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of his age.
ticles furnished to each, a large amount of the DIED.-On the 9th of 7th mo. last, at the resiprovisions raised on the plantation, which under dence of her son, Jonathan Doan, Morgan Co., the old plan had vanished, remained on hand. Ind., after a short illness, RACHEL Doan, an es
teemed member of West Union Monthly Meet"Every year,” says he, "for six years past this ing, in the 84th year of her age. great plantation has bought several hundred Through the course of her life she was closely bushels of corn, and was scanty in all ground attached to the doctrines and testimonies of our
religious Society. provisions, our own provisions always falling
She bore her sufferings with Christian patience short ; this year, (1790,) since the establishment and resignation ; expressing her belief that there of the copy holders, though several less acres was nothing in her way, and quietly breathing were planted last year in Guinea corn than usual,
her last without a sigh or struggle, leaving to her : yet we have been able to sell several hundred survivors the comfortable assurance that her end
was peace. bushels at a high price, and still have a great stock on hand." The profits derived from the planta. Co., New Jersey, on 2d day the 14th of the 8th
At his residence in Tuckerton, Burlington tion, upon the improved plan of operations, are month, TIMOTHY Pharo, in the sixty-second year stated at three times the former amount. From the account of the experience of Joshua
He was fully impressed, during his severe and Steele, given by W. Dickson in his Mitigation of riches of this world, and often expressed this
protracted illness, with the nothingness of the Slavery, it is manifest that much of the evil conviction to his children, warning them, “ that usually attendant on slavery was remedied without there was little worth living for in this world, and actual emancipation. If the laborers did not re
that they should commence early to lay up their ceive the rewards for their services which justice family to have additional medical advice, he
treasures in Heaven." When requested by his demands, they were at least partially remunera- said, “ do as you think best, my children, but I ted, and an interest in their work was excited, feel that there is but one Physician that can do which is unknown under the usual procedure.
me any good. The Physician of souls."
He was a member of Little Egg Harbor MonthFrom what I have been able to learn, I appre. ly Meeting, and his residence being convenient hend that upon the decease of Joshua Steele, his to the meeting house, he took great pleasure in farms and his slaves fell into the hands of men
having all travelling ministers and Friends to put who were wedded to the old barbarous system. fortable during their sojourn ; and although active
up there, and spared no pains to make them com. Professor Dew indeed asserts on the testimony of ly engaged in a multifarious business till within one of his neighbors, evidently opposed to the two or three years past, he was always ready to plan, that the negroes were glad to be released and to those things which he believed would con
devote a portion of his time to meeting business, from the copy hold system. But the testimony of duce to the interest or advancement of the prinJoshua Steele himself appears incompatible with ciples or doctrines of Friends. And he was himthat of the Professor's informant with regard to the self a consistent and steadfast supporter of those success of the experiment while conducted by
And by his perfect resignation to the will of
the Father, and his calm state of mind during his If slavery must continue to disgrace our boasted last severe illness, have we not reason to hope republic, it is greatly to be desired that some plan that the loss to his family and friends is his eter
nal gain? for its mitigation and gradual extinction should be brought into operation. The principle adopted by Joshua Steele, was evidently judicious as far
Our friends who furnish obituaries for insertion as it went. By giving his slaves an interest in in the Review, will please to remember, that the their labor, and rendering their compensation de Monthly Meeting of which the deceased was a pendent upon the service performed, habits of member is always required. Notices, if deficient industry and economy were inculcated. Being
in this particular, are necessarily omitted. in some measure taught the duties and responsibilities of freemen they were so far prepared for
HAVERFORD SCHOOL. the enjoyment of freedom.
The Winter Term will commence on the second If the holders, of slaves in our country would Fourth-day of the Tenth month next. Application adopt a system based on this principle, they dent, at the school, in person or by letier addressed
may be made to JONATHAN RICHARDS, Superintenwould no doubt promote their own interest, and to West Haverford, Delaware County, Pennsylat the same time pave the way for the peaceful vania, by whom all the information required will extinction of a great and ack.owledged evil.
be given. When more convenient to do so, parties applying may register the names of applicants
with the undersigned. * By ground provisions he means provisions raised
The SEMI ANNUAL EXAMINATION will commence on their own ground, not articles subjected to the ou Second-day, 9th mo. 11th, and close on the operation of grinding.
morning of Fourth-day following. The presence
of parents and others interested in the subject of such a system in the slaveholding States, and Education is respectfully invited. Copies of the Order of Examination may be ob- our Northern brethren were to refrain from ad.
especially when coupled with Colonization. If tained at the office of Friends Review. CHARLES YARNALL,
vocating the doctrines looking to a forcible emarSecretary Board of Managers,
cipation of slaves, and admitting that the subNo. 39 Market st., Philadelphia. ject of emancipation belongs exclusively to the
States in which the institution exists-should
treat the subject temperately, using only such LETTER FROM A SLAVEHOLDER.
moral influence as would be calculated to prepare To the editor of the N. Y. Tribune :
the public mind for a system of gradual emanciSir: I am a citizen of a slave holding State, pation, they would do far more toward eradicato and the owner of a family of slaves, consisting of ing Slavery than they can reasonably hope to aca grand-mother, children, and grand-children, complish by a contrary course. who I intend shall never serve another master. It may be thought by some that the process of I am firmly convinced of the evils and injustice gradual emancipation is too slow in accomplishof our system of Slavery. And, like thousands ing the desired object. But such a system may of others in our State, for years, have been look- be adopted in each of the several States in which ing anxiously for some practical plan by which Slavery exists, as the public mind is prepared for Slavery may be eradicated. Although the evil it, and, wherever adopted, will entirely accom- . is manifest, and the requirements of justice clear, plish the object desired, in a reasonable time. yet, the question remains to be decided, what Such a system may be in progress in one, two measures are best calculated to extirpate the or more States, at the same time. The example evil, and restore'to freedom the colored race, who of such States will have a powerful influence were originally wrongfully torn from their native upon others, and in time all will come into the country, and, in violation of every principle of system, and all will ultimately be relieved from justice, sold into a state of bondage.
the evils of slavery. But if force is to be relied The ardent Anti-Slavery men of the non-slave- upon, the object cannot be attained, if at all, bat holding States will doubtless say: “Men who by wars, revolutions and the most horrid convulare admitted to be wrongfully held in Slavery, sions, which will result in a severance of our bap; ought to be immediately emancipated." Weil
, py Union, and the entailment apon the disrupted if this be admitted, the question still remains, parts of perpetual war. These evils may all be how shall we convince the numerous owners of avoided by the resort to the rational means sug. slaves, that it is their duty, and that justice de- gested above. mands of them, an immediate and instantaneous Voluntary emancipation is gradually becoming emancipation of all their slaves ? I will not re- more and more common. This has already had mark upon the difficulties and evils which would a considerable effect upon the relative increase arise from such a sudden and universal emanci- of free white persons and slaves. As the compation of the colored race. It is sufficient to merce and wealth of the nation increases eren say, that a universal and firm conviction pervades more rapidly than its white population, the relative the entire community of the slave-holding States, ability of the country to colonize free persons of that a general and sudden emancipation of all color is constantly increasing, and leaves no room our slaves, would be attended with the most to doubt of our ability to colonize the whole of enormous evils both to the white and colored our colored population, if the slaveholding States population. Whether this opinion is well or ill should choose to couple with their
of founded can make no difference. For, so long as gradual emancipation the condition of colonizathat opinion exists, it is impossible that a univer- tion ir Liberia. sal, voluntary emancipation can take place. And Such colonization would powerfully encourage that forcible emancipation cannot take place in and induce voluntary emancipation ; especially if the slave-holding States, is equally clear. the system of emancipation should apply only to
As you have strongly and justly remarked, in those hereafter born, as humane masters would your reply to Mr. Goodell
, that non-slaveholding generally emancipate the parents of children who States - have exactly the same rightful power had become free, under the system of gradual over Slavery in Virginia or Alabama that we emancipation. have over slavery in Cuba or Brazil —not one
The strong argument with Southern slave partiole more.” The power of moral influence holders against even gradual emancipation is, belongs equally to all parts of the Union, to the that it would be interfering with rested rights ; citizens of the non-slaveholding States. To give but there cannot be a vested right in a child uxeffect to moral influence, the subject should be born. Consequently, objectors would be shop so treated as to convince the judgments and not of this argument by making the system apply to excite the passions and prejudices of the slave only to children thereafter born. If any object holding community in the South. A system of to this, because such discrimination would be gradual emancipation is the only one which is unjust, 'I reply,-better take the system thus repracticable. There are numerous advocates of stricted than not at all. As gradual emancipa
tion can only prevail with the assent of the peo- i be obeyed; and any one who don't obey me and ple of the slaveholding States, policy and wisdom behave himself will have to leave.” require that it should be so modified as to secure Now, we feel confident that a slaveholder who the popular support.
should adopt this course and firmly pursue it As all strong excitement, on the subject of would soon have the finest plantation and the Slavery, has a tendency to check the progress of best crops in his county-keeping all his good public opinion in favor of gradual emancipation, blacks and getting rid of the bad ones, and with it is greatly to be regretted that the present Con- all his laborers working under the stimulus of gress should have deemed it necessary to repeal personal interest, and impelled by pride to make the Missouri Compromise. That Compromise as good a shuw as possible in the settlement at the had, in a great degree, given peace to the coun- end of the year. We believe the great majority try on the subject of slavery for more than thirty of any planter's slaves might thus be quietly years. The repeal has thrown the whole subject educated into fitness for freedom and self-direcopen again. The only remedy for the mischief, tion, as well as into a competent knowledge
thus done, is to elect Members and Senators, of letters and the elemental arts, while the planter Fs who will stand pledged to re-enact that Compro- would find himself, at ten years' end, not only
mise. I fully agree with you, that that object wiser but actually' richer than if he had conshould be kept in view at every election, until tinued to hold his laborers in hopeless Slavery. the voice of the nation shall emphatically decide Rely on it, friend! it can never be dangerous nor
that the wrong done shall be repaired. Let this impolitic to do right! and what Washington, on to be accomplished, and no Douglas or Dixon will John Randolph and many other eminent South
ever again dare to propose to annul the solemn erns saw fit to do on their death-beds you may compact. The reinstatement of the Missouri safely and wisely do while you
live. Compromise may not accomplish all that some of We will not remark further on our corresthe abolitionists of the North desire ; but if a pondent's suggestions, except to say that, while measure secures in part what they wish, reason we believe in the Colonization of Western Africa dictates that they should heartly support it. The by civilized and Christianized blacks, we have no accomplishment of a partial good will not prevent idea that the Negro race will ever quit this them from urging additional measures, on a fu- country entirely, whether from choice or compulture occasion, which they may deem just and sion. We believe the South could not afford to proper. But they should always recollect that spare them, and do not see how they could well they are not to be the exclusive judges of what be got away. Were Slavery abolished, the South measures are best calculated to relieve the coun-would not wish to be rid of her black laborers, try from an acknowledged evil.
any more than they would wish to go. Freedom A FRIEND OF GraduaL EMANCIPATION. reconciles where Slavery antagonizes. Blessed Mason County, Kentucky, July 13, 1854.
be Liberty -N. Y. Tribune. Remarks.
PARIS AND THE FRENCH. It seems to us that a conscientious man convinced of the wrong of slaveholding should begin the work of redressing that wrong at once. And I have been now, in all, about a month in this if we were in our correspondent's place, and the gay and flowery city, seeing the French people, laws of that State forbade emancipation on her not in hotels and cafes, but in the seclusion of soil, and the teaching of slaves, we should re-domestic life; received, when introduced, not move with them at once to some convenient lo- with ceremonious distance as a stranger, but with cality where no such tyrannical statutes existed. confidence and affection as a friend. Then (or on our old plantation if the laws did Though, according to the showing of my not forbid) we should say to those slaves, “ You friends, Paris is empty of many of her most brilare free, and may leave if you choose ; but I ad- liant ornaments, yet I have been so fortunate as vise you to stay with me till I shall have taught to make the acquaintance of many noble and you how to use and enjoy your freedom. I will justly celebrated people, and to feel as if I had either myself teach you two hours daily or I will gained a real insight into the French heart. employ some competent persons to do so; and I I liked the English and the Scotch as well as will share fairly with you the proceeds of my land I could like anything. And now I equally like and
At the year's end, I will settle the French. Exact opposites, you will say. For fairly with
and any one who chooses may that reason all the more charming. The goodtaké his portion and leave, while I with ness and beauty of the Divine mind is no less those who remain will endeavor to raise a better shown in the traits of different races than of difcrop next year, I think you can all learn more, ferent tribes of fruits and flowers. And because live better, and save more, by staying with me, things are exact opposites, is no reason why we than by going off; if you don't think so, go; or, should not like both. The eye is not like the if you stay now, go whenever you sball have come hand, nor the ear like the foot; yet who conto think so. But while you stay here, I must' demos any of them for the difference? So I
BY HARRIET BEECHER STOWE.
regard nations as parts of a great common body, shade of Lafayette, it would seem, might rise and national differences as necessary to a common and say, 'Et tu, Brute!!” humanity.
It is true, it is a sarcasm of Voltaire's ; bat I thought, when in English society, that it ,Voltaire, though born a Frenchman, neither emwas as perfect and delightful as it could be: bodied nor was capable of understanding the true There was worth of character, strength of prin French ideal. The French head he bad, but ciple, true sincerity and friendship, charmingly not the French heart. And from his bitter expressed. I have found all these, too, among judgment we might appeal to a thousand noble the French, and, besides them, something which names. The generous Henry IV., the noble charms me the more, because it is peculiar to Sully, and Bayard, the knight sans peur et sans the French, and of a kind wholly different from reproche-were these half tiger and half monkey! any I have ever had an experience of before. Were John Calvin and Fenelon half tiger and There is an Iris-like variety and versatility of half monkey? Laplace, Geoffrey, St. Hilaire, nature, a quickness in catching and reflecting Cuvier, Des Cartes, Malebranche, Aragn—what the various shades of emotion or fancy, a readi- were they? The tree of history is enriched ness in seizing upon one's own half expressed with no nobler and fairer boughs and blossoms thoughts, and running them out in a thousand than have grown from the French stock. graceful little tendrils, which is very capti
It seems a most mysterious Providence that vating
some nations, without being wickeder than others,
should have a more unfortunate and disastrous I know a general prejudice has gone
forth that the French are all mere outside, without
history. any deep reflection or emotion. This may
The woes of France have sprung from the fact be
that a Jezebel de Medici succeeded in extermi. true of many. No doubt that the strength of nating from the nation that portion of the peo that outward life, that acuteness of the mere perceptive organization, and that tendency to ple corresponding to the Puritans of Scotland
, social exhiliration, which prevail,
will incline to tions which culminated in the Massacre of St.
England, and Germany. The series of persecusuch a fault in many cases, An English reserve Bartholomew and ended with the dragonades uninclines to moroseness, and Scotch perseverance der Louis XIV., drained France of her life-blood
. to obstinacy : so this ærial French nature may Other nations have profited by the treasures then become levity and insincerity; but then it is neither the sullen Englishman, the dogged for want of them. Some of the best blood in
cast out of her, and she has remained poor Scotchman, nor the shallow Frenchman, that we America is of the old Huguenot stock. Hugueare to take as the nation's ideal. In each country nots carried arts and manufactures into England. we are to take the very best as the specimen.
An expelled French refugee became the theologiNow, it is true that, here in France, one can cal leader of Puritanism in England, Scotland, find people as judicious, quiet, discreet, and re- and America ; and wherever John Calvin's sysligious, as anywhere in the world; with views of tem of theology has gone, civil liberty has gone life as serious, and as earnest, not living for pre- with it; so we might almost say of France, as tence or show, but for the most rational and re- the Apostle said of Israel, “ If the fall of them ligious ends, Now, when all this goodness is be the riches of the world, and the diminishing silvered over, as it were, reflecting, like mother of them be the riches of the Gentiles, how much o'-pearl, or opal, a thousand fanciful shades and
more their fulness !” changes, is not the result beautiful? Some fami
When the English and Americans sneer at the lies into which I have entered, some persons instability, turbulence, and convulsions of the with whom I have talked, have left a most de- French nation for the last century, let us as lightful impression upon my mind; and I have ourselves what our history would have been, had talked, by means of imperfect English, French, the “Gunpowder Plot” succeeded, and the whole and interpretations, with a good many. They element of the Reformation been exterminated
. have made my heart bleed over the history of It is true, vitality and reactive energy might this beautiful country. It is truly mournful have survived such a process ; but that vitality that a people with so many fine impulses, so would have shown itself just as it has in France much genius, appreciation, and effective power, -in struggles and convulsions. The frequent should, by the influence of historical events quite revolutions of France are not a thing to be beyond the control of the masses, so often have sneered at; they are not evidences of fičkleness been thrown into a false position before the but of constancy; they are, in fact, a prolonged world, and been subjected to such a series of struggle for liberty, in which there occur periods agonizing revulsions and revolutions.
of defeat, but in which, after every interval of “Oh, the French are half tiger, half monkey!” | repose, the strife is renewed. Their said a cultivated American to me, the other day. culty has been, that the destruction of the ReSuch remarks cut me to the heart, as if they formed Church in France, took out of the crane had been spoken of a brother. And when they try entirely that element of religious rationalism come from the mouth of an American, the very which is at once conservative and progr:seire.
Decision of A. D. Smith, Associate Justice of islature of Ohio. So also, about the same time,
the Supreme Court of the State of Wisconsin, in regard to Indiana, and I believe Illinois. Up Ende in relation to the Fugitive Slave Law. to 1837, the States esteemed it their duty, and (Concluded from page 794.)
slave States demanded its performance, to proI ought not to dismiss the consideration of vide by law for the execution and faithful obser
vance of this compact. All seemed to regard it e For this question without particularly adverting to vance of this compact. the case of Prigg vs. The Commonwealth of
as a compact and nothing else; binding, it is Pennsylvania, 16° Peters' Rep. 510. The opin- still’a compact, and a compact only
true, and operative as law equally upon all, but ions in the other cases cited are so conflicting, casual or incidental as to be of no force; and
Again, it is respectfully suggested that the
whole of the case of Prigg vs. Penn., it be justly
argument of Mr. Justice Story is based remkared that the discrepancy of opinion among upon what is sometimes called the petitio princithe members of the Court was so wide and fun- pii
. He assumes that the Constitution makes it it. MA
damental as greatly to impair the authority of the duty of the Federal Government to enforce that decision. It affirms the constitutionality of
the right of the owner secured by the compact, the act of 1793 upon contemporaneous exposi
and then infers that it must necessarily have the mation in one respect and expressly defies the power ; and then, if Congress has it, the States
cannot have it. same rule in another, for it pronounces the act
All admit that there is no express power in 23 constitutional in part, and unconstitutional in che be another part. Whatever of authority may at the Constitution to legislate upon this subject, 2 tach to it in consequence of the character and but it is claimed to be necessarily implied, as in
eminence of the men who passed it, and of him cidental to the grant of judicial power. The ekss who signed it, is effectually counteracted by the reclamation of a fugitive is first decided to bene liis decision of the Court that in one part of it at United States, and hence within the judicial
case" arising under the Constitution of the to the least the Constitution was violated. Cotemporaneous construction confers the power of legis- power. But this mode of implying powers can
never be sustained. The judicial power is exlation and execution upon the Stateś as well as U de Congress ; for long before Congress assumed to tended in several respects beyond the legislative
The judicial power has jurisdiction in act upon the subject, the State Legislatures had power. ir passed laws in tidelity to the compact, in most cases arising between the citizens of different of which some of the framers of the Constitution States. A citizen of New York may sue a citi
zen of Wisconsin upon a promissory note, bill of e had seats, and all of the slave States, and all or nearly all the free States, continued to exercise exchange, covenants in a deed, in partition of
real estate, or even in ejectment for the possesh the power up to a very recent period.
sion or title to lands. If a power of legislation Cotemporaneous history, cotemporaneous ex- may, therefore, be grafted by implication upon a position, early and long.continued acquiescence, judicial power, Congress may assume the whole all go to show the interpretation given to this power of legislation over those subjects in the provision of the Constitution by the States and respective States, and necessarily exclude State the people. The slave States passed acts to exe- legislation, and accomplish at a blow, the comcute the compact. The free States did the same. plete prostration and overthrow of the State sov. The action of the several States, or many of ereignty. them, shows conclusively that they interpreted Again, this case explicitly decides the claim the provision as a compact merely addressed to of the owner to a fugitive slave to be a "case" the good faith of the States. The slave States within the meaning of the Constitution. Hence appealed to the free States for legislative action it is a suit not in admiralty or equity, and hence to carry into effect this provision of the Federal at common law within the meaning of the ConConstitution, and demanded of the latter the stitution. It also decides the determination of stern exercise of a power which it is now sought the claim to be a judicial proceeding, and bases the to wrest from them. In 1826, the State of power of the Federal Government in the preMaryland appointed Commissioners to attend mises upon the grant of judicial power, and the upon the session of the Legislature of Pennsyl- power of legislation assumed to be incidental to vania, and induce the latter to pass an act to that. All these points, which are held to be res facilitate the reclamation of fugitive slaves. adjucata, strike at the very vitality of the act of
Their mission was successful. Pennsylvania 1850, which attempts to confer such judicial yielded to the solicitations of Maryland's Com- power upon Commissioners. Time will not permissioners, and passed the act of 1826, which mit a further review of this case.
In my judg. was afterward declared void by the Supreme ment, the opinion of the Chief Justice completely Court of the United States in Prigg vs. Pennsyl- overthrows that of the Court, and, so far as he vania. In 1836 or 1837, similar Commissioners attempts to argue his points, beyond doubt or were appointed by the State of Kentucky to the controversy establishes the doctrine here conState of Ohio, whose mission resulted in the pas- tended for. sage of a most stringent fugitive act by the Leg. I In view of the dissentient opinions of the