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ARTS, SCIENCES, AND MISCELLANEOUS
ENLARGED AND IMPROVED.
THE SIXTH EDITION.
Jllustrated with nearly sir hundred Engravings.
. VOL. XVI.
INDOCTI DISCANT; AMENT MEMINISSE PERITI.
AND HURST, ROBINSON, AND COMPANY, 90, CHEAPSIDE,
P A R
PAR Parthia. ARTHÍA, a celebrated empire of antiquity, Arsaces; but was still more unfortunate than he bad Parthia.
bounded on the west by Media, on the north by been in the former, being not only defeated in a great Hyrcania, on the east by Aria, on the south by Car- battle, but taken prisoner, and died in captivity. The mania the desert; surrounded on every side by moun day on which Arsaces gained this victory was ever after tains, which still serve as a boundary, though its name observed among the Parthians as an extraordinary fesis now changed, having obtained that of Eyrac or Arac; tival. Arsaces being thus fully established in his new
and, to distinguish it from Chaldæa, that of Eyrac Aga- kingdom, reduced Hyrcania and some other provinces Ancient mi. By Ptolemy it is divided into five districts, viz. under his power; and was at last killed in a battle divisions. Caminsine or Gamisene, Partheyne, Choroane, Atticene, against Ariarthes IV. king of Cappadocia. From this
and Tabiene. The ancient geographers enumerate a prince all the other kings of Partbia took the surname
Ispahan, the capital of the present Persian empire. drove him quite out of Media. But he soon returned
Parthia is by some supposed to have been first peopled with an army of 100,000 foot and 20,000 horse, with peopled.
by the Phetri or Pathri, often mentioned in Scripture, which he put a stop to the further progress of Antio-
reigned 15 years, and left three sons, Phrahates, Mithri- of the Par
thian moThe history of the ancient Parthians is totally lost: dates, and Artabanus. Pbrahates, the elder, succeeded
narchs, All that we know about them is, that they were first to the throne, and reduced under his subjection the subject to the Medez, afterwards to the Persians, and Mardi, who had never been conquered by any but A. lastly to Alexander the Great. After his death the pro lexander the Great. After him, his brother Mithridavince fell to Seleucus Nicator, and was held by him tes was invested with the regal dignity. He reduced and his successors till the reign of Antiochus 'l'heus, the Bactrians, Medes, Persians, Elymeans, and overran about the year 250 before Christ. At this time the in a manner all the east, penetrating beyond the bound.
Parthians revolted, and chose one Arsaces for their aries of Alexander's conquests. Demetrius Nicator, Cause of
king. The immediate cause of this revolt was the who then reigned in Syria, endeavoured to recover those the Par. thians re
lewdness of Agathocles, to whom Antiochus had com provinces ; hut his army was entirely destroyed, and volt from
mitted the care of all the provinces beyond the Eu himself taken prisoner, in which state he remained till Anticchus phrates. This man made an infamous attempt on Ti his death ; after which victory Mithridates made himTheus. ridates, a youth of great beanty; which se enraged his self master of Babylonia and Mesopotamia, so that all
brother Arsaces, that he excited his countrymen to the provinces between the Euphrates and the Ganges
with his so much time to strengthen himself, defeated and drove ed against him at the head of a numerous army, under
whole arhis antagonist out of the country. Seleucus, however, pretence of delivering his brother Demetrius, who was
my. in a short time, undertook another expedition against still in captivity. Phrahates was defeated in three Vol. XVI. Part I.