« ΠροηγούμενηΣυνέχεια »
Third month 8th, 1811.
peace.” In this happy state, those that have a strength for every good word and work. I do greater share of tribulation than others, have the not feel disposed to enlarge, but am desirous you sympathy of their friends, and partake thereof to may be enabled to feel me in the covenant of their refreshment, as a cordial reviving the life, and be willing to join in a continued and a drooping spirits, even of him that laboureth un- renewed care, that we may be one another's joy der the pains of the body. But he that lan- in the Lord, not suffering anything to divert our guisheth and hath no cordial administered to minds from the renewings of the Father's love. him, fainteth, and finally dies away; and where May this support me, who am exposed to various any thing of a poisonous nature is administered, perils in a distant land. And you, dear friends, his sufferings increase, and presage a speedy dis- in the land of my nativity, may you witness the solution. Seeing we are social and intelligent glory and the beauty of this world stained in beings, professing a belief in the consolations of your view, that avarice and covetousness may the holy spirit, and called upon to seek them, not have an ascendency over those who are adlet none think to obtain or to be able to advanced and are advancing in years; nor the youth minister them, but by an engagement of mind be left to sacrifice on the altars of vanity, but that preferreth the righteous cause of God to while cheerfully employed in the necessary cares our earthly joys. "God is love," saith the and concerns of life, be engaged to comfort each apostle, and they that dwell in love dwell in other in all your tribulations, and not forsaking God, and God in them." Thus they are the assembling yourselves for the performance of near to the fountain of consolation, and are ena. that worship that is due to the Father of Jesus bled to comfort one another in all their tribula- Christ our Lord, even the God of all confort. tions. May you be enabled to come up in use- So prayeth your friend and brother, fulness in the militant church in your day, that
HENRY HULL. you may bear testimony with the beloved apostle From Grange, near Charlemont, in Ireland, to the sufficiency of Divine love. I often remember the seasons of refreshment we have had together, wherein we have known this as the
MEMOIR OF THOMAS COLLEY. streams of that river which makes glad the whole Thomas Colley, of Sheffield, was a friend well heritage of God. I also remember that some known in our Society, and highly esteemed as a times these streams were obstructed, so that there faithful and diligent minister of the Gospel of was not an uninterrupted flowing of them. As Christ, in which character he lubored for upthese streams of Divine consolation are very pre- wards of forty years. cious, we certainly ought to endeavour that the He was born at Smeaton, a village near Pontecomfort resulting from them may be witnessed fract, in Yorkshire, in the year 1742, and eduby all, and that the aged may be strengthened, cated in the principles of the established church the middle aged animated, and the dear youth of England, and when about 11 years old went invited to bend their necks to receive the yoke to reside at Sheffield as an apprentice. In the upon them, that there may continue to be a suc- course of his minority, his mind was awakened cession of those who prefer "Jerusalem to their to a sense of the importance of a religious chiefest joy.” Many particular obstructions to life, and he joined the society of the Methodists, this present to my mind, but none so forcible as among whom he was zealous, active, and much where there is not a guard maintained against esteemed. the love of the world and the fascinating cus- In the year 1764, he married. About this toms and fashions thereof. Where this guard is period the observations and performances, in maintained, Zion becomes beautiful; and if she which he was religiously engaged, failing to satwere preserved so by the vigilance of the watch. isfy the travail of his soul, he sought for somemen on her walls, would become the praise of thing more substantial, and in this disposition the whole earth. But the beauty has not been of mind attended the meetings of Friends. so alluring as it might have been, had her watch Waiting reverently before the Lord, be became men been on the watch at their posts; the enemy further acquainted with the operation of divine has gained an advantage, and dismay has been grace, and was engaged to press after a greater spread in the ranks of the army; and in some knowledge of things which accompany salvation. places the Truth hath not been supported, but His circumstances were then low in the world, some of its testimonies have fallen with those yet he attended our religious meetings diligently, who have fallen. May this not be the case until he observed that some, who were active in amongst you-many of you have known the the concerns of the Society, absented themselves heavenly calls, by which your love was turned to from those held in the course of the week. He the Fountain of true consolation, with desires to thought that he might follow their example ; but partake thereof, and you have been refreshed found, that by so doing, he suffered in a spiritthereby. Oh! that nothing may deprive you ual sense, and therefore resumed his former thereof, but that you may steadfastly look unto practice; and giving proof of his sincere atHim, who can support under every trial, and tachment to our Christian principles, he was in will continue to supply you with the needful I due time admitted into membership wi'b Friends.
In the year 1768, he first spoke as a minister, dence, during the periods of his absence from in our religious meetings; and being careful, in home, devolved in great measure upon his wife, humility and watchfulness, to occupy the talents who, not only in a religious sense, but also in committed to him, his services were acceptable regard to temporal concerns, was truly a "help and edifying. Not long afterwards, he felt him- meet” for her pious husband; and the honest
; self called upon to travel in the service of the industry of both, was attended with the blessing Gospel; and performed several journeys, with of Providence. the unity of bis friends.
He was a man whose deportment in life was In 1779, in company with his friend, Philip such as becometh one employed in preaching the Madin, also of Sheffield, he paid a visit to the glad tidings of salvation; desirous to keep himthen remaining members of our Society on the self unspotted by the world, —of unafected Island of Barbadoes, and was also on a few of gravity, though at times innocently cheerful and the other British West India islands. He was communicative. His general demeanor showed brought very low when on his passage across the on whom his confidence was placed. His reveAtlantic ; but his mind appears, by a memorandum rent, silent waiting in religious meetings was obmade at the time, to have been greatly consoled vious to others, and bad a tendency to draw in the season of conflict of spirit, in the fresh them into the same profitable frame of mind. rememberance of the sufferings of the uncon- He was uprigh ly concerned for the due preserquered Captain of our Salvation; and he was vation of our Christian discipline, and careful to enabled to look, in faith, unto Him, and to lay keep his place in the meetings established for hold on his gracious promises.
its support. In the exercise of the ministry he Being favored to return home in safety, he was diligent in seeking after the renewed influpenned the following reflections.
ence of Divine power; and often eminently qual“Under a grateful remembrance of the many ified to set forth the blessing of salvation, through favors of the Almighty, graciously extended to our Lord Jesus Christ, who came as a sacrifice us, through the course of this long and perilous for sin, and as the light of the world ; fervently journey, in preserving us in the midst of a ra- endeavoring to gather all to the teachings of his ging and tumultuous war, in opening our way Holy Spirit
, in the secret of the soul. in the service in which we were engaged, and In the year 1810, he attended the yearly affording ability and strength to discharge the meeting in London, near the close of which he duty of the day, are our spirits humbly bowed in had a dangerous attack of illness ; but was res. deep reverence and thankfulness to the Father tored to his family and friends. He afterwards and Fountain of all our living mercies.” held a few public meetings in his own neighbor.
A few years after his return from the above- hood, and diligently attended other meetings at mentioned voyage, this devoted servant of Christ home. Towards the latter end of the year, again left his near connexions, and travelled ex- there were obvious symptoms of a declining state tensively in North America, where his gospel la- of health, on which he remarked to one of his bors were well received and made a deep and in- friends, “I have for a considerable time apprestructive impression on the minds of many of hended I should have a lingering illness
, and those whom he visited. In his native land he have never desired that it might be otherwise
. travelled much afterwards, as a minister; and I do not, as some have done, wish for a sudden was often concerned, more particularly in the removal, as I think divine Providence, as well latter part of his life, to labor in word and doc- as divine Grace, is as much manifested in times trine, among those of other religious societies, of sickness as in times of health; and it now
In reference to one of the last-mentioned of yieldeth me great consolation, that I worked these services, he thus writes from London : “I while health and ability were afforded. I now have labored many weeks in this populous place, see but little to be done ; and it is cause of great visited all the meetings in this city, and most of satisfaction, that I was enabled to perform uy last them on First-days; and also have attended religious visit to London.” their quarterly and monthly meetings, and have At his own meeting, where, for some time behad public meetings at all the meeting-houses, fore, he had been but seldom heard, he now freand in other places ; in which service, I may quently spoke, both in testimony and supplicawith reverence acknowledge, that the Lord tion, with clearness, and in the power and lore has been near, and his ancient promise ful of the Gospel; manifesting, as a father in the filled: “As the day is, so shall thy strength church, bis continued and increasing solicitude be.' The meetings have generally been large ; for the spiritual progress of those amongst whom neither unfavorable weather, nor snow on the he had long and faithfully labored. The selemground, prevented the people from attending; nity which prevailed on these occasions made a and that living Power, which is both ancient and deep and instructive impression on his friends. new, was a crown and diadem to our assemblies.” In the Seventh month, 1811, he was seized
When not engaged in religious service, he was with violent illness, which he expected to survive diligent in attention to his business, which was only a few days; but being a little revired, he that of a cutler, and of which the superinten- said to a friend who visited him, “I am a poor,
weak creature, uncertain how this attack may pleasures of life, his being has become a misery terminate; nor am I anxious about it. For some to him,”—“that death can have no terrors for time past, I have been concerned to use the him, but must rather appear as a refuge and a strength afforded, in discharging manifested du- rest ?” The fact is, that many, if not most, murties; and, on a retrospect, I do not see one re- ders are committed for the purpose of obtaining ligious duty or service left undone."'*
the means of continuing to live with a certain After this he gradually declined, and in the Sixth hoped for enjoyment. What the case may bemonth, 1812, he became very weak. On the come, after the guilt of blood has actually been 10th, when one of his friends, who had called contracted and haunts the conscience of a muron bim, was about to take his leave, having to derer, is a very different matter. Sixty per cent. attend a meeting of ministers and elders that of convicted murderers, it is said, attempt suievening, he said, with a calm and expressive cide,-a striking fact, it is true, and telling countenance, “ The Lord bless thee; and may strongly against the penalty of death; yet no he be with you in all your movements, in the candid abolitionist will close his eye to what is promotion of his work. How long the taper may equally true—that there still remain many who glimmer in the socket, is uncertain; I think it are dragged to the scaffold and shrink in abject will not be long. My love to friends. Farewell.” terror from their doom, even to the last moment.
He spoke but little afterwards, appearing to Nor will any one say that the case of a certain be in a state of patient waiting for the full ac- eminent man, who so recently suffered for this complishment of the Divine will concerning him; crime, answers, in its antecedents, to the descripand, on the 12th of the Sixth month, 1812, he tion of “having gone through every gradation expired in the seventieth year of his age, having of immorality.” been a minister forty-four years.
As one object of punishment is to deter from crime, a wise legislator will direct his pains and
penalties against the prompting passion of the CAPITAL PUNISHMENT INEXPEDIENT. criminally disposed. (Continued from page 712.)
The civil ruler, it is true, cannot pretend to The second great cause of failure is the ten punish the moral guilt of crime, but he will asdency and effects of this punishment when exe certain, as far as he can, from what propensity, cuted : 1st. In still further brutalizing the or combination of propensities, it generally arises. criminal class, who witness its infiction; and He will then be able to inflict many penalties 2d. In disgusting the sentiments of society in which, though not in themselves the severest, general, engendering a dangerous sympathy in appear such to certain classes of criminals. The favor of the victim, and thus impairing that con- most effectual punishment is that which the servative efficacy of the law, which it should be criminally disposed themselves conceive to be the primary object of all punishment to main- least tolerable. Experience proves that there tain.
are many punishments which would, by most 1st. Of the effects upon criminals themselves. murderers, be either more dreaded than death, It is only be observing
the indications of its suc- or felt to be more restraining, since the chances cessful or unsuccessful operation that we can as ·
escape under capital laws are so many. But the certain whether the destruction of life, as a pun
fact is, we can scarcely think of a man deliberishment, be suitable to the laws of man's indivi- ately calculating the balance of remote conscdual constitution, or of the social condition. We quences against the advantages or satisfaction have already prosecuted the investigation, to which he seeks to reap from the commission of some extent, in examining the causes of that’un- murder. The very act of murder is proof of certainty which results from extreme penalties. great moral derangement; certain feelings, which We must now sustain our second objection.
We can have no doubt, that the dread of death impulses, having gained the ascendent. The has deterred many from the perpetration of mur
reason is almost overpowered under the captivity der, nor is it either just or politic to deny it. of an outrageous and diabolical passion, the Such extreme positions must make many of the moral judgment must therefore, to some extent, advocates of abolition wish that such writers, be obscured and perverted. possessing ability more than sufficient to conduct But in as far as the man meditating the awful the argument on just and tenable grounds, had crime of murder may anticipate the future, been somewhat more circumspect in their asser- many other punishments in prospect are found tions. Where, for instance, can be the use of much more effectual in prevention. Perpetual affirming that " a man cannot have arrived at imprisonment and ignominious toil concurring the determination to commit murder without with remorse, and a forfeited reputation, prore having gone through every gradation of im- far more intimidating in such cases. morality,” and that “ baving forfeited all the
It has been stated, that the proportion of mur
derers who commit or attempt suicide is no less Alluding, without doubt, to his services as a min
than sixty per cent. “ This fact," it has been ister.
truly said, " proves that there is an iguominious
exposure which is dreaded more than death., in support of this proposition. Mr. Bright, in Public infamy, if all but certain, would be more the House of Commons, July, 1850, mentioned efficacious as a deterrent from crime.”
the striking fact, that when the first execution Capital convicts,' says Mrs. Fry, “pacify took place at Nenagh, sixty persons in the crowd their consciences with the dangerous and falla-fainted; when the second execution took place, cious notion, that the violent death which awaits some few fainted, but the number was far under them, will serve as a full atonement for all their sixty; now the sight is witnessed without a sins.” This we believe to be a most important shudder. Many other authorities on this subject fact, as indicating the desperate resorts and in- might be quoted. With the facts the public are fatuation of criminal passion.
generally well acquainted. Strong as is the inThe same authority states that, in her inter- stinct of life, it is often overcome by some mere course with the worst class of criminals, she conventional feeling. Thousands have sacrificed found the absurd notion of fatality very gener- their lives under the tyranny of a false honorally to prevail. They appeared to believe that, as in the cases of chivalry and duelling, and also by some sort of predestination, this fate would in some more brutal and disgusting, but not have overtaken them sooner or later; it was more criminal exercises. therefore regarded by them as a matter of little It is worth our while farther to explain how concern, whether their days might be many or these influences may become so potent as to few. Those very parties, who, as the most guilty overcome some of the most active promptings of and depraved, have most to dread on the event nature. of death, are, we find, just the persons least There is no school of philosophers, who have alive to its horrors; yet it is to this class of of treated of the mental and moral phenomena of fenders, that the advocates of capital punishment man's constitution, but have recognized one suswould present death as an engine of terror. ceptibility which characterizes human nature un
It is sufficient for our argument, that even at der all its phases. the hazard of death itself, the deed will be per- We refer to what might be designated a suspetrated—the spectacle of violent death becom- ceptibility of mental and moral contagion. Ining, in fact, one of the things most destructive der a great variety of names and phrases, this of that natural dread with which it was origin-law of humanity is admitted as a principle most ally regarded.
promptly and universally operative. The advocates of capital punishment have It is worthy of remark, too, that Christianity argued upon the assumption, that our instinctive (which always discovers its pretensions to the dread of death is of such superior force, that an very perfection of philosophy, by recognizing appeal to that alone could deter from murder. and taking for granted such indisputable facts)
But if we will look into the principles of our proceeds, in its counsels, exhortations, and com: nature, to ascertain the suitability of any pun- mands, upon the assumption of this good or evil ishment, we must take under our view the whole contagion from that which we familiarly contemconstitution of man. We must take into account plate, or with which we intimately commune
. the susceptibilities as well as the active instincts Numerous illustrations of this statement may be of humanity. No doubt, the love of life is one found in the inspired volume. The contemplaof the strongest of the latter class, yet we find tion of the Divine perfections assimilates the that certain influences so act upon man as often character of man to that of God- beholding as to conquer the force of these feelings. The love in a glass the glory of the Lord, we are changed of life is no exception to this law of the mind, into the same image.” And the law holds in which, in the case of some of our passions, brings reference to our inferior instinctive feelings not about what we call satiety ; but in the case of less than our moral susceptibilities. this instinct, as well as some others, takes the This law of sympathy is only one form of the form of susceptibility of indluration.
law of cause and effect-contact and contemplaIf therefore, we will determine the kind and tion exert an influence in strict proportion to deye of punishment by its action upon our na- their intimacy and continuity. Its operation is ture in preventing crime, we must embrace in exceedingly various and powerful. In religion, our survey all the feelings and appetencies by as we have said, the attractions of the Divine which it is characterized. When this is done, character, and the rectitude and vast com prethe indications of our constitution, we maintain, hension of the Divine procedure, elevate and enare against the infliction of death as a preventive noble the soul. The contagion of human charexpedient.
acter and conduct, is even proverbial. From It is a general fact, arising from our very con. this law results the maxim that " a man is known
tution, that familiarity with any object calcu- by the company he keeps.” lated to inspire dread, diminishes its power of In literature and science its influence and reproducing that feeling. That it is so with the sults are ackuowledged. The truths and objects horror of death all history and experience prove. of natural science impart something of their The testimony of the author of "Ola Bailey Ex- own attributes to the mind engaged in their tudy perience” affords the most satisfactory evidence' or contemplation. One noble example of phi
336 110 186
lanthropy begets another by sympathetic emula-, published, as other well-authenticated documents
tion. Contact withi vulgarity makes vulgar, un- The summing up was as follows: E
less a constant and vigilant resistance is main- Whole number of deaths, over 16 years
Strictly temperate or characteristic of humanity but is contagious, Unknown
3 in the measure and proportion of its display, the result may not be inevitable, but the tendency is
Population in 1832 necessary.
Members of Temperance Societies,
5,000 to its own diffusion. The doubtful casuisty of
I was acquainted with two of the persons who one man confirms another in his own specious died, and who were recorded "strictly temperi pleas and unwholesome practices. Love, hatred, ate.” One of them had recovered from a slight
joy, sorrow, generosity, ambition, cunning, false- attack of the disease, but afterwards ate imhood, profanity, dishonesty-every vice-every moderately of cucumbers, was again attacked and virtue--all are infectious; and if they do not died in a few hours. The other had been simiinfect, it is only because their opposites maintain lary attacked, recovered, (he was a clerk in the a desperate struggle against their natural influ-old Delavan House,) ate from a basket of pine ence. The tendency is beyond a doubt, it is apples lett there by a traveller, and died soon everywhere manifest, and in everything,—its after. The case of one other of the five was necessary operation is the secret and philosophy singular. The report was bitterly, assailed in of the power of example.
the Evening Journal, by the individual who had This, then, is the action of the law of sym- lost his wife by the malady. He concluded she pathy; but, like erery other law operative upon was classed with the intemperate, while the fact the nature and affection of man, it has its re-ac- was otherwise. Dr. Staats, the attending physition, and, if we would ascertain the permanent and cian, answered the attack, by stating that this final results of any agency or influence upon poor woman probably lost her life by the unfeelhuman nature, we must not only look at its stimu- ing neglect of her intemperate husband; who, lating effects upon our active instincts, good or although warned by his wife in the morning, evil, but also take into account our susceptibilities that she required medical aid, entirely neglected of re-action.
her during the whole day, and when returning [To be continued ]
home at night from the grog shop, he found it
was too late. From the Albany State Register.
I have not a doubt of the safety of an entire EDWARD C. DELAVAN ON THE CHOLERA.
and immediate change from the moderate use of It appears that the cholera is again threaten intoxicating drink, pure,” or “impure." I being our cities. It is my conviction that the in- lieve at this time, when the atmosphere appears toxicating cup, whether that cup contains pure charged with cholera, such a change is of vast imor impure poison, is, in nine cases out of ten, the portance. It is my belief that with total abstipredisposing cause to this fatal disease. As re- nence from the use of intoxicating poisons as a gards the pure, if it was safe, I do not believe beverage, and with proper attention to cleanlithere is one gallon on sale in Albany. A large ness and food, the disease would soon die out,
dealer honestly told me that he had not one. and I found my belief on facts. In 1832, when 1
After the cholera had subsided in Albany in the cholera broke out in Albany, I was engaged 1832, John T. Norton, Esq., (who, during that with E. Corning and John T. Norton, in erectyear of death remained at his post administering ing that large block of buildings on Green, to the sick and dying,) was so convinced that in- Beaver and Norton streets. About one hundred toxicating drink was the cause of a vast propor- men were employed ; they were all about abantion of the fatal cases, that he employed a gen- doning their labor, when they were persuaded to tleman of high character and discretion, and at resume. They all agreed to keep at their work his individual cost, to ascertain the exact history and abstain from strong drink. A beverage of of each case of death of persons over 16 years of water, molasses, vinegar, and ginger was furnishage. This history was submitted to the attend- ed them free, and of all those one hundred men ing physicians and sanctioned by them; after engaged in the work, not one died, nor was the which the whole record was submitted to the work intermitted a day. One man under the Board of Ilealth. They added the following control of the builders, (those excellent mechancertificate :
ics, Fish and Hawley,) but employed by the “ This document of fucts we take pleasure in man who furnished the brick, would not adopt recommending for pullication and general circu- the simple beverage offered him, but resorted to lation."
the grog shops. He fell a victim. The document thus endorsed, was handed to At the same time these buildings were erect. the New York State Temperance Society, and I cd, I had about fifty men employed in excavating