer to be
able to construct the best, or to select the best Farm Implements, and the Principles of their already constructed, and to apply the forces reConstruction and Use, an Elementary and possible advantage.
quired for the use of such machines to the best Familiar Treatise on Mechanics and on A great loss occurs frequently from the want Natural Philosophy generally, as applied to of a correct knowledge of mechanical principles. the ordinary practices of Agriculture. By
The strength of laborers is often badly applied JOHN J. THOMAS.
by the use of unsuitable tools, and that of teams
is partly lost by being ill adjusted for the best The above is the title of a book of 267 pages, ment to the plow
for forcing its wedge-like form
line of draught; as, for example, by a bad attach12mo., which has just issued from the press of
most effectively through the soil. We may perHarper & Brothers of New York. It may be haps see but few instances of so great a blunder fairly questioned whether any previous publication as the man committed who fastened his smaller contains in the same space an equal amount of horse to the shorter end of the whipple-tree, to information adapted to the wants and capacities the other man who, when riding on horseback
balance the large borse at the longer end; or of of practical mechanics and agriculturists.
to mill, atop his bag of grain, concluded to reThe elementary principles of natural philoso- lieve the animal by dismounting, shouldering phy, and the nature of mechanical forces, are the bag bimself, and then remounting; yet cases laid down in such manner as to impress a convic-are not uncommon where other operations are tion of the truth of his conclusions, though the which to a person well versed in the science of
performed to almost as great a disadvantage, and mathematical demonstration, by which those con- mechanics, would appear nearly as strange and clusions are rigidly proved, are entirely omitted.absurd.
The improvement of farm machines and tools, straw-cutter, a root-slicer, a farm wagon with within the last fifty years has probably enabled hay.rack, an ox-cart, a borse-cart, wheel-barrow, the farmer to effect twice as much work with sled, shovels, spades, hoes, hay-forks and manurethe same force of horses and men. Plows turn forks, hand-rakes and revolving rakes, scythes
the soil deeper, more evenly and perfectly, and grain-cradles, grain-shovel, maul and wedges, and with greater ease of draught; hoes and pick, axes, wood saw, turnip-hook, hay-knife
, spades have become lighter and more efficient; apple-ladders, and many other smaller conveni. grain, instead of being beaten out by the slow ences. The capital for thus furnishing in the and laborious work of the flail, is now showered best manner all the farms in the Union has been in torrents from the thrashing machine; horse computed to amount to five bundred millions of rakes accomplish singly the work of many men dollars, and as much more is estimated to be usiug the old hand rake; twelve to twenty acres yearly paid for the labor of men and borses of ripe grain are neatly cut in one day with a throughout the country at large. two-horse reaper; wheat drills, avoiding the tire- To increase the effective force of labor only some drudgery of sowing by hand, are materially one fifth would, therefore, add annually one increasing the amount of the wheat crop; while hundred millions in the aggregate to the profita a few farmers are making a large yearly saving of farming; while on the other hand, if we look by the application of horse-power to sawing back fifty years to the imperfect implements wood, churning, driving washing machines, and then in use, we may at once perceive the vast even to ditching. A celebrated English farmer amount saved by the improvements since made; has lately accomplished even more; for by means and when, especially, we notice the condition of of a steam-engine of six-horse power, he drives barbarous nations, and contrast that condition a pair of mill-stones for grinding feed, thrashes with our own—the former thinly scattered in and cleans graio, elevates and bags it, pumps comfortless hovels through far-stretching and water for cattle, cuts straw, turns the grindstone, gloomy forests, subsisting mainly by hunting and drives liquid manure through pipes for irri- and fishing, and often suffering from hunger and gating his fields; and the waste steam cooks the cold; the latter blessed with smooth, cultivated food for his cattle and swine-all this work being fields, green meadowe, and golden harvests, inperformed in a first rate manner.
terpersed with comfortable farm-houses; with Now these improvements were mainly effected the hum of business through populous cities, through the knowledge of mechanical principles, and along far-reaching lines of canals and rail. and many of them would doubtless have been roads, and ships for foreign commerce, freighted sooner achieved and better perfected if these with the productions of the soil, threading every principles had been well understood by farmers; channel and whitening every sea—when we obfor, constantly using the machines themselves, serve this contrast we cannot fail to be struck by they could have perceived just what defects ex- the convincing proof that “knowledge is power, isted, and, by understanding the reasons of those and of the loss sustained on the one band from defects, have been able to suggest the remedies its absence, and the advantages on the other of in a better manner than the mere manufacturer. availing ourselves of its accumulated stores. Moreover, as the introduction of what is new and valuable depends greatly upon the call for them, farmers would have been prepared to de
THE JAPAN EXPEDITION, AND ITS RESULTS. cide with more confidence and certainty upon One of the most creditable acts of the last Adtheir real merits, and thus to increase and ministration was, sending an expedition to Japan, cheapen the supply of the best, and to reject the to effect, if possible, an opening of its ports, and worthless.
bring it into communication with the Christian One great reason that farm implements are world. So far as we can see, the instructions still so imperfect, is, that the farmers themselves under which it proceeded were judicious, and the do not fully understand what is needed, and how manner in which it was conducted by the com, much may yet be accomplished. They have not manding officer was, on the whole, discreet and enough knowledge of mechanics to qualify them praiseworthy. To us at this distance, and accus. for judging of the merits of new machines ; and tomed only to the matter-of-fact ways of a solid being afraid of imposition, often reject what is civilization,some of the movements of Commodore really valuable, or else, being pleased by a fine Perry among the Japanese may appear overappearance, are easily deceived with empty pre- strained and vainglorious, but we must not forget tensions.
that he had to deal with a people comparatively The implements and machines which every rude, and more accessible through their senses and farmer must have who does his work well are imaginations, than an enlightened reason. numerous and often costly. A farm of one hun- events, the results of the expedition are better dred acres requires the aid of nearly all of the than we had reason to expect. following: two good plows, a small plow, a sub- Intelligence has just reached this country from soiler, a single and two-horse cultivator, a drill- China, that the Russian Admiral has not been barrow, a roller, a harrow, a fanning mill, a successful, while the American Commodore has ;
El that his negotiations have resulted in opening at Watford, 8,000,000 per day might be derived
free intercourse between the two countries, to be from that locality. carried on through two ports in Japan; in secur- Quantities so immense might be thought sufing stipulations for a coal depot, and a regular ficient for ordinary purposes; but Mr. Prestsupply of coal for the United States steamers, witch shows them to be trifling compared with and also for kind treatment, and an abundant sup- the supplies to be obtained by going lower and ply of water and provisions for all Americans who piercing the Greensands. That such is not only may visit any part of the Japanese coast. The possible, but actually the fact, will be seen on a Commodore showed his good sense by proposing little reflection. The area of the Greensands an extension of these privileges to all other na- far exceeds that of the chalk; it reaches from tions, but the Japanese Commissioners demurred, Cambridgeshire in the north, to the sea in the expressing, however, their willingness to make south; from Devizes in the west, to Folkestone separate treaties on similar terms with any other in the east; and wherever within this region the nations that might seek them in a peaceful man- Greensands crop out on the surface, there the
It is added that Commodore Perry intends rain is greedily sucked in as it falls. It may to remain two or three months on the Japanese surprise some readers to hear that places so discoast, for the purpose, we presume, of seeing tant should be regarded as sources for water-supthat there shall be no failure in the arrangement ply for London; such, however, is the fact, for agreed upon.
as the water in sinking follows the dip of the On the whole, it would seem that Commodore strata, it gradually descends to the bottom of the Perry and his officers have been at least as pro
basin, where it is most wanted. The Greenfitably employed as if they had been engaged in sands thus serve the double purpose of filter and catching runaway slaves on the Home Station, or reservoir; and as they rest on a thick and imperin dancing attendance at the Courts of petty vious deposit of Weald and Kimmeridge clays, despotisms along the shores of the Mediterranean. there can be no escape of water in a downward There is no harm in giving our navy something direction. There it remains stored up, a founrespectable and useful to do, in the absence of tain of the great deep, until released by human any immediate necessity for a blockade of Cuba. enterprise and ingenuity. -National Era.
The mean annual rainfall in England is from 264 to 28 inches, according to latitude, of which one-half, more or less, sinks into the ground; the greatest amount of filtration of course taking
place in the rainiest months. Some deposits are (Concluded from page 679.)
much more permeable than others; but on comThe chalk stratum extends from Kent and parison, the superiority of the Greensands in Surrey under the valley of the Thames to the this particular becomes strikingly manifest: Mr.
Hills of Hertfordshire and Buckinghamshire, Prestwitch estimates their steady undiminished ; and neighboring counties—an area of about 3800 yield at from 40,000,000 to 50,000,000 gallons
square miles, on which the mean fall of rain is in the twenty-four hours. Such a quantity estimated at from 3800 to 3900 millions of gal would constitute a valuable supplement to the lons every day—a quantity which may well be supply now furnished to London; the more so, exhaustless. The water finds its way down because the water appears to be of excellent wards through the numerous fissures which quality. Judging from the wells sunk at a few abound in chalk, until it comes to the lower por miles from the city, the water is remarkably tions of the stratum, where crevices are few, and pure, soft, and limpid; and the nature of the there it makes its way along the line of stratifi- Greensands is such as to insure a better quality cation, which is indicated by the imbedded of water from them than from some other strata. flints. Those who are experienced in such mat- We attach the more importance to this fact, reters, know that ample sources of water may al- membering that the Report of the Board of ways be looked for immediately beneath the Health, published in 1850, deprecates the drinkflint layers; it is into these that most of the ing of London well-water on account of the London wells are sunk; and the supply obtained bad consequences” that follow its use, and the is said to be from 10,000,000 to 12,000,000 conclusive instances brought forward in proof of gallons daily-an amount perhaps somewhat over the hygienic benefits resulting from the use of stated. Here, however, we see why such ama- soft water. zing supplies have been derived from the chalk. It is satisfactory to know, that the consideraIn the Tring cutting of the North-western Rail- tion here involved presents no difficulty ; for way, the yield was 1,000,000 gallons per day; chemical analysis has shown, that clay possesses at Brighton, a well gives 231,840 gallons in a surprising power of absorbing soluble salts, welve hours; 1,800,000 gallons per day were and consequently, while the waters are traverbtained from an experimental well sunk in the sing loose sandy strata mixed with clay, the filBushy Meadows; and a calculation has been tration would appear to be perfect, as cleansing made, that, with efficient borings and drift-ways land absorption go on at the same time. “While
it is considered,” says Mr. Prestwitch, " that, watery treasures, is at once apparent. Like the the waters have to pass through many miles of spring, too, though somewhat turbid on first the Lower Greensand, in some places entirely bursting out, it in a short time flows perfectly silicious, and at other places partially argillaceous, pure, and at the same time its chemical characit really becomes a question whether the water ter will be improved by the action of the ceasemay not be, to a very great extent, freed from less stream on the salts with which the strata extraneous matter, and rendered by this means may be impregnated. This is an important fact, only, so far as regards the alkaline and earthy for a well might be condemned when first sunk, salts, comparatively soft and pure.” This, how- which, a few minutes later, would yield most ever, is a question wbich actual experiment can excellent water. only determine. We should be glad to see it In France, where Artesian wells are compartried for the reasons already stated, as well as atively numerous, the water is used for all do others not less obvious. It might be well worth | mestic purposes, and as a “moving power for considering, whether to fetch water from a dis- mills, factories, and hydraulic machines ; for tance of many miles, or from 1000 feet beneath warming large buildings, for public wash-sheds, the surface, be the preferable method. In the for irrigation on a large scale, for fish-ponds; in one case, the water has fallen from the clouds, plantations of water-cress, paper-making, and far away in the pleasant country, where nosmoke the weathering of flax." For purposes in which and few atmospheric impurities are present to a uniform temperature is required, the water is contaminate it, and makes its way underground, peculiarly serviceable. through a natural filter, to the great central re
We think that Mr. Prestwitch has made out servoir ; in the other, it must flow through pipes his case, and we regard his volume as a valuable or an uncovered channel. There is no risk of a aid towards that branch of progress which com, barren result, for the quantity of water available prises sanitation, with commercial, physical, and every twenty-four hours would still be the same
moral as the above mentioned, even if no rain fell for fore them, no corporation or commission would
economy. With these facts and views bea whole year.“ Let it be borne in mind," be justified in deciding on a mode of water-suppursues Mr. Prestwitch, “that the effective permeable beds of the Lower Greensand are 200 ply without first giving them due consideration.
The question of cost may be simplified by referfeet thick—that they occupy an area above and
ring to what has already been done; the well below ground of 4600 square miles--that a mass
for the Blackwall Railway cost £8000; another of only one mile square and one foot thick will £1444, on the premises of Truman, Hanbury & hold more than 60,000,000 gallons of water Co., the brewers ; and others for lower sums, and some idea may be then formed of the mag down to £20; but it should be borne in mind, nitude of such an underground reservoir. A that a good part of the expense of the great fall of one foot in the water-level throughout London wells is for the machinery which must the whole area of outcrop, would give more than be always employed to pump up the water. This the quantity of water required for a year's con would be entirely saved by boring down to the sumption of London.” The temperature would Greensands, as the water would, as we have be, according to depth, from 63 to 70 degrees shown, rise of itself to more than 100 feet above Fahrenheit.
the surface. Mr. Prestwitch estimates L1800 Another consideration is, how deep must we
to £2500 as the cost of boring down to the upgo for these abundant supplies of water ?-a point on which our knowledge of the chalk for per Greensand; and to the Lower Greensand,
£1000 more. When we remember that the mation enables us to speak with little chance of error; and on careful calculation, it appears that supply is perennial, the item of cost falls low in a boring 1010 feet deep would be necessary to comparison. The wells of Solomon, which have pierce the Lower Greensands. Great as this depth may appear, it presents no difficulty insur- parched Arabian desert, afford the most valuable
and enduring evidence of the capabilities of Armountable by mechanical genius. Then with
tesian wells.-Chambers' Journal. respect to the height to which the water will rise, Mr. Prestwitch argues, that the conditions being nearly the same as those of the well of Grenelle, near Paris, the result will be similar; As none are too wise to learn, it is a proof of and he assumes that in a well sunk in London, affection to communicate useful hints; and a the water would rise from the Greensands to a high proof of wisdom to take and use them, height of from 120 to 130 feet above the sur. from whatever quarter they come.- Hunter. face. This at once gives a distributing power independent of machinery, and would be sufficient for most practical purposes.
Many have given over the pursuit after fame, An Artesian well may be called a natural either from the disappointment they have met, spring artificially produced; its analogy to a or from their experience of the little pleasure spring, by which nature liberates her hidden that attends it.-Spectator.
The following is reported, in the New York such declaration, pretense or representation that Tribune, as the copy of an act which has recent- any person is or was such an apprentice, for such ly passed the legislature of Connecticut. We are such an apprentice for such fixed term, shall ren
fixed term, or owes or did owe service merely as informed that in the House of Representatives der any person liable to any penalty under this the vote stood yeas 112, nays 85.
AN ACT FOR THE DEFENSE OF LIBERTY.
EVENING.-By J. KEBLE. SECTION 1. Every person who shall falsely and Abide with us : for it is toward evening, and the day is far maliciously declare, represent or pretend that any
spenl.-LUKE 24c : 29. free person entitled to freedom is a slave, or 'Tis gone, that bright and orbed blaze, owes service or labor to any person or persons,
Fast fading from our wistful gaze :
Yon mantling cloud has hid from sight with intent to procure, or to aid or assist in pro- The last saint pulse of quivering light. curing, the forcible removal of such free person from this State as a slave, shall pay a fine of
In darkness and in weariness
The traveller on his way must press, $5,000, and be imprisoned five years in the Con
No gleam to watch on tree or tower, necticut State prison.
Whiling away the lonesome hour. SEC. 2. In all cases arising under this act, the
Sun of my soul! Thou Saviour dear, truth of any declaration, representation or pre- It is not night if Thou be near; tense that any person, being or having been in Oh! may no earth-born cloud arise this State is a Slave, or owes or did owe service
To hide Thee from Thy servant's eyes. or labor to any other person, shall not be deem
When round Thy wondrous works below ed proved except by the testimony of at least two My searching rapturous glance I throw, credible witnesses testifying to facts directly Tracing out Wisdom, Power, and Love, tending to establish the truth of such declaration,
In earth or sky, in stream or grove; pretense or representation, or by legal evidence Or by the light Thy words disclose, equivalent thereto.
Watch Time's full river as it flows, Sec. 3. Every person that shall wilfully and Scanning Thy gracious Providence, maliciously seize, or procure to be scized, any free
When not too deep foi mortal sense ;person entitled to freedom with intent to have When with dear friends sweet talk I hold, such free person sold into Slavery, shall pay a fine
And all the flowers of life unfold; of $5,000, and be imprisoned five years in the
Let not my heart within me burn, Connecticut State Prison.
Except in all I Thee discern. SEC. 4. Upon the trial of any prosecution aris
When the soft dews of kindly sleep ing under this act, no deposition shall be admit
My wearied eyelids gently steep, ted as evidence of the truth of any statement in
Be my last thought, how sweet to rest
For ever on my Saviour's breast, such deposition contained.
Abide with me from morn till eve, SEC. 5. Upon the trial of any prosecution aris
For without Thee I cannot live; ing under this act, any witness who shall, in be
Abide with me when night is nigh, half of the party accused, and intending to aid For without Thee I dare not die. him in his defense, falsely and wilfully, in testi
Thou Framer of the light and dark, fying, represent or pretend that any person is or Steer through the tempest Thine own ark; ever was a slave, or does or ever did owe service Amid the howling wintry sea or labor to any person or persons, such witness We are in port if we have Thee. shall pay a fine of $5,000, and be imprisoned The Rulers of this Christian land, five years in the Connecticut State Prison.
'Twixt Thee and us ordained to stand,
Guide Thou their course, O Lord, aright, SEC. 6. Whenever complaint or information Let all do all as in Thy sight. shall be made against any person, for any offense
Oh! by Thine own sad burthen, borne described in any section of this act, and upon
So meekly up the hill of scorn, such complaint or information a warrant shall Teach Thou thy Priests their daily cross have been duly issued for the arrest of such per. To bear as Thine, nor count it loss ! son, any person who shall hinder or obstruct a
If some poor wandering child of Thine sheriff, deputy sheriff or constable in the service Have spurned, to day, the voice divine, of such warrant, or shall aid such accused person Now, Lord, the gracious work begin :
Let him no more lie down in sin. in escaping from the pursuit of such officer, shall be imprisoned one year in the Connecticut State Watch by the sick; enrich the poor Prison.
With blessings from Thy boundless store ; Sec. 7. No declaration, pretense or representa
Be every mourner's sleep to night
Like infants' slumbers, pure and light. tion that any person is, or was, an apprentice for
Come near and bless us when we wake, a fixed term of years, or owes or did owe service
Ere through the world our way we take ; merely as such an apprentice for such fixed term,
Till in the ocean of Thy love, shall be deemed prohibited by this act, and no We lose ourselves in Heaven above.