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the heat of summer, without which the hay-maker PROGRESS OF THE ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH. could hardly ply his pleasant labor; or the harvestman collect his grain; witness the breezes So rapid has been the extension of electro-telewhich come loaded with fragrance across our graphic communication, throughout the world, plains; but especially the perpetual gales that that we might almost fancy the subtle agent had refresh the torrid zone, and render its otherwise something to do with its own propagation. Gunintolerable regions a fit habitation for men and powder took a century or two to make the tour of animals.
Europe, and prove itself superior to bows and arBeautifully is the earth arranged, but all its rows; and steam-engines panted and puffed for splendid garniture would be unavailing for the many a year before the world thought it worth use of man, without an atmosphere, that subtile while to turn them to account. How different fluid, which extends around this sublunary globe. the progress of the electric telegraph! It was in By it all creatures move, in it the clouds are up- 1837 that Wheatstone took out his first patent, held, and through its penetrating energy, the and its first application in this country was made whole vegetable kingdom springs into life and on the short railway from London to Blackwall. freshness. Thus necessary is the atmosphere to Now, as appears by the Electric Telegraph life, and, no less useful is it for the conveyance Company's Report, we have nearly 6000 miles of innumerable living creatures. The winged of telegraph, comprising more than 21,000 miles tribes owe to it their flight and buoyancy, and of wire-almost enough to stretch round the sợunds are conveyed by its medium. 'It reflects globe; and for the dispatch service, there are 150 to us the light of the heavenly bodies, and re- stations besides those in London. From the cenfracts the sun-beams to our eye, before his orb tral office behind the Bank of England, commuappears above the horizon, and after it has set, nications are established with all parts of the by which means we enjoy a longer day, and the kingdom, along the lines of railway, and messages cheerless nights of the frigid zone are shortened may be sent at any hour of the day or night. to the inhabitants.
The railway business alone, keeps the telegraph Light, how pleasant it is ; how necessary to clerks pretty actively employed; and when to the happiness of all created things! Without this are added the messages from government and this beautiful emblem of its Creator, this pure in the general public, some idea may be formed of fluence flowing from the glory of the Almighty, the amount of work to be done. During the electhis unspotted mirror of his goodness, what would tions of 1852, the state of the poll at every hour the world become ? But, by the aid of this ad- was transmitted to head-quarters. More than mirable, this first-given, because most necess
essary 10,000 such messages were sent in that short part of the creation, man, and the inferior ani- but eventful period. Sporting gentlemen all over mals can properly fill up their allotted station in the kingdom are now informed of the result of a the universe. Those whom he made in his own race soon after the winning horse has come to image, and placed here as spectators of his works, the post. The state of the weather is flashed to can behold the wonders which he has made : they London every day from numerous localities, for can view the glories of the heavens, and contem- publication in a morning paper; and whenever plate the beauties of the fields, the gay attire of desirable, the information can be obtained from the feathered, and the exquisite garniture of the twenty of the furthest off stations in the country, insect tribes; they can view extensive prospects within half an hour. A fashionable dame at the and undertake distant journeys. Man, by the aid West End, having set her heart on a villa in the of this important medium, may behold the har- sunny environs of Florence, her lord hired it for mony of this lower world, the majesty of the her by a telegraphic message. On the top of heavens above, and the exquisite workmanship of the office in the Strand, a time ball indicates one God in every creature.
o'clock to the whole neighborhood simultaneWe may also notice as especially subservient ously with the ball on the observatory at Greento the benefit of man, the astonishing velocity of wich, and a clock erected on a pillar in the street this subtile agent, its swiftness being nearly two opposite, tells Greenwich time by the same aphundred thousand English miles in a second of paratus. It is under consideration to establish a time; and also that wonderful expansion which similar contrivance at different parts of the coast, causes it to fill all things by reason of its bright- so as to enable the masters of vessels to get the ness, and instantaneously to chase away the deep- true time while on their way to port; and in foggy est gloom. Throw open the doors of a deep weather, the electric spark is to fire a cannon predungeon in which darkness has long brooded, cisely at one o'clock, instead of dropping a ball. and how pure and gladdening is the effect of light! Soon we shall have to report, that the difference There is no chamber so gloomy, that it cannot of longitude between the observatories of Greenpenetrate, when the intervening barrier is removed. wich and Paris has been determined by tele
graph. The difference as at present known, is
nine minutes, twenty seconds and a ha'f. Should The aspirant after fame may be said to be it be confirmed, it will say something for the acchasing a shadow, which vanishes in the grasp. curacy of past observations.
The prospect of profit appears so good, that , ital. Through the Belgian wire, we reach the United Kingdom Electric Telegraph Com- Prussia, thence to Cracow and Warsaw, and on pany are going to work in earnest. Their wires to St. Petersburg; or we may diverge the course will be laid underground in pipes, following gen of the message to Vienna, and have it forwarded erally the turnpike-roads; and they propose to to Trieste, 325 miles further, where it will overlease the exclusive use of a wire to any one de- take the Indian Mail. The czar is stretching siring it. Seeing that one house alone, in Lon- wires from St. Petersburg to Moscow, and to his don, pays £1000. a year for telegraphic mes- ports on the Baltic and Black Seas; and before sages, there is good reason to believe that a wire long, when he wants to quarrel with the sultan, may be rented with benefit to both parties. The be will be able to do so with less delay than at company have engaged the services of Mr. Wheat present. The Turk, on bis part, is thinking be stone, and intend to send shilling messages, and would like o have a telegraph ; and should be have thus possessed themselves of two elements realise his wishes, Muscovite and Moslem may of success—ability and cheapness. Already an intercommunicate with equal celerity. Perth on underground telegraph is laid on the old turn the Tay may now, if she will, hold a crack' with pike-road from London to Dover, and it is by this Pesth on the Danube ; and Manchester ask Marthat those brief but important paragraphs of news seilles for the earliest quotations of Egyptian cotfrom the continent which appear in the morning ton. papers are transmitted. Not only are the rail- At first, most of the German wires were laid way stations of the metropolis connected with each underground, but in many places those stretched other by underground wires, but the Post-office, on posts bave been substituted, as more generally Admiralty, and other government offices, the serviceable. They are no longer confined to the ebief station of police, the Houses of Parliament, railways, but are carried by such routes as are and some of the leading clubs, are also interwired. most suitable; and soon the miles of telegraph The authorities can now send orders, quick as will out number those of railways. Austria has thought, to detain a mail-packet, to despatch a about 4000 miles of telegraph, and the other frigate from any of the outports, or expedite equip- parts of Germany about as many. The wires are ments at the dockyards. Gentlemen sitting at penetrating the valleys of Switzerland, and creepdinner in the Reform Club in Pall Mall, have ing up the slopes of the Alps : Spain bas found instantaneous notice every quarter of an hour of out their use, but to a very limited extent: Italy what is going on in the House,' so as to enable has a few score miles; and in Piedmont, Mons. them to know whether they may take another Borelli, the engineer, has done wonders with glass of wine before going down,' or not. them. While waiting the completion of the rail
Most of this progress has been accomplished way between Turin and Genoa, it was thought since 1850, as also the laying down of the under- desirable to connect the two cities by telegraph; sea communications. It was in August, 1850, and to effect this, the wires are carried over prethat the possibility of sending a message through cipitous steeps, stretched across valleys nearly & the Straits of Dover was demonstrated, as though mile in width, and buried in some places, where to stimulate ingeouity, for the wire was broken no other mode was possible. The way in which by an unfortunate accident, and the work delayed the difficulties of the ground are overcome is said for many months. The experiment was repeated to excel anything similar in Europe. towards the close of 1851 with entire success, The Italian wires are to be connected with which has not been once interrupted. Future Corsica, and Sardinia by lines sunk in the dividhistorians will perhaps be struck by the fact, that ing channels; and from the southernmost cape of the first news sent by the wire was of the famous Sardinia they will be carried to Africa, striking coup d'etat of the 2d December. If it was then the mainland a few miles west of Tunis, from remarked that England had lost her insular posi- which point it will not be difficult to reach Altion, what shall be said now, when we have a geria, Egypt, and ultimately India. One stage, second wire running to Middlekirk, near (stend, from the Nile to the Red Sea, will ere long be and a third from Orfordness to Scheveningen on complete; and in India itself preparations are bethe Dutch coast, 119 miles in length? The lat- ing made for the construction of 3000 miles of ter wire was worthily inaugurated on the 14th telegraph. June last, by the flashing across of the king of The establishment of the electric telegraph in Holland's opening speech to his Chambers. Then France has been slower than in other countries ; there are two wires across the Irish Channel; but there are now lines which radiate from Paris and a third is talked of, to run from the Mull of to Bordeaux, Marseilles, Lyons, Toulouse, Havre, Cantyre to Fairbead. Ireland, too, is less in Dieppe, Calais, and Strasbourg; and by the close sulated than before. By means of these under of the present year, the chief towns of each desea wires, we can now communicate with most partment will be connected with the Ministry of parts of the continent. The Dutch line gives us the Interior ; the government is master of all the the shortest route to Copenhagen; and now that lines; by way of Strasbourg they now reach Gerwires are sunk across the Great and Little Belts, many independently of Belgium; and in that city we can hold telegraphic talk with the Danish cap- the French office and the Baden offices are side
Besides their own private dispatches, sembled in a rage, barricaded the door of the no secret messages are sent, except certain di- house, uncovered the roof, and ceased not to throw plomatic matters, and the news brought by the in a quantity of rubbish, so that, at last, the Indian mail to Marseilles. The latter is at once Christians were likely to be buried under it. flashed onwards to London. Paris time is adopted They expected death, praying calmly till their on the lines all over France.
patience and resignation allayed the fury of the The vast extent of the United States has caused better disposed among the heathen, who opened a greater extension of the telegraph than in any the door, drew out the Christians from the rubother country: it is now but little short of bish, and commanded them to go away immedi30,000 miles, including Canada. There are two ately. At this instant the imperial taxgatherers direct lines from Philadelphia to New Orleans. arrived, who demanded more than the poor people Projects are talked of, one of them sanctioned by could pay, and began taking severe and cruel Congress, for lines from Natchez, on the Missis- measures against the defaulters. But the pious sippi, to San Francisco, a distance of 3000 miles; Abraham now interceded for those, who a little and from Vera Cruz to Acapulco, and from Mis- while before had threatened him with a shameful souri to Oregon, with a post of cavalry at every and frightful death. He offered himself as surety twenty miles to guard the wires, and ride with dis- to the tax-gatherers, hastened to the neighboring patches. Another is to annex Cuba by means of a village of Emesa, borrowed a large sum of money wire sunk across the channel which separates that from his friends, and satisfied the merciless tax. island from Florida : it will need to be strong to gatherers. The hostility of the villagers, conresist the action of the Gulf-stream, which there quered by the power of love, was now changed flows with great rapidity. In New York and into love, gratitude and reverence. They reBoston all the fire-stations are connected by tele- quested their deliverer, as they had no overseer graph, and alarms are made known with a promp- of the village, to undertake the office. He agreed, titude that averts much mischief. Private tele-on condition that they would build a church. In graphs, too, are greatly used in the large trad- a short time it was erected. They entreated him ing towns.
to be himself their spiritual father and shepherd, Much has been said by projectors about an as well as their overseer in civil matters, and by under-sea telegraph to America ; but it is a ques- his labors for the space of three years he laid the tion whether in such a distance the currents foundation of the Christian church, where now generated in the wire by natural causes would the little tribe of Maronites, so distinguished for not prove fatal to the transmission of an impulse their pure and simple manners, amidst the general from one extremity to the other. Some 'phy- corruption of the East, dwell, but who, in recent sicists believe that the experiment would not suc- times, have been very much disturbed by political ceed from Galway to Newfoundland, which is not revolutions and war with the Druses. more than half the breadth of the Atlantic; and In the war which the Roman Emperor, Theothey state the practicable route to be by crossing dosius II. carried on against the Persians, who Behring's Strait; ör to run a wire from the Shet- were violent enemies of Christianity, seven thoulands to the Faroes and Iceland, thence to Green- sand prisoners were dragged away by the Roman land, and on to Labrador and Nova Scotia. This soldiers, and found themselves in a miserable task, however, remains for future enterprise, and plight. Acacius, bishop of Amida, a city in will some day form an important chapter in the Mesopotamia, on the borders of the Roman history of the electric telegraph. - Chambers' empire, towards Persia, called his clergy together, Journal.
and said to them, “The pious love of our Chris
tian brethren has presented the church with a NEANDER'S MEMORIALS OF CHRISTIAN LIFE.
number of gold and silver vessels. But our God
does not need silver and gold. Let us rather Many who were deeply imbued with the Chris- make use of them for the aid of our unfortunate tian spirit sought to win the heathen by the fellow-men.” The gold and silver were melted power of love, and to lead them to the Redeemer. down to make coin, and the prisoners were not Thus, towards the end of the fourth century, a only set at liberty, but also sent back to their monk, Abraham, in Phenicia, having been re- homes with money and provisions for the journey; covered from a dangerous illness, felt himself this work of love naturally made an impression in impelled to prove his gratitude to the Lord by favor of Christianity on the Persians, who had exposing himself to great danger in publishing been hostilely disposed toward the church. the gospel. In the disguise of a merchant, he As in the apostolic age, those Christians who betook himself with several companions to a vil- distinguished themselves from the corrupt heathen lage in Lebanon, where all were Pagans, under world by their services and strict life were ridithe pretence that they wished to purchase walnuts culed by the heathen as gloomy enthusiasts ; so there, for which that village was noted, and took now, those persons were ridiculed by light-minded sacks with them for that purpose. But when the nominal Christians, who were not satisfied to con. people heard him singing spiritual songs with his fess their Saviour with their lips, but felt impelled friends in a hired house, men and women as- ! by the inspiration of faith to follow him in their
practice. But those who were thus animated , take himself to the desert? Offences will follow with the fire of holy zeal in the midst of a gene- him there. Must the far advanced Christian ration of cold and lukewarm Christians, would wholly separate himself in order to endure the have acted best to let their light shine in their presence of no man? If, therefore, because he midst, and to testify among them by word and is so far advanced, he will endure no man, the conduct of the virtues of Him who had called very fact of his not bearing with others, convicts them out of darkness into his marvellous light, in him of the contrary, and proves that he is not an order to attract others to Him who dwelt and advanced Christian. Mark what the apostle says, operated within them. But many, in the first “Forbearing one another in love, endeavoring to flow of their awakening, fled into the deserts, in keep the unity of the spirit in the bond of peace.” order to escape the prevalent corruption, since Forbearing one another,' he says : Hast thou their ardor could not endure the indifference of nothing in thyself which another must bear with? other professed Christians to Divine things, and I should be surprised if it were so. But supposing they were filled with disgust at the moral cor- it were so, thou are so much the stronger to bear ruption of a world glossed over with a semblance with others if thou hast nothing in thee for others of Christianity; others who could not deny the to bear with. Thou needst not to be borne, only necessity of Christian communion and outward do thou bear others. Thou sayest, 'I cannot.' activity, united themselves with like minded per. Then hast thou that in thee which others must 80ns, in a state of separation from other society, bear with; for it is said, “Forbearing one another in a convent; others altogether renounced the in love." Thou forsakest human things and church, and maintained that, on account of the keepest thyself aloof that none may see thee. To wickedness tolerated in it, it had ceased to be a whom wilt thou be of use ? Wouldst thou have genuine church of Christ, for such an one must attained to that, had no one been of use to thee? necessarily be pure and holy, and they sought to All extravagant requirements from others in form for themselves a church bearing this mark. the world generally arise from this, that man is But all these classes forgot that it is the calling a stranger to himself, that he does not know how of Christians not to flee outwardly from the world, much he has to deplore on his own account and but as Vigilantius, the opponent of monkery, to amend in himself. rightly observed, to combat it in dependence on Him who said to his disciples and equally to all
CONFIRMATION OF HEBREW SCRIPTURE. believers, " These things have I spoken unto you that in me ye might have peace ; in the world ye We find, in one of our foreign journals, a letter shall have tribulation, but be of good cheer I have written by M. Victor Place, the French consul overcome the world ;” and who prayed for them at Mosul, giving an account of a three-days fast to his Father, “ I pray not that thou shouldst observed by the inhabitants of that Moslem city, take them out of the world, but that thou shouldst in commemoration of the penitence imposed keep them from the evil.” They forget that the on the people of Nineveh by Jonah. He says Christian, so long as he is in the world, has to that the fast has been kept from time immemorial combat with the world, whether it be the world in that country, and kept not only by the few pressing on him from without, or the world in his Christians there, but by the whole Moslem
popuown bosom, a far more dangerous enemy, and but lation. Mosul itself is within sight of the ruins for which all the power of evil pressing upon him of Nineveh, and, close by is a tomb traditionally from without could not injure him,
assigned to Jonah. It is a striking confirmation They do not consider that he alone finds true of the ancient Hebrew writings, thus to find a purity and holiness, who, forgetting and denying fast, in commemoration of an important event himself, seeks them in his Lord, who will appro- recorded in them, still observed almost on the priate to him His own holiness ; that every where, very spot where it first began. Nineveh has in every individual believer, as well as in every been desolate for centuries; the surrounding collective body, great or small, the tares grow up plains have become a desert; the Hebrew people with the corn; that it is the Christian calling to themselves have been scattered over the earth take all possible care of the good fruit and to pre- for eighteen hundred years :-yet still the threeserve it pure; to guard against the spread of the days' penance, enforced on the population of that tares, but that above all, he has to guard himself corrupt capital of the ancient world is kept by against a self-willed, intolerant zeal, which, before the few miserable descendants of the old Assyall things are ripe for harvest, would separate the rians, and by the strangers who have intermarried tares from the wheat. Against such a tendency with them, whether Nestorian or Moslem in their as last mentioned, Gregory of Nanziansen says,
faith. “ Thou mayst pull up at the same time with the M. Victor Place mentions, in the same letter, tares, the concealed wheat, and wheat perhaps other facts confirmatory of the Hebrew Scripmore valuable than thyself.” And Augustin tures. He says that there exists, to this day, in says very admirably against the same tendencies, the river Tigris, a fish, armed with terrible teeth, “ Whither should the Christian withdraw in order and enormous in its size, the very counterpart to not to sigh among false brethren ? Must he be- I the fish mentioned in the book of Tobias. What
becomes of the old infidel sneer that no one could , is highly advantageous to be able to keep his find, in all Mesopotamia, a fish that could frighten own accounts in a regular and intelligible mana man?
M. Victor Place himself has seen one of these fish weighing three hundred pounds. ner, and instances are not wanting among the
. But this, he adds, was a small specimen." Who- pupils of this seminary, of serious losses being ever has read Layard's volumes, however, needs averted by the knowledge of writing acquired not to be reminded that Mesopotamia is still full under its auspices. To those of a serious turn, of things recalling the scenes and customs de- the capacity of reading the Scriptures, and other scribed in the Old Testament. The cucumbergardens overhang the river exactly as in the days pious works, must be highly interesting and conof Isaiah. The boats, formed of skins, of which solatory. If we could diffuse among the poorer the Bible speaks, navigate, to this hour, the classes in general, and particularly among the waters of the Tigris. But, more than all, the colored race, a familiar acquaintance with letters, sculptures on the disinterred palaces, and the and a taste for the acquisition of knowledge, an cuneiform writing, so far as it has been deciphered, recall the chariots of war, the bearded kings, the important measure would be put into operation royal insignia, the manners, the dress, nay ! even for breaking up the habit, so lamentably prevathe names of the monarchs mentioned in the lent with the uneducated, of spending their Hebrew Scriptures. No profane history, even of leisure hours in idleness or in employments more ages far less remote, is confirmed in this respect, corrupting than idleness. It may, therefore, be by antiquarian discovery, more completely than the Bible.-Evening Bulletin.
hoped, that Friends and others will freely con
tribute the necessary funds for giving efficiency FRIENDS REVIEW.
to this offshoot of Benezet's philanthropy. This
will be to fulfil the spirit of the admonition, cast PHILADELPHIA, NINTH MONTH 17, 1853. thy seed on moist places, with the assurance that
it will be found at a future day. The report of the managers of the schools for colored adults, which appears in this week's Review, is published at the request of one of the
OH10 YEARLY MEETING.—Though the time association, though apparently quite out of season. of opening that meeting was the 5th of the curIt is, however, to be considered, that the schools rent month, but little information respecting it are kept open during the winter season only, and had come to hand when this paper was prepared as the time for commencing the operations of the for the press. We learn, however, that the meetensuing winter, is now nearly at hand, it may be ing was opened in the usual manner, on Secondproper to remind our friends that a little pecuni-day morning the 5th, but was soon informed that ary aid will be necessary to enable the managers an individual who was not in membership was of this charity to perform the duties entrusted to present. It appears that the person alluded to their charge.
was one holding a prominent position among the Anthony Benezet is believed to have been the seceders who have been disowned by Friends in first to establish a school in this city for the in- New England, but who still claim their rights of struction of the colored race; and from his time membership. In consequence of this intrusion, to ours, a seminary has, with some intermissions, no business was transacted during that day, ex
. been maintained for their improvement. The cept giving direction, in the minute of adjournadvantages which this school has afforded to many ment, for the representatives to stop at the rise of that neglected class are not easily appreciated. of the meeting, to deliberate on the choice of a It is a well-known part of the policy of the slave- clerk. holding states, not only to prohibit the instruction On Third-day, the same individual being preof slaves, in the common rudiments of literature, sent, no business was transacted except the rebut to discourage the education of the free colored appointment of Benjamin Hoyle as clerk, and people. Hence it is not uncommon for colored Wm. S. Bates as assistant. In this singular persons who have emigrated from the south, and situation the meeting continued until Fifth-day particularly for such as have purchased their evening; to which time only, our latest informafreedom, to be ignorant of letters, and conse- tion extends. quently liable to all the impositions to which such In the women's meeting the usual procedure ignorance must expose them. To every man it I was suspended from a similar cause.