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the peculiar form which they may assume, to set-changed, in his absence, without process, witboat tle legal rights."
notice, without opportunity to meet or esamine We have already seen that the legal right of the witnesses against him, or rebut their testithe claim must be settled before a fugitive from mony. A record is made which is conclusive labor can be delivered up. We have already against him, “in any State or Territory in which seen that a suit is held to be “the prosecution he may be found.” It is not a process to bring of some claim, demand or request. The con- the
person before the Court in which the record clusion seems to be irresistible, therefore, that is made up, but it is, to all intents and purposes, the prosecution of the claim to a fugitive from a judgment of the Court or Judge, which com: labor, or resistance to such claim by legal pro- mits the person absolutely to the control and ceedings on the part of the fugitive, is a suit, possession of the claimant, to be taken whithersonot in equity or admiralty, and hence at common ever he pleases, to be dragged from a State where law, within the purview of the Constitution. the legal presumption is in favor of his freedom,
Again, it is said that the Constitution evident- to any State or Territory where the legal prely contemplates a summary mode of proceeding sumption is against his freedom. in the case of a fugitive from labor. Where is Is not this depriving a person of liberty withthe evidence of it? Nothing of the kind is out due process of law? Other Courts and other found in the history of the provision, nor in its Judges may pronounce this provision of the act pathway to the Constitution. Nothing of the of 1850 to be in conformity with that provision kind is apparent from the language used; for it of the Constitution which declares that “ do perdistinctly imports a trial of the claim, and a de- son shall be deprived of life, liberty or property, termination of the fact that labor or service is without due process of law," but while I have a due to the claimant before a delivery can be mind to reason and a conscience to dictate to me, made.
and an oath to support the Constitution of the Again, the Constitution provides that no per- United States resting upon my soul, I cannot so son shall be deprived of life, liberty or property, declare it, and for the price of worlds I will not. without due process of law. This last phrase
Concluded next week.) has a distinct technical meaning, viz. : regular judical proceedings, according to the course of the common law, or by a regular suit, commenced
A CHILD AMONG LUNATICS. and prosecuted according to the forms of law. A day or two ago a gentleman whose official An essential requisite is due process to bring duties required him to visit a large Asylum near the party into Court. It is in accordance with this city, devoted to the indigent insane, took the first principles of natural law. Every per- with him a little boy some three years old, and son is entitled to his “ day in court," to be it was an interesting study to watch the effect legally notified of the proceedings taken against which the presence of the young visitor produced him, and duly summoned to defend. The pass among the lunatics of every grade. An unusual ing of judgment upon any person without his degree of quiet and order prevailed in every “ day in court,” without due process or its equi- hall
, and touching manifestations of the softening valent, is contrary to the law of nature, and of and subduing influences of childhood were es: the civilized world, and without the express hibited by those who were ordinarily most inn guaranty of the Constitution, it would be implied tractable. This was particularly the case with as a fundamental condition of all civil govern- those who had passed the season of youth. One ment. But the 10th section of the act of 1850 man, incurably insane, approached the little boy expressly pullifies this provision of the Constitu- with a countenance for the moment full of gentletion. It provides that the claimant may go beness and kindness, and with a polite gesture fore any Eourt of Record, or judge in vacation, handed him a strav-being all that he had to and without process make proof of the escape give-and showed great satisfaction when it was record is made of the matters proved, and a gene- Almost all approached
and shook bands with the and the owing of service or labor ; whereupon a accepted, and borne as if it had been
of values ral description of the person alleged to have es infant, and so mild was their bearing that be caped ; a transcript of such record, made
out and did not for a moment hesitate, and althout attested by the clerk, with the seal of the Court, abashed at what was to him an unusual crowd, must be taken and held to be conclusive evidence caresses. of the fact of escape, and that service or labor is But the most interesting due to the party mentioned in the record, and women's apartments. They were ready to de may be held sufficient evidence of the identity vour the child with their caresses, and yet when
they observed that their crowding and volubility tion. Can that be said to be by due process of modulated their voices to tones
Here is a palpable violation of the Constitu- annoyed him, instinctively withdrew a little and law, which is without process altogether? Here which many of them had long been strangers. the status or condition of the person is instantly One of the women, herself a
scene was in the
of tenderness, to
with tearful eyes—"Dear little fellow, is his , it is dragged through the next smaller hole, and mother living ?" An affirmative reply seemed through the next, and through the next, until it to relieve her apprehensions, and expression of has attained the required degree of dainty tenui
interest assumed a more cheerful tone. The ty; the same wire may decrease from one-third fixes most violent, closely confined in cells, watched to one-fiftieth of an inch in thickness, but it re
every movement of the boy with intense interest, quires many gradations in reduction, and many and some begged by all the affection for their intermediate annealings to prevent it from beown offspring—which insanity in its worst form coming too brittle. It is not merely iron that is had not eradicated—to be permitted to embrace so treated; any metal possessing a moderate dehim. The whole scene was calculated to deepen gree of ductility can be attenuated by drawing as the sympathy felt for the most unfortunate class well as by hammering or melting, varied in dewho were the object of the visit; and to show gree, and in the manner in which the process is how strongly the society of children is calculated conducted. Steel, we know, is made into wire to win back to gentleness those who, from any for needles and fish hooks, and a vast number of cause, have passed that indefinable line which other articles ; brass is made into wire for pins, separates the sane from the insane, Such sooth- among a countless host of other applications ; ing effects are of course transient, but it was copper is made into wire for electric telegraphs, something to obtain for those poor vexed souls bell-hanging and scientific apparatus ; gold and even a moment of calm delight.-N. Y. Courier. silver are made into wire for ornaments; plati
num is made into wire for philosophers and chemists.
A rare list of names and numbers is met with Wire was not always made by drawing. In in relation to iron wire. There is in the first
early days metal-workers were wont to beat out place, Iron Wire, plainly so called, varying in :their metal into thin plates or leaves, to cut the numerical designation according to its thickness,
plates into narrow stripes, and to round these and sold in bundles weighing sixty-three pounds stripes by a hammer and a file until they assum- each. There is, in the second place, Best Best Iron ed the form of wire In the description of the Wire—a tautology which may be excused so long sacerdotal garments prepared for Aaron, it is as we talk about Baden Baden; this has numbers stated that the makers of the ephod, “ did beat similar to the former, and it is sold in bundles of the gold into thin plates, and cut it into wires, to the same weight, but is slightly higher in price. work it in the blue, and in the purple, and in There is, in the next place, Best Selected Charthe scarlet, and in the fine linen, with cunning coal Wire, a little advanced again in price: and work.” In the regions of the fable, Vulcan is there is Card Annealed and Bright Iron Wire,
declared to have forged a net of delicate wire- of larger diameter, and much higher price; but Ework to entrap Venus and Mars; and if that most we need not enter into these trade secrets. Let
respectable of blacksmiths forged his wire we may us be content to know that the wires of various
presume that he did not draw it. It is supposed metals, and of greatly varied sizes, find their way *- that wire-drawing first commenced at Nurnberg into the hands of artificers innumerable, who
about five centuries ago; the wire-smiths then fashion them into needles, bodkins, pins, hooks changing their designation to wire-drawers. The and eyes, fish-hooks, button-rings, hair-pins, carddelicate gold-work of Nurnberg was probably the teeth, wire-brushes, brush-wires, spiral-springs, first to which the improvement was applied; but bounet-stiffeners, and a great number of articles copper and brass, iron and steel, afterwards shar- that we cannot here afford to enumerate. ed in the advantage; and the French and Eng. As unity is strength, so do many wires bring lish wire-smiths became also in due time wire their strength to bear upon one object when they drawers.
are twisted ; and thus will a rope of twenty wires The making of wire is not only a simple but often render braver service than twenty ropes an instructive process ; for it shows that cold iron working separately. This twisting of wires around is more like dough than we are in the habit of each other is a work not differing much in prinsupposing. It can be squeezed and driven about, ciple from the making of hempen cables, hawsers, until that which was a thick rod becomes a thin ropes, cords, lines and twines; each wire is a wire; as a bulky lump of dough can be squeezed component element of the group; and it is only out into a long roll. The iron is rolled hot into because the metal wire is stiffer than the hempen rods before it reaches the wire-drawer. He pro- yarn, that any more elaborate manufacturing mavides himself with hard steel plates, pierced with chinery becomes necessary. holes varying from the size of the original rod, The useful purposes to which wire rope
and down to that of the smallest wire. One end of cord, and string, are now applied are surprisingly à rod is tapered, pulled through a hole, and numerous. Window-sash lines, hot house cords, grasped by nippers on the other side; and then lightning conductors, picture frame cord, clock steam or any power draws the whole rod forcibly cord, tent ropes, clothes lines—all are gradually through; necessarily reducing the thickness, and travelling from the hempen region to the wire at the same time increasing the length. Then 'region. The wire-workers stoutly assert that
their favorite material is cheaper, more durable, , beautiful machine, which does the work of a little less flexible, and much less bulky than hem forest of fingers at once. pen cords.
And, instead of a single wire for The grandest achievement, perhaps, of the fences, railway signal cord, and the like, a much world's wire-workers, is the formation of a bridge
, stronger line is produced by a strand or twisted or rather the support of a bridge made of other cord of smaller wires. The makers tell us that materials. This is really a great and important wire rope one inch in circumference, and weighing work. Engineers say that iron wire is stronger, one pound per fathom, will bear as great a strain weight for weight, than bar iron; that cables of and render as much useful service as a hempen wire can be put together more readily than chains; rope two inches and three quarters in circumfer- and that wire cables are more easily lifted into ence, and weighing two pounds per fathom : this their places than bar chains. At least some enbeing the ratio maintained up to greater sizes: gineers say this, and they have given proof of a four inch wire-rope having as much strength their belief in the construction of very remarkas a ten-inch hempen rope. "Is it not wonderful able bridges. Travellers in Switzerland speak
. that a wire rope of four inches circumference, or with wonderment of the wire bridge at Freyburg, only an inch and a quarter in thickness, will bear in which the span from pier to pier is nearly a weight of thirty tons, more than sixty thousand nine hundred feet; in which the platform is near
n pounds, before it will break? On one occasion ly a hundred and seventy feet above the water
; the artillery officers at Woolwich spliced an eight- which platform is supported by four cables, each inch hempen cable to a wire rope three inches consisting of more than a thousand iron wires
. and a half in circumference; they pulled and They speak, too, of another wire bridge acros stretched, and pulled and stretched again, until the gorge of Gotterou. But these bridges hare one of the two broke, -it was the hempen cable been outdone by others which have recently been that gave way, leaving the wire rope as sound as thrown across the mighty Niagara, owing to the at first.
extraordinary nature of the falls, and rapids, and Landsmen know little of the difference between boiling eddies ruling beneath. With a span standing-rigging and running-rigging on ship- eight hundred feet from shore to shore, and a boards; but it may be easily understood as re- height of two hundred and sixty feet above the ferring-on the one hand, to ropes which are water, a light and elegant bridge presents its defixed in definite positions in a ship, and on the licate tracery of wire-work against the sky
, near other to ropes which have to be hauled in, and the great North American Falls, in an extraordihauled out; hauled up, and hauled down, during nary manner. the daily working of a ship. Now, wire ropes
There are sixteen wire cables to support the are coming extensively into use for standing-rig- bridge; there are six hundred wires in each cable
; ging, their strength presenting a favorable" con- and these wire cables, less than an inch in thicktrast to that of hempen ropes. The General ness, support a foot-bridge which weighs
alto Screw Company's ships Propontis, Bosphorous, gether more than six hundred tons
. The bridge and Hellespont, have wire-rope standing-rigging is about a mile and a half below the widely-reand it is said that the Hellespont, on one of her nowned Falls, and directly over the frightful for voyages, put the wire rope to a severe test; for, pids. It was finished about six years ago during a shattering and clattering of booms there has since been constructed another Niagar and sheet-cleets, the iron wire shrouds broke a wire bridge, to be traversed by the locomotive
, boom, instead of the boom breaking the shrouds. and intended to connect the railway system of the
Wire is getting into public buildings, in posi- United States with that of Canada. "In this inte tions and situations where one would scarcely markable bridge, the trains, instead of running look for it. For instance, an ingenious firm set through a tube, 'as in our Britannia Bridge, the themselves to consider whether wire might not along the top of a tube ; the tube being supporto fulfil the duty of lath and plaster for ceilings;ed by four wire cables, two above, and two be an answer in the affirmative. There are wires in diameter, and contain nearly three thousand placed about a quarter of an inch apart, and con- four hundred wires each, we may percbance be inches, and this arrangement affords a holding employed exceeds half a million pounds. A wire nected by cross wires, at intervals of about eight prepared to expect that the weight of iron wire afterwards coated. As wire bends so easily, it is comprising so many wires in cables, is longer than be highly useful in domes and arched ceilings. ment to support a bridge a thousand feet long by considered that such a construction is likely to those at Niagara ; it is indeed no trifling achiere. And as wire gets among the plasterers, so does it wire ; there are twelve cables of four inches disthe cotton is carded, as a preparatory step towards wires. If the good people of Quebec erer hare find a reception among the cotton-spinners; for meter, each containing five hundred and fifty spinning, by means of cylinders studded all over the fortune to witness the completion of the prewith fine wire teeth, springing out of strips of posed railway bridge over the mighty St. Lawrence, leather and arranged in scrupulous order by a 'they will see a wire bridge that will throw all
but THE MAINE LAW A FIXED FACT.
others into the shade. A bridge three thousand good trade is now springing up with the west. four hundred feet long, with the piers tbree hun. Such establishments are the life and heart of any dred feet high, and sixteen hundred feet apart; populous community, and we trespass not beyond a roadway wide enough both for horse-vehicles the bounds of truth, when we say, that in this and for a railway, at a height of a hundred and department of industrial life, Baltimore has no sixty feet above the water, and all supported by superior in the country, either in point of artiswire ropes—will be a monument of skill, enter- tic skill or the perfection of her manufactures.” prise and utility, which-with the grand trunk - Baltimore American Farmer. railway itself-will help the Canadians to a better character for perseverance and activity than they have hitherto enjoyed. (To be continued.)
Immediately after the enactment of the law, the wholesale trade in liquors ceased, and has
never been revived. The large stocks in the MANUFACTORY OF AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS.
hands of dealers were sent off to those other The editor of the “ American" of this city, States, the governments of which allowed them has recently visited the establishment of Messrs. to be sold to their people. The strange spectaR. Sinclair & Co. on Light street, (one of the cle was seen in all our cities and larger towns of oldest establishments of the kind in the U. S.) the flight of great quantities of liquors, from the and from his report we gather the following de- operation of the Maine Law. The retail trade tails, viz : “The factory covers an area of 19,650 was immediately abandoned by every dealer in square feet, and is five stories high, divided into the State, who had any character to lose, or who
departments as follows: Machinery, black- desired the good opinion of his fellow-citizens. E. smiths, moulding, carpenter and finishing. So far as the trade continued at all, it was car
. Every portion of the building is thoroughly fire ried on with great secrecy and caution, and was proot, being furnished with plate iron doors and confined entirely to the hands of the lowest and stone sills.' Almost every article required by vilest part of the people, chiefly to this class of the farming community, is manufactured here, foreign population. The change in the habits of and the character which this old established great numbers of our people was instantaneous house has maintained for the excellence of its and wonderful; they were reformed of their inproductions, has caused a regular extension of temperate habits, because temptation was put out its operations, and it now embraces the large of their way. area noted above, in the very heart of our city. In the city of Portland, where the law was enThe entire manufacturing department is worked forced with considerable rigor, the change was under the supervision of one of the proprietors, very great. It was apparent to the most careless Mr. Maynard, Mr. Sinclair taking charge of the observer, and was the theme of continual remark general business of the establishment.
all classes of our people. Our streets were " There are constantly engaged in the factory as quiet by night as those of a country village, one hundred and twenty mechanics, distributed and our police and watchmen remarked that their among the several departments. There are con- duties were nearly at an end. The effects of the gumed annually in the factory, three hundred suppression of the grog shops were immediately tons of cast and one hundred and seventy tons of scen in diminished vagrancy, pauperism and wrought iron, four hundred thousand feet of crime, and increased comforts among the poorer lumber, four hundred and fifty tons of anthra- parts of the people. cite, two hundred and seventy-five tons of bitu. The Mayor of Portland, at the end of the mu. minous and twenty-four hundred bushels of char-nicipal year, 1851-2, after the law had been in coal. The products of the factory for the past operation only nine months, in his report to the year, up to the first of the present month, were city council, which was ordered to be printed 200 threshing machines, 150 horse powers, 200 and circulated through the city, gave an abstract wheat fans, 500 corn-shellers, 30 cider mills from the returns of the department connected and presses, 600 straw-cutters, 4,000 ploughs, with poverty and crime, as follows: 800 cultivators, 300 harrows, 12 revolving cob- There were committed to the alms house from crushers, 100 seed drills, 400 gang ploughs, 50 June 1, 1850, to March 20, 1851, (before the clod crushers, 50 revolving screw crushers, 25 law) 252 ; from June 1, 1851, to March 20, lime spreaders, 50 horse power corn mills, 200 1852, (after the law) 146; difference in nine corn drills, 50 hand seed drills, 150 corn and months, 106. Number in the alms house March cob crushers, 75 homony mills, 50 vegetable 20, 1851, 112; number in the alms house, March cultivators, 25 garden engines, 700 grain cradles, 20, 1852, 90, difference, 22. Number of fami 75 revolving horse rakes, 200 chain pumps, 150 lies assisted out of the alms house from June 1, churns, 200 sausage-cutters and stuffers, 50 ag. 1850, to March 20, 1851, 135; from June 1, ricultural furnaces, besides an innumerable num- 1851, to March 20, 1852, 90; difference in nine ber of smaller implements. Most of this large months, (just one third) 45. Seventy-five of the amount is carried to the southern market, and a ninety in the alms house, March 20, 1852, came
there through intemperance; four of the ninety jail on the 20th of March, 1850, 25 persons ; on were not brought there through that cause ; the the 20th of March, 1851, 7 persons, three of history of the remaining eleven is not known. whom were liquor sellers; without them the num
Committed to the House of Correction for in-ber would be 4 against 25 of the corresponding temperance from June 1, 1850, to March 20, day of 1851, a falling off of more than 83 per 1851, 46; for larceny, &c., &c., 12; in all, 58. cent. in the short period of nine months. From June 1, 1851, to March 20, 1852, for in- The jails of Kennebec, Franklin and Somerset temperance, 10; for larceny, &c , &c., 3; in all, counties were empty, and that of Penobscot 13; a difference in nine months of more than county nearly so, while the alms houses of the three-fourths. Committed from April 9, to May State were rapidly undergoing the process of de10, 1851, 19. The “ Maine Law was enacted population. The alms house at Portland was June 2, 1851, and from the first of that month built when the city contained about ten thousand to March 20, 1852, ten months, the number com- inhabitants, and at 23,000 it was densely crowd. mitted was only ten, although great activity was ed. The authorities were considering the erecdisplayed by the police in arresting all offenders. tion of a new one, to cost no less than $50,000,
$ At the term of the police District Court in but after the Maine law bad been in operation a Portland, March, 1852, but one indictment was few months only, ranges of apartments were found for larceny, and that was the result of a empty there; and the establishment, as it now malicious prosecution ; while at the March term stands, will be sufficient, under a vigorous enof 1851, seventeen indictments were found. forcement of the Maine law, until the city sball These results have been obtained, notwithstand contain 100,000 inhabitants.-Hunt's Merchant's ing an increased vigilance in arresting persons Magazine. found under the influence of strong drinks. It had been the practice of the police and
RUSSIAN SERFAGE. watch, before the enactment of the Maine law, Of the 70,000,000, of Russian subjects fifty to arrest no persons for intemperance who were millions are in a state of bondage. In a work like quiet and able to make their way home, and gen- this our limits will not allow of our entering at erally the peaceable inebriate was helped home length on the subject of serfage; but it is necesby the watchman. But after the enactment of sary to explain why the nobles, and other great the Maine law, this practice was changed, and proprietors, are so opposed to the emancipation all intoxicated persons were arrested wherever of the majority of their fellow subjects. The they were found, that through disclosures from fact is, thc serfs constitute the riches of the them the secret grog shops might be discovered. nobles; their vanity is gratified by the consciousIf in 1851-2, the practice of the preceding years ness that thousands of their fellows are their had been continued, the commitments to the legal property,—their slaves in fact, though the watch-house would not have been one-third so appellation of serf seems to qualify their odious great as they were ; wbile the latter policy of the reality; and their riches proceed from the labor city administration of 1850–1, would have more of these people, or the tax which they pay to the than doubled the commitments during that year. lord of the soil : this tax is called the obrok. The returns from the watch house were as fol. There are two ways in Russia of deriving relows, being taken from the same report of the venues from agricultural property; either by Mayor, to wit:
obliging the serfs to cultivate the land for their There was committed to the watch house from proprietors, or by imposing on them the obrok. June 1, 1850, to and including March, 1851, More than half the peasants—serfs—in Russia 431 persons. For the corresponding period of pay this tax; and it is only the lesser number 1851-2, after the enactment of the Maine law, who are subject to service and drudgery. Of the the number was one hundred and eighty; a de- first it may be said that their position is greatly duction of almost three-fifths, notwithstanding superior to the latter; and if they are slaves in the increased vigilance of the police in the latter law, they are not entirely so in fact. When the period in arresting people found in the streets in peasants pay the obrok to their lord, he gives up a state of intoxication.
to them the lands of his domain. He no longer The returns from the common jail showed as works them to his own profit, nor does he often striking a contrast as those stated above. The inhabit the same locality; and the only interMayor's report continues :
course he holds with these serfs, generally speakCommitted to the jail for drunkenness, larceny, ing, is that at certain periods he visits his terri
. &c., from June 1, 1850, to March 20, 1831, 279; tory to receive the money due him ;---Day,
it for the corresponding period of 1851-2, 135; often happens that the lords of the soil bare difference, 141. Deduct liquor sellers (72) im- never seen their estate, and then the peasants prisoned in the latter term, and we have 63 for are their own managers and choose one among drunkenness, larceny, &c., against 279 for the cor- them as a principal, who transmits the obrok to responding period before the enactment of the the lord. Sometimes these peasants enjoy great Maine law, a deduction of almost 7-9tbs in the prosperity.
A stranger who might chance to short period of nine months. There were in the I visit on a Sunday any village belonging to a noble