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back and neglected in the prevailing mania of tionary disunionists or treasonable malplot. the incorruptible Johnson to protect and dethis Congress to get rid of the old Constitution. ters? When he communicates his views to fend the Constitution and preserve and main
If we will take up the necessary business, the Senate, founded upon information derived tain the rights and liberties of the people. sink the partisan in the patriot, and leave Presi- from the Lieutenant General and others, in rela- His marked character renders him peculiarly dent making to the people, to whom it prop- tion to the condition of affairs in the southern | adapted to the present crisis, erly belongs, we still have time and opportunity States, as he was bound to do by bis duty and Springing from the people in the humble to render invaluable services to the country. oath of office, he is charged by a leading radi- walks of life, his sympathies and associations I am not unmindful that you have sacrifices to cal Senator with making a "white-washing have been with the laboring masses. He refers make and prejudices to overcome in rising | report," intending to convey the impression with pride and pleasure to the log cabin and above party to the higher plans of statesman. that he had perjured himself by furnishing a the reminiscences of western frontier life where ship. I will not claim exemption from its false report. When he intimates to a Senator he spent his boyhood days. Starting out in influence; perhaps we have all been more or his opinion in regard to amending the Consti- life in the humble avocation of a tailor, withless subject to its bonds. From boyhood I have tution, the chairman of the committee of fif- out the advantages of an early education or been identified with tbe Democratic party ; it teen (Mr. STEVENS) tells the House that kings | rich and influential friends, he has by strength may have committed some errors-no finite have lost their heads for slighter offense, and of intellect, application to business, untiring organization is perfect-still I have an abiding | brands him as a “usurper.
energy, and laudable ambition made his mark faith in the correctness of its principles and These are grave charges to be made against || in the world, occupying alternately nearly the purity of its motives, and would sooner the President of their own choosing. Of what every honorable position from justice of the confide the safety and destiny of our country heinous crime has Andrew Johnson been guilty, peace to President. What a proud commento its keeping than any party that ever existed that he should be thus abused by these Robe- tary is here presented for the contemplation oi ' in the tide of time; and yet I have ever held spierres and Dantons? Is it because he is the the friends of our free institutions. It is quite in contempt a mere partisan for the sake of friend of the people and the people's Govern- natural that Mr. Johnson should cherish a party. Our paramount duties and obligations | ment, and opposed to traitors and treason North warm attachment and profound reverence for to the country rise infinitely above all such and South ? Has he not breasted the storm, such a Government. He was devoted to and paltry ties and considerations.
stood firm and unmoved as an admantine rock, confided in the people, and they never forsook Against the judgment and clear convictions while the surging waves of disunion avd trea- him. It is said he is a “usurper;" of those with whom it has been my pride to son dashed wildly and madly around him? Has charge; but the public mind will feel at rest act, the people by decisive majorities have sus- he not always been the fearless and incorrupti. || when advised that it emanates from the committained the party in power; that expression of ble champion of the rights and liberties of the tee of fifteen, which was organized to convict. opinion, though not according with our judg. || people? 'Ah, there is the rub; they know he is His “usurpation" consisted in the exercise of ment, is at least entitled to our respect; con- too firm to be forced and too pure to be bought. a constitutional prerogative of expressing his sequently, upon entering upon the duties of Southern traitors unsuccessfully tried both. opinions on public affairs. this Congress I accepted the situation, without He denounced and fought them until they ac- Again he is charged with being a “usurper" any disposition to interpose factious opposition | knowledged themselves whipped, laid down || for vetoing the Freedmer's Bureau. Sir, that to such measures as the people had indorsed ; || their arms, and sued for pardon. Then his gen- act is the crowning virtue in his life, and the with an anxious desire to coöperate in the erous nature revolted at the meanness of wreak- brightest chaplet in his crown. A “usurper" adoption of such measures as would secure ing vengeance upon a subdued and fallen foe. would have accepted the proffered power and enduring peace, prosperity, and unity to the Criticisms have been indulged in, that in 1861 patronage, greater and more unlimited than whole country.
It, however, soon became treason was not nipped in the bud, but then, was ever conferred on any President. _If a apparent that a breach between the President as now, he scented the danger in the tainted
usurper or tyrant, why did he decline it? Would and the radical portion of the party was inev- air, and was among the first to raise his warn- the “ directory'' have rejected such immense itable, thaj new political affiliations were form- ing voice and denounce the treasonable con- patronage? Never. A measure which, if con. ing, old issues becoming obsolete, new ones spiracies against the integrity of the Union. trolled by a “usurper," would have converted coming up, and in these mutations strange If these maligners are for the Union, the the Government into a military despotism. It bed-fellows and old antagonism thrown to- President is not in their way; but if against it, || provides for dividing the country into districts, gether.
they will find they have a hard road to travel; with sub-districts of counties, parishes, &c., Viewing the situation merely from a party | but when they show penitence, and retract their || with hordes of officers, not elected by or amenstand-point, the Opposition would have affili- disunion sentiments, executive clemency will able to the people on whom they are quartered, ated with the disaffected faction and opposed wipe out all their guilty stains. He is generous with summary power to try, convict, and punthe Administration. Such was not our course. and humane, but when they attempt to drive ish without judicial process, trial by jury, writ Being in favor of the Union and a restora- him they will find him firm and unmoved, ex- of error, or appeal. These officers and agents tion of fraternal relations between the different cept by the right.
may be white or black, and a negro may be States, we gave these measures our support, Mr. Speaker, the country has cause of grati- sent from some other State to Illinois to sit in although inaugurated by an Administration tude that in this national crisis, in this day of judgment on our civil officers and others and which we had opposed. I am neither an op- extreme peril, the right man is in the right punish them “by fine not exceeding $1,000, poser or follower of President Johnson, but place. All is not lost that is in danger. The or imprisonment not exceeding one year, or will sustain him when right and oppose him President stands as a wall of fire between the || both, and they need not wait the slow process when wrong. He has said and done many people and the revolutionary disunionists who of execution, but ample provision is made for things, and probably will again, in which I would undermine the foundations of the Gov- enforcing the judgment by the military, which cannot concur. Nevertheless, Mr. Speaker, ernment that they might perpetuate their power, may also consist of negroes. candor and justice require me to say I am revel in peculation and public plunder.
It further provides for furnishing at Gop deeply impressed with the conviction that Pres. Southern treason is among the things of the ernment expense, in each district, "the freedident Johnson, considering the new and embar- past. Northern disunionists must also be put men, their wives, and children, with provis. rassing circumstances by which he is sur: down. The friends of the Union must stand ions, clothing, fuel, and other supplies, med. rounded, is doing the best he can for the firm and united, encouraging the heart and ical stores, medical aid, transportation,”' &c. restoration of the Union and the interest of strengthening the hands of their great cham- Nor is this all. The freedmen were to be eduthe whole country, and thus believing, I would pion. As Aaron and Hur stayed up the hands cated and have school-houses erected at the be unworthy the high trust confided to me, and of Moses that Israel might prevail against || public expense. Why should this odious disof the constituency I have the honor to repre- Amalek, so may our Aarons and Hurs stay tinction be made in this law against the whites sent, if I failed to sustain him. I see no rea- up the hands of our Moses, that they may be on account of color? A person so fortunate as son to impugn his motives, doubt his honesty, steady, and before the going down of the sun to have a black skin (a circumstance not under or question his capacity. He has served the on the November election our Joshuas will their control) can have provisions," "cloth. country long and faithfully in important official discomfit and utterly overthrow and put out ,"?"fuel," "and other supplies," "medi. positions. His early political training and of remembrance these disunion Amaleks. Mr. cal stores,'!' “medical aid," o transportation" antecedents are such as to give hope to the Speaker, I have an abiding faith that an over- with school-houses and education at the Gov. friends of the Union and constitutional liberty. ruling Providence shapes and directs the des- ernment expense, while the proscribed whites
This is no time for captious or factious legis- tinies of men and nations; that the same pro- on account of prejudice against their color by lation. The Union of the States and the lib- tecting hand that lead forth the children of this Congress may be hungry and naked and erties of the people are imperiled; their true Israel and gave them victory over their ene- cold, without medical aid or medical supplies, friends must stand unitedly together battling mies; that watched over our feeble colonies in or school-houses, or education, or free passes, against secession and disunion wherever, North their infancy; gave us Washington to organize and not a dollar can they get from the national or South, they may show their hydra head or and lead our raw recruits and undisciplined coffers. The widows and orphans of our brave cloven foot. On these issues the President is militia against the mercenary hirelings and white soldiers, who gave their lives that the right, and we must sustain him and hold up trained veterans of despotism; that gave us Union might live, are deprived by reason of his hands. Now, I submit to all candid and such men
as Madison, Jefferson, Hamilton, their unfortunate color, though many of them fair-minded men whether the ribaldry and and their compeers to found and establish the are quite needy, from participating in this gov. vituperation daily heaped upon the President best Government the world ever saw; that ernmental charity bestowed upon colored perby this radical faction is just and fair. Is he a gave us Jackson to nip treason in the bud, and sons with such munificence by this Congress. dog to be muzzled, or a slave that dare not by the wise and fearless exercise of the veto A short time since a bill was forced through speak? Is an American President to crouch power throttled the United States Bank, has this House by a party vote, and under the like a whipped spaniel at the feet of revolu. in these latter days vouchsafed to the nation pressure of the gag law, appropriating some
$10,000,000 for the Freedmen's Bureau. And | indignant people, and the surging waves of our utter failure, and that faction and party it' the vetoed bill had become a law, the expense fanaticism are stayed. “The man at the other are the rock upon which we will strike and of this bureau would have been doubled or end of the avenue” has spoken; the faction is crumble into fragments. In the meanwhile trebled. Except for the President's veto this paralyzed; the country breathes freer. Their the friends of free government in the Old vast burden would have been permanently cheeks blanch with terror as they hear the rum. World look wistfully on with emotions alterentailed upon the labor and industry of the bling of the “earthquake." The volcano in nating between hope and fear. This munificent country, and coerced by the tax.gatherer from its convulsive eruptions has ejected from its | inheritance of free government, bequeathed to an overburdened people. I am unwilling to crater a solid column of pure Tennessee marble, us by our cherished and revered ancestry, vote a tax on my constituents to support in so firm and immovable that the angry billows of founded upon the corner-stone of the right of idleness any class of people, white or black. I disunion and the howling tempest of treason the people to govern, is all our most cherished see no reason why a black man should not earn may dash around its lofty summit, spend their hopes or loftiest ambition could desire. his support by the sweat of his brow as well || fury in vain, and fall harmless at its adaman- A great and responsible charge has been as white men. And yet it is known that the tine base, and “the gates of hell shall not pre- committed to our keeping. As our mental galleries of this Hall have for the last five vail against it.” The majority in Congress may, vision looks at the vista before us, seeking to inonths been crowded with colored persons, for the teinporary respite left them, scold and pierce the veil which hides from us the obwho are housed, fed, and clothed at the public snarl at their inevitable destiny; they may scure future, we are solemnly impressed with expense.
denounce the Administration, retard but not the conviction that the imperiled destiny for Mr. Speaker, I have no unkind feeling to- prevent the restoration of the Union. The || weal or woe of this generation, as well as of ward the unfortunate colored people; they are President will stand firm; the people, irrespect- / unborn millions, hang tremblingly in the balfree ; be it so. I hope it may prove to them a ive of party, will rally to his standard when ance. It is my ardent desire, my sincere blessing, and am opposed to any law discrim- the integrity of the Union is menaced by open hope, that we may severally so discharge our inating against them in the security and pro- enernies or pretended friends. It is no time respective duties, under the vast responsibilities tection of life, liberty, person, property, and for the true friends of the country to fall out that devolve upon us, as to redound to the true the proceeds of their labor. These civil rights | by the way; personal considerations and party interest, highest honor, and perpetual glory of all should enjoy. Beyond this I am not pre- schemes should remain in abeyance until the our common country. That when we leave pared to go, and those pretended friends who Union is restored.
these representative halls for the last time, urge political and social equality, and confer- The country has at no time within the last to be occupied by those who succeed us, when ring special privileges like those in the vetoed five years been in more imminent peril than at we sever our public relations and retire from bill, are, in my judgment, the worst enemies of || present; the radical majority in Congress are this congressional forum, around which cluster the colored race.
inaugurating measures of the most revolution- | many fond and endearing remembrances, to the But it is objected that on the 22d of Febru- ary character, which, if carried out, will in- | sanctity of the domestic circle and the quiet ary the President made a speech at the White | evitably involve the country in another fratri- shades of private life, we may feel the proud House to the people, in which he indulged in cidal civil war. Calling themselves a Union satisfaction of having conscientiously acted ou some strictures upon prominent persons as to party, these gentlemen oppose all measures for || part in this momentous national crisis, in this their loyalty: When a Senator he was bold the restoration of the Union. Pretending to convulsive struggle for the Constitution of our and fearless in his denunciations of conspira- be a constitutional party, they endeavor to country and the liberties of the people. I have tors and traitors against the integrity of the break down its safeguards and destroy it. no higher ambition, no loftier aspiration. Union, and I know of no reason why he should | Assuming to be an administration party, they be less so when representing the whole people | denounce and oppose the Administration, its as President of the United States. Indeed I policy and friends. One Senator and three Mr. NEWELL. Mr. Speaker, during all have faith that the national inquest by a deci- members of the House who were legally elected the years of the history of the country the sive majority will indorse the sentiments enun- and justly entitled to their seats were voted out subject of a tariff for revenue and protection ciated in that able and patriotic speech. that they might increase their majority so as purposes has agitated the public mind. With
Again, his traducers charge that he actually to pass their unconstitutional measures over some the question of the revenue has been its suffered unterrified Democrats to stand around the veto of the President. Nomember's seat | primary and that of protection its secondary him listening to his speech; and that, too, is secure who opposes their schemes as long object; while with others protection has been without invoking the aid of provost marshals as they require votes to carry their measures. looked upon as its primary and revenue its to hunt them down and incarcerate them in Obstacles are brushed out of their way like secondary consideration. By all parties, and the military bastile on Capitol Hill.
cobwebs; they stoop to conquer, and hold that nearly all writers, however, the necessity of a this is a charge of so grave a character I | the end sanctifies the means. They hope to tariff for revenue, which of course would inciwill not presume to interpose a justification.. | perpetuate their power and political ascend- || dentally protect native industry, has been acThe speech is before the country, and approved | ancy by excluding from Congress and the knowledged and advocated. Nor is the United by the people. It is well it was made. He is ballot-box all who oppose their revolutionary States an exception to all other civilized and bound by the Constitution and his oath of office schemes.
even partially civilized nations as respects the to preserve, protect, and defend the Consti- Mr. Speaker, I cannot flatter myself that I use and necessity of a tariff for the purpose of tution of the United States," and "take care shall be able to present any arguments or con
The student of history can scarcely that the laws be faithfully executed.” He is siderations to this House which will induce || point to a country noted for the industry and the representative of and directly amenable to gentlemen to pause and consider. I wish I || prosperity of its people which does no the people, and when there is a revolutionary could. The only hope left is in an appeal to great portion of such industry and prosperity conspiracy plotted by a secret“ directory' to the people, the patriotic masses, who love to the operation of a judicious system of rep. disrupt the Union, subvert the Constitution, and country more than party. Our patriotic fathers enue raised from imports. Even in the cases filch from the people their liberties, it is meet laid broad and deep the solid foundations upon of countries which at the present day stand and proper, as well as his solemn duty, to appeal which the magnificent superstructure of civil forward as the special champions of free trade, to the people, expose the perfidious treachery, || and religious liberty.were reared; for near eighty their principal revenue is derived from tariffs and denounce the traitors. He had before he
peace it has answered all the heavily discriminating against the products of made that speech evinced extraordinary for- purposes of a most perfect government. It may | other communities and nations. In no single bearance. A majority in Congress had excluded | have faults; what form of human government | instance, indeed, do we find absolute free trade Representatives from eleven States, and virtu- has not? It has furnished protection and se- to be the rule in any one nation. On the conally decided that the Union was destroyed. curity to all classes of our citizens wherever trary it is not even the exception to the preHis motives and policy of restoration had been our flag floats, at home and abroad, on the vailing policy of civilization at the present day, bitterly assailed and malignantly misrepre. || land and the sea. Our national progress and which seeks to build up native industry as the sented by the star-chamber conclave and prosperity, in power, wealth, and civilization, parent seeks to prepare the child, by a course their abettors. They had besmeared him with has been a marvel to ourselves and eclipsed of discipline, instruction, and practical applitheir choicest Billingsgate, such as “ usurper,'' the nations of the world. Why experiment cation of these for the varied duties of every. " whitewasher," " tyrant,” “traitor," "cop- with so rich and precious a boon? If we are day life. As well might the parent send forth perhead," " rebel,” &c. Disparaging compar- blessed with a better Government than is to be his child ignorant and unskilled in the means isons were drawn between him and certain found elsewhere had we not better bear with it | of procuring a livelihood as for a young nation negroes-Fred. Douglass and others. If he had until we know that amendments will insure im- | to strive to contend with an old one in those kept silent under such provocations his meek- provements? It has cost a vast amount of blood || peculiar branches of industry which require a ness and humility would have obscured, if not and treasure, and is worthy of preservation. large measure of skill and a vast accumulation totally eclipsed, that of Moses, the Israelitish It is the only true model for free representative of capital for their successful and profitable lawgirer. He appealed to the patriotism and government. It is the asylum of the oppressed, || production in competition with the combined intelligence of the people, the true source of and a secure refuge from the crumbling despot- || talent, industry, and wealth of old and settled all power, in vindication of himself and his isms of the Old World. We receive with
open communities. policy against the assaults of his enemies. arms and greet with a hearty welcome the The advocates of free trade forget that na
The occasion on which those fitly spoken | drowntrodden people as they come flocking tional art requires the protecting hand of the words and golden sentiments were enunciated to our shores.
central Government as individual art does the will form a memorable epoch in our history. The eyes of the world are upon us. The || fostering hand of the parent. . In fact, in leavFrom that day the power for evil was broken. great experiment of the capacity of man for self- || ing the confines of the mere savage condition Bad men are held up to the withering rebuke | government is being tested. The despotisms of society, every step toward a higher and betand contemptuous scorn of an outraged and and monarchies of the Old World prophesy Il ter civilization is made under the protecting
ægis of government and law, while, as one ground heretofore so often occupied by abler ilization which was the rule as respects every phase after another of industrial progress is parties. I will say, however, in passing, that leading nation in christendom; wbile Mr. Hamreached, the people are compelled to legislate the superior markets for agricultural products ilton and his followers saw that, even if we would to protect the rights of every particular class created by home manufactures must always || not, the circumstances of our geographical poand every special industrial developinent; in largely counterbalance the enhanced prices of sition compelled us to follow in the wake of older other words, to provide that the weak are not manufactures, while the tendency of protection countries or to relapse into mere barbarism. overpowered by the strong, but that every in- to foster such manufactures must ever be to Mr. Jefferson would fain have preserved the dividual capacity in man bas a chance to bring cheapen their products. Capital and labor are United States in a mere agricultural condition forth fruits meet for the sustentation and pres- | always attracted to the most profitable sources of existence. He looked upon large cities as ervation of the whole society: Thus the his- of investment, thereby facilitating the tendency sores on the body-politic, and his followers retory of civilization has been simply the history to greater cheapness of production. This is garded banks and manufacturing corporations of a series of progressive steps by which man the recognized and universal law which gor- as soulless monsters which were continually has subdued nature to the various uses of erns supply and demand, and is uniform under devouring the substance of the people. Mr. society by the organization of labor under | all conditions of human society. But admit- Hamilton, on the other hand, accepted the conthe protection of the central authority: In ting, for the sake of argument, that in order to ditions of modern civilization as the normal the feudal ages, the free cities were originally foster and encourage manufactures in a merely state of society, and desired to prepare the peocommunities, under the lead of elected chiefs, | agricultural condition of society, it is necessary ple for participation in their blessings and for organized for mutual protection against the to tax the general public in the outset, on ac- the mitigation of their evils. Thus we find the free traders, the robbers, and banditii of those count of certain conditions of labor or capital Democracy taking for its mission the attemppt to periods. In time their chiefs ceased to protect, in older communities, I contend that such tax preserve society in its merely agricultural conand, indeed, became the oppressors of their || is a necessary condition of that stage of civil- dition, in that period of happy childhood, to ad. people. Then the people appealed for pro- | ization which calls for its imposition. Nations, vance out of which, in the view of that party, was tection to the central governments, the em- like individuals, have their periods of child- but to encounter nothing but disappointment, perors. Thus feudalism was protection from hood, youth, and manhood. It is necessary distress, and finally universal decay and death. those who preferred plunder to honest toil; that the child should be instructed in the duties The mission of the Whigand Republican parties, and modern society, under the lead of national of the life upon which he is to enter, and that on the other hand, is to prepare the nation for unity, is simply the protection of the whole instruction must be at the expense of individ- that higher condition and more varied walks people, their art and industry, from the adverse uals or the State at large. Modern civilization of industry which are essential to advanced competition of communities, in which, under || recognizes the positive duty and necessity of civilization. The extreme conservatism of the exceptional conditions of civilization, the State education. Now, a merely agricultural Democratic party was illustrated in its attempt largest amount of labor consistent with con- people are in a condition of imperfect devel- to preserve even slavery itself, the most simple tinued existence is extracted from the im. opment. They are in the childhood of national and child-like form of human industry, and one poverished and famishing many by the wealthy existence. Let them remain in such condition only suited to the most primitive condition and pampered few. It is as necessary, in mod- and they will never attain to that acme of of merely agricultural existence. It is not to ern times, that society should protect itself from prosperity or of civil or military distinction be wondered at, then, that a party so conservathe competition of those who grew rich by op
which falls to the lot of their more progressive tive of a condition of society, which rendered pressing the poor, as in ancient times it was neighbors. Indeed, in time they become the manufacturing industry in its modern form necessary to protect itself from those outside prey of their more powerful and prosperous totally impossible, would oppose all measures robbers and barbarians who preyed directly rivals. If the State finds it absolutely neces- for the protection of such industry itself. It upon its weaker members.
sary to tax itself for the education of its chil- was not thus so much the principle of protecThe so-called democratic idea, that neither dren in the theoretical duties of life, why should tion itself which the older Democratic ligh is from oppression of the rich or powerful at home it not find it still more necessary to tax itself opposed as the attempt to elevate manufactures nor from the competition of the same classes for the purposes of the practical application in the United States to that position and standin our intercourse with foreign nations should of those duties?
ing in the community which would give them society protect itself, would end in anarchy and It will be noticed that the time and expense a controlling voice in the councils of the nacivil war, and finally in a return to the savage incurred in preparing an individual the tion and a social status of the most towering state in which the law of brute force and the con- duties of life are apparently out of all propor- proportions. No doubt the leaders of the Dedition of native stupidity would have their most tion to the benefits derived from those duties. mocracy instinctively felt that as manufacturing perfect development. Free traders contend So the expense of preparing a new people, a industry prospered, a system founded on an ti that is the best Government which governs young and growing nation, for the actual strife entirely opposite principle must decay; that the least." But how, then, is it that as civili- of existence appears out of all proportion to the wealth and progress of New England would zation gives place to barbarism, Governments the results. But such an expense must be be a standing reproach to the poverty and stabecome more complex, more varied in their | cheerfully borne, or the nation will never take tionary character of southern civilization. To duties, and more extended in the spheres of its proper rank among its sister States. As this day your fanatical secessionist denounces their action? Either our boasted civilization regards modern civilization, what strength has the thrift of New England, and your provident is a failure and barbarism preferable thereto, a merely agricultural community? It has the New Englander the shiftlessness of the South. or the facts of history give the lie to the theo- strength of brute force, as compared to modern They represent the extremes of our national ries of free-trade philosophers. Thus, although science and skill, with all their improvements civilization. free trade and simple Governments, with limited in arts and arms. The southern States of our I have said that a merely agricultural councentral powers, may be the normal conditions Republic gloried in this strength; boasted of try is but in its adolescence, and lacks the bone of a barbaric people, protection and complex | their agricultural wealth, declared cotton to and sinew of manhood. To be sure it may Governments, with extended central powers, be king, and defied the intelligence, skill, and give raw recruits in abundance to a wealthier are the normal conditions of civilized nations. science of the North. We all know the result. and more powerful neighbor on which it is Barbaric nations, composed of tribes acknowl. And such result must always follow a contest dependent. In this way did Scotland in early edging but a limited allegiance to a central between a purely agricultural people and a times, and does Ireland to this day, supply authority, are weak, both as regards internal country in which agriculture, manufactures, and England with men to fight its baules. In this order and external defense; while on the other commerce are blended in one harmonious way does India supply Great Britain with the hand, civilized nations, composed of cominuni. whole, each dependent on all, and all combin. raw material by which its outlying dependenties acknowledging an extended allegiance to ing to protect and preserve each.
But as a
cies are kept in subjection. In this way does a central authority, are strong both for pur- child must force itself or be forced by its pre- Russia draw from her vast steppes those agriposes of internal order and external defense.
ceptors or parents to prepare itself for the cultural laborers who fill the ranks of her monîn considering the question of a tariff for rev- duties of life, so musta merely agricultural ster battalions. But it is the manufacturing enue or protection, then, we should, at once dis- people force themselves or be forced to pre- and commercial elements of those countries, miss from our minds the fallacy that because pare themselves for a more advanced condition and the aristocratic families in alliance with it tends to the centralization of power it is of civilization, in which employments are more them, which direct all this brute force for good consequently opposed to the liberties of the varied, and the resources of the nation more or evil. Even the sinews of war are directly people. This is merely, the clap-trap of the perfectly developed. Protection; then, like contributed by manufactures and commerce. political demagogue, and, like the cry of State education, though possibly an abnormal condi- What could we have done in the late war for rights, so successfully used to lead the ignorant tion of national manhood, is the normal con- national existence if it had not been that the and unwary into rebellion against the central | dition of national adolescence.
manufacturing and commercial interests of the authority, should have no weight with the more Since the formation of this Government the country were on our side? An agricultural intelligent and better educated citizen.
opposing ideas of two great men have been country cannot stand the taxation necessary to Another free-trade fallacy is, that the pro- struggling for the mastery, and that struggle, an expensive and long-continued war. Southtection extended by a tariff on imports to the apparently, culminated in the late rebellion. ern finances broke down at the very outset of manufacturing portion of the community is at For a time it was doubtful whether the follow- the rebellion, while northern gathered strength the expense of the agricultural classes, who, ers of Thomas Jefferson or of Alexander Ham- with its progress. Because we were then an in return for their outlay in increased prices || ilton would control the Government, but the agricultural country, we could not sustain the for manufactured articles, receive no compen- struggle at length, apparently, terminated in vast accumulation of the old continental mones sating benefits whatever. I will not go into a favor of the former.
And on the other hand, the manufacturing lengthy disquisition upon this branch of the Now, Mr. Jefferson and his followers had a interest of Great Britain enabled her to wage subject. To do so would be but to travel over ll horror of progress in the direction of that civ. a war of a quarter of a century with Napoleon
and to subsidize all Europe against him. Had at least, in periods of normal trade and com- ican social life that degradation of labor which she been a merely agricultural country he merce,
but à tithe of the home consumption. is little better than slavery itself. America might have portioned out Europe as he pleased It serves, however, to give the foreign manufac- would then cease to be the refuge of the op. among the members of his family.
turer a lever by which he can operate inju- pressed of every clime, while the gulf, at all But let me illustrate the wealth and power riously on our home market; at one time low- times, unfortunately even in the most favored which manufactures give to a nation in mod-ering prices to a point entirely unremunerative countries, separating the rich from the poor, ern times by reference to the sources of our to the native manufacturer, and then, when would be so widened that mutual hate and disown internal revenue. These sources will show that manufacturer is compelled to succumb to trust would inflame men's minds and create at once the superiority of a manufacturing, as the pressure, raising them to figures far higher materials which the political demagogue would regards the sinews of war, over a merely agri- || than those from which they had fallen. In this be constantly fanning into the flame of revolucultural people. In round numbers, the receipts way the foreign manufacturer and capitalist tion. In a country and political community in of internal revenue for the fiscal year 1865 were extracts the loss he had been at in the effort to which universal suffrage is the acknowledged $211,000,000. Of this amount the New Eng- break down the home manufacturer and capi- inherent right of the people, a state of thing3 land States, together with the sea-board States talist from the pocket of the home consumer. in which the interests of labor and capital of New York, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey, In a few months in this manner he may de- would be at variance precisely in the ratio that contributed nearly $150,000,000, while all the stroy the labors of years, throw thousands out the numbers on one side and the amount on western States and Territories, including those of employment, and cause a depression of our the other increased, and in which the musses on the Pacific slope, contributed but about home industry which will take years to recover had the means of destroying the existing order $49,000,000. And in the western States and from, a destruction of capital which it will take in their own hands, the political condition Territories those portions devoted to manufac- a decade to recreate, and a disorganization of would be fearful to contemplate. On the other tures and commerce contributed the great bulk labor which may never be restored.
hand, the only hope for the continuance of of the revenue. Thus one district in Illinois It is the internal trade, created by our man- republican institutions lies in such an adjustcontributed more than all the others. And so ufactures, that builds up the country and unites ment of the rewards of industry that the laborer of other States. Here is food for earnest re- every distant portion of it as with hooks of shall not only be properly compensated, but be flection. If manutactures can contribute such steel. Behold our vast network of railroads ; left free to select that employment which is in immense sums for purposes of the highest pub- see the amount of business performed by these consonance with the bent of his genius. E:ory lic good-the preservation of the life of the roads; the immense number of persons to man is born with an aptitude for some particnation-how much can they not contribute for whom they give employment, from the arti- ular pursuit in life. It is this diversity which purposes of private use and benefit? Besides ficer who builds the complicated engines and tends to that variety, as necessary in the econ. contributing thus largely to the public neces- magnificent passenger cars to the laborer who omy of artificial or industrial life as it is in the sity, manufacturing districts also absorb a much constructs the track and keeps it in repair. economy of nature itself. All men cannot be larger proportional amount of the national cir- Then glance at our river and lake steamboats, farmers or physicians or lawyers. On the other culation, thus not only saving interest to the our canal-barges, our coastwise steamers and hand, the more we are able to vary the indus. Government, but also, by increasing the ave- ships of all kinds. What is our foreign trade, try of a country the greater the number of nues of industry, furnishing employment to extensive as it is, and attracting as it does the avenues to employment which we provide. In thousands of people. To illustrate, let me admiration of the world, to all this traffic, in- old, agricultural communities manufactures take the boot and shoe trade of Massachusetts. volving an outlay of thousands of millions and must be created for the employment of the The capital invested in this trade last year was giving employment to hundreds of thousands surplus population or that population must $10,067,474 ; the gross value of stock used of industrious and enterprising people? But vegetate in idleness, degenerate into vicious $25,040,544; the value of boots and shoes man- nearly all this great travel and traffic is sup- habits, or emigrate to other countries. This ufactured $52,915,245 ; the number of male | ported by our home manufactures. It is well is but the history of the social life of every persons employed in manufacture 42,626 ; of known that a vast amount of the immense ag- people. Now, the factory would not only keep females 12,534 ; total 55,160. These persons ricultural products which center in Chicago, the young men at home, but also create a marmanufactured during the year 7,249,921 pairs | Milwaukee, Detroit, Buffalo, and other inland ket for the products of the old. Thus the com: of boots and 24,620,660 pairs of shoes.
cities never reaches the sea board, but is man- munity would progress toward the goal of social But this boot and shoe trade is but one of ufactured or consumed at various points on the existence, which is when the three great industhose important branches of manufacture in route. Thus New England and Pennsylvania, trial interests of life-agriculture, manufacNew England which have contributed so much and even New York, are better markets for tures, and commercemare so blended and to the wealth, prosperity, and happiness of the West than Great Britain or France. In harmonized as to act and react upon one her people. Some twenty-six of the leading the case of these latter countries other nations another, and thus become so mutually dependcities and towns of New England produce enter into competition with our products shipped ent that an injury done to one would be felt as products valued at from one to thirty-six mil- to them, which compels shippers to regulate an injury to the whole. lion dollars each, and give employment to a their prices accordingly. On the other hand, But by this comparison between a merely large number of persons, male and female. the West has no competitor in our home mar- agricultural country and one in which manufacIt is calculated that the consumption in the kets save Canada, and I trust the repeal of the tures have been so developed as to add imUnited States of iron, steel, copper, lead, zinc, late reciprocity treaty will do away with the mensely to its wealth and prosperity, I do not woolen and cotton goods, leather, and glass is injurious effects of that also. But even the mean to be understood as at all disparaging the not less than $1,000,000,000 in value. In a few expense of shipment from the West to the East relative importance of agriculture itself. On years this consumption will be increased one eats up the profits of the agriculturist. During the contrary, I regard agriculture as the parent half
. Now, suppose we were compelled to pur- the past year corn has been consumed for fuel and basis of all other industries and arts, which chase all this vast amount of production from in portions of Illinois and Iowa. Does not repose upon it as the child upon the bosom of abroad, it is evident that it would exceed all | such a fact prove the absolute necessity of a its mother, and draw their sustenance therethe gold, cotton, and all other commodities an- home market for agricultural products and from. The hardy tillers of the soil also not nually exported, besides leaving is in debt for || its great benefit in increasing the purchasing only sustain but help to save the country. No over one half the amount. But we should also power of a community? How immensely is the other branch of industry, in any nation, can be compelled to pay greatly enhanced prices for purchasing power of Pennsylvania increased || send so many or such stalwart men to the field the articles imported, as the demand would be by her manufacture of iron and her production of battle, while from the ranks of the farming materially increased, while Great Britain and of coal? How much poorer would she not be classes the cities and towns are constantly reFrance would obtain complete control of our were she compelled to import all these vast cruited with fresh material to replace the wornmarkets. Fortunately for us, however, the for- amounts of the prime necessities of modern out toilers in all professions and trades, in the eign imports for 1864-65 did not much exceed | civilization? Would not her furnaces die out, arts as well as the sciences, in law as well as $100,000,000 in value. For 1865–66 I regret | her railroads become useless, her great cities medicine. It is only that form of society I dethese imports will probably exceed double this decay, and the entire community tend toward plore which rests content in an undeveloped amount; but should our manufacturing estab- barbarism? But what would take place in national condition, entirely constituted of per; lishments be broken up, the effect upon the | Pennsylvania in the event of the cessation of sons devoted to but one branch of industry, and country would be fearful to contemplate. In her iron and coal trade would only be a sam- that but very imperfectly organized. For be it some parts of the West agricultural products | ple of what might be seen all over the United noted how the inventions of the mechanic and could not be given away; wheat would decline States were our manufacturing industry pros- the information of the merchant tend to develop to twenty-five cents per bushel; wages would trated at the feet of foreign competition and the resources by which the agriculturist adds fall in proportion; the fate of Ireland, Turkey, foreign capital. We must preserve this great to the wealth of a country. How far ahead is and Spain, which are reduced to mere depen- internal trade and industry, built up at the cost the farmer of the present day, in all that regards dencies of the wealthy manufacturers of Great of so much blood and treasure, from the com- the application of science to his peculiar branch Britain, would be ours. The public generally petition of the cheap labor of Europe. of industry, of the farmer of a half or even quarare not aware that nearly ninety per cent. of Free trade presents to the American people ter of a century ago. During the intervening the manufactured goods consumed in this coun- but two eventualities. Either we must, under || period some of the most important agricultural try are the product of the United States. If its influence, see our manufactures destroyed, implements have been invented and put to practhey were, the freetrader's cry, that protection or we must reduce the wages of labor to the
The reaping, threshing, and other is obtained at the expense of the consumer, European standard. In the first event we would machines now add the labor of hundreds of would be robbed of half its terrors. The truth place not only ourselves, but the foreign labor- thousands of men to the producing power of is the foreign import, like our foreign export ers, at the mercy of the capitalists of Europe. the country, while improved machinery of all of agricultural products into Great Britain, is, In the second, we would introduce into Amer. kinds helps to lessen the toil and increase the ture."
productive forces of the husbandman. And | gether nullified by the internal tax on articles operations which produced the steel. It is are not these inventions and new mechanical the manufacture of the country. To such a wholly lost to the country. On the other hand, applicances the products of the manufacturing | height has this grievance risen that there is if the steel is produced here it gives employ industry of the country? And do they not add | scarcely a manufacturing interest in the coun- ment to five hundred men, directly or indi. a thousand fold to the power and importance | try which has not its representatives at your rectly. It secures steady work and good wages of agriculture; to its power as a great national doors praying for the reduction or removal of to miners of iron and coal, machinists, fire. interest; to its importance as shedding luster the burdens under which it labors. To such brick makers, builders, farmers, merchants, upon those engaged in it, and adding millions an extent have these burdens reached that I and in fact every branch of industry in the to the wealth of the people? Agriculture acts very much fear the result will be to totally country, including law, medicine, and divinity. upon all other industrial interests; but these crush out a great many branches of manufac- The whole $1,000,000 that the steel thus costs latter, in order to the perfection of national tures now in their infancy and struggling for is spread about, circulated broadcast, to supindustry, should in turn react upon it. Agri- | existence. Give such branches relief and they port our own people instead of being sent culture is the sun around which manufactures will in a few years be placed on a footing of abroad to sustain å rival country. And this and commerce revolve. But the sun must have prosperity and permanance which will bear a article of steel is one of the items which needs its planets and satellites, or its genial influences, taxation that would now sweep them out of the protection; for this reason I name it. But and all the blessings of its light and heat must field of their operations. In this connection you cannot name an industry that is not benebe dissipated in the vacuum of an irresponsive I beg to read the following letter from a prom- fited by the introduction of the manufacture space. In a true industrial system, however, inent iron manufacturing firm in my district. of steel into the United States. Yet foreign agriculture gives susteuance to manufactures It is only a sample of hundreds of the same steel is now able to compete successfully with and commerce, while the latter in turn con- description from manufacturers all over the the home article, and our steel works are all, sume her products and increase her powers of country:
or nearly all, either losing money or idle for production indefinitely: It will thus be seen
TRENTON, NEW JERSEY, February 21, 1866. fear of loss. that the interests of agriculture, manufactures, DEAR Sir: Facts in regard to the state of business But some will say "if we cannot compete and commerce are so mutually blended as to
are worth a thousand theories, when you legislate in
with Great Britain we ought not to manufacbe utterly inseparable, and that he who disparYou know how long we have been engaged in the
We could compete with her if we ages one at the same time disparages all. manufacture of iron at Trenton, and that we have could bring our mechanics to work for the I have thus, in this imperfect manner, en
both capital and experience. During the last six
starvation wages paid in that country. But deavored to set forth some of the benefits of so that no profit or lose occurred from the fluctua
surely no man will have the hardihood to say manufactures to the people and the nation. tions in the cost of importing foreign iron.
that it is the interest of our Government to Among other advantages, I find that manufac
The result of our six months' operations at Trenton
crush our people down to the level of those was a loss of $33,702 14, without charging any intertures create a home market, diversify the prodest on capital, or any allowance for our personal ser
classes. The principle that wherever an artiucts of industry, increase the avenues of labor, vices. In other words there was an actual loss of cle could be produced the cheapest, there it develop internal and external trade and com.
capital to the amount of $33,702 14.
should be manufactured, and the world thence merce, add to the amount of revenue, and form
out at Trenton internal taxes to the ainount of $27,- draw its supply, has its advocates; but such a a basis for the absorption of a large vofume of 177 53. Therefore it is plain that all the internal principle tends to the centralization of capital national circulation, thus internally and exrevenue derived from our business was taken out of
in the hands of a few, who would not only capital, and was in effect actually destructive of our ternally strengthening the national body, en
means to carry on business. If no internal taxes bad have the power to compel their mechanics to abling it to preserve order and promote indus- been levied there would still have been a loss of nearly work at their own prices, but, also, the world try at home, and to make itself feared as well
seven thousand dollars.
at large to pay such prices for their wares as as respected abroad. To foster and protect an works unless either the tariff on foreign iron is in- they chose to set upon them. Many and many interest fraught with such blessings to the peo- creased, or the internal revenue duties repealed, or a time have we, as well as other countries, ple should be the aim of every patriot. And both modified so that it is possible to conduct busi
been compelled to pay enormous prices to the ness without loss. fortunately the late war, so costly in blood The loss on our product amounted to about six dol
manufacturers of Great Britain on account of and treasure to the country, has put it in the lars per ton, which will be a fair guide in adjusting our own short-sightedness. Taking the artipower of the national Government, without
the new duties. Either the foreign duty must bo
cle of steel again, if we not produce it, injury to other interests, to place the manu- duties reduced six dollars per ton, or the two systems
the foreign manufacturers combine and charge factures of the country on a basis of enduring so adjusted that the difference between the foreign us a high price for it. They are restrained prosperity. This can be done by so appor
duty and the internal duty sball be six dollars per
from doing so now by the desire to break up tioning taxation that its principal burdens shall You are at liberty to use this letterin any desirable
the trade here. It is well known that the com. be made to fall upon the foreign manufacturer way, and we ask that the facts may be laid before the petition among ourselves brings down the price and on the realized wealth of the country.
Committee of Ways and Means in order that the exThus of the immense revenue raised in Great act truth from a responsible source may be known.
of manufactured staple articles to the lowest
With great respect, we have the honor to be, very paying point. The fear is sometimes expressed Britain, a country most clamorous for free trade truly, your obedient servants,
that the moment a protective tariff is levied on as respects other nations, the proportions are
COOPER, HEWITT & CO. as follows: Hon. W. A. NEWELL, M. C., Washington city, D. C.
steel, so as to shut out the foreign, the price
would go up. So it would, for the moment. But Per cent. In view of the statements in the above letter, even in that case the Government would only Customs.
for the truth of which I can vouch on the words Excise.
be passing funds from one citizen to another, Stamps
of honorable men and respected citizens of my and there would be no national loss of capiLand and assessed taxes.
State, it is evident that if the Government fails tal. So soon as the home manufacture became Income and property.
to place the great manufacturing interests of Post office..... 51
thoroughly established, the competition would Miscellaneous........
the nation in such a position that they can bring down prices to the lowest paying point, The revenue commission laid down this
move on and be self-sustaining, attracting the so that the consumer would soon get his supply principle when it urged
capital and skill of the country and the world as low as it could be profitably afforded.
to them, it will fail to protect its own interests; “The abolition or speedy reduction of all taxes
And I am glad to see that many of the Eng. which tend to check development, and the retention
it will fail to provide the means to meet the lish manufacturers are recognizing the policy of all those which, like the income tax, fall chiefly
interest on the national debt and for the final of the Government in this matter as the true on realized wealth."
redemption of that debt; it will fail, in fact, one for the interests of the country, and are Previous to the war our tariffs were of course to preserve its own existence; while, on the bringing their capital to this country in order imposed without reference to an internal taxa- other hand, it will enable the foreign manu. to carry on their business here, instead of try. tion, which did not then exist. Since the war facturer to draw out of the country the very || ing any longer to draw out our capital in exthis system has been continued, notwithstand- capital needed at bome for the organization change for their products. This policy brings ing that the principal burden of taxation now of manufacturing industry, and for the realiza- not only capital but skilled labor into the falls upon the manufacturing industry of the tion of such a scale of profits on that industry | country, which is what we so much need. At country. Thus the internal revenue raised dur- as shall be the future dependence of the Gov | Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, the celebrated Shefing the fiscal year of 1865 was $211,129,529; ernment in the levying of the taxes for its | field (England), cutlers, Westenholm af Co., while the revenue derived from imports was support.
are building an immense factory for the man. but $84,928,260. For the present fiscal year Take the single article of steel, for instance, ufacture of various articles into which steel the estimate of internal revenue amounts to the manufacture of which had been greatly | enters largely. It will give employment to a the large sum of $272,000,000. Now, it is increased under the tariff previous to the war, very large number of hands, for whom suitevident that to expect the import duties to in- and during the war by the high rates of exchange | able homes are also being erected. One of crease in like proportion at present tariff rates operating as a protection from foreign compe- the large thread manufacturers of England is would be to expect that our home manufac- tition. If an ad valorem duty of twenty per also about to supply our market, by manufactures would be overwhelmed with foreign im- cent. is levied upon steel the Treasury will | turing the article here, employing his own capportations. For be it remembered, (and I receive $200,000 from the importation of every ital with which to carry on his operations. Is desire to draw particular attention to this point,) || $1,000,000 in value. The advocate of a revenue not this much better than that we should send while the internal tax, principally borne by our tariff would claim that this would be the easiest the cotton to England, at a large expense and manufacturers, as I have shown, has been way to collect a revenue; and it would at first risk, perhaps in foreign bottoms, and import added to the burdens of the manufacturer, the sight seem so, but that importation takes out the manufactured article in the same manner ? tariff on imports has not been proportionally of the country the whole $1,000,000 of capital There is now being erected in Essex county, increased. By this means the benefit derived never to return it. We can derive no future in my State, a large establishment for the man. from the tariff to the manufacturer is alto- benefit from it, as we derived none from the ufacture of watches. A village is also being