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who had been permitted, under many restrictions,, class alone are selected all government officials, to enter the country. But now that five of the from the lowest clerk up to the greatest mandarin. largest maritime cities have been opened by Candidates for admission are subjected to a treaty to the trade and free intercourse of all strict and generally an impartial examination. nations, we begin to have the accounts of travel- After having passed this first examination, they lers who have made themselves acquainted with undergo a second and more searching one before the language, and whose opportunities of obser- they can become eligible for office; and a third vation have been more extensive and more unre- is necessary for those who aim at the highest served than those of any of their predecessors, posts. The candidates for these literary honours
The population of China both from native are always very numerous, and an intense instatements and the calculations of foreigners, terest is shown at the periods of examination, has been estimated at not less than 360 mil. both by the individuals themselves and their lions. Immense as this amount of human beings relatives. A great many are of coursé rejected, appears, it is perhaps not an over-estimate. but these return again and again to their studies, The city of Canton is said to contain a million and make repeated attempts to pass the ordeal. of inhabitants; that of Foochow 600,000; and Once accepted, they are almost sure to succeed the other cities visited are reported to be gene- in time to some Government employment, and rally swarming with inhabitants. But even sup- the highest appointments are open to all. So posing the estimate above given to be correct, the highly is admission into this literary class prized whole area of China Proper contains 1,300,000 by the people, that a successful aspirant sheds a square miles, so that we have to each square lustre on his family, and even ennobles his more mile 277 human beings. Now, if we compare humble parent. this rate of population with that of England, as In general, the habits of the Chinese populaafforded by the last census of 1841, we shall find tion, especially in the country districts, are peace. that in it there are 297 persons to every square ful and submissive. In the large towns, howmile. We must not then be deceived by exag- ever, especially in Canton, there are frequent gerated conceptions of the extreme density of the tumultuous ebullitions of the mob. Their conpopulation of China. With a comparatively tempt and hatred of foreigners cannot be easily level and arable country, a rich soil, that in many restrained, and the appellation “ Fanquee,” or localities bears two crops a year, and an indus- “ foreign devil,” is a term of common reproach. trious and frugal people, the average density of Canton, however, affords not a favourable specithe population comes considerably short of that men of Chinese manners. In the more northern of England.
cities, and in the country districts, a stranger With an extent of surface, and an amount of may safely mingle with the people, without any population equal to twenty-five Englands, this other inconvenience than that arising from their vast empire is ruled by the despotic sway of one excessive curiosity. They are almost uniformly individual. The genius of a people most fre- kind, hospitable, and good-humoured. quently moulds their government. The mild A great proportion of the lower orders of the and submissive, and generally unimpassioned community fare but poorly, and have great difficharacter of the Chinese, peculiarly fits them for culty in making out their daily bread, while implicit subjection, Their leading mental charac- hosts of beggars are to be found in all the cities. teristic is plain homely common sense—they For these a tax is levied in Amoy, and perhaps have not the imaginative qualities or passionate in other cities throughout the kingdom, the colenthusiasm of other oriental nations, neither lector of which is called “ the king of the beghave they the profound, excursive, and restless gars.” This tax is partly optional with the intellects of the nations of the West. Filial re- payers, and is indirecily under the cognisance spect and veneration is their most prominent in- of the Government. “The king," who is duly stinct—their notions of rule are patriarchal. elected from among the number of the beggars, From their fathers and kindred their respect ex- calls on each householder at the beginning of the tends to their rulers and their Emperor, who year, and ascertains the monthly subscription again, on their parts, take care to foster and en- which he is willing to gire, in order to be free courage such feelings, and not to outrage them. from the annoyance of their visits for alms, and Public opinion exists and prevails to such an the clatter of the sticks by which they implore extent as to keep a check on bad government, or relief. For the sum of five or six hundred cash,* outrageously corrupt administration; but there is a month, he gives a red piece of paper, inscribed neither the desire nor energy to carry it further. with three copies of the characters for “great There is no permanent or hereditary nobility good luck,” inclosed within an outline of a jar or among this people. There are many old fami- vase; this is affixed to the door-post as a sign of lies who are held in estimation, but the two great immunity, and is renewed at the commencement distinctions of the people are into the literary of every year. Any beggar overlooking this class and the plebeian. Admission into the literary class is open to every individual of the em
• A hundred cash are worth fourpence, half-penny pire, however poor or unknown; and from this of our money.
bill of exemption, and entering a shop for relief,, its little troubles ; while the fortitude and patience may, be seized by the householder, and be beaten with which the occasional injury or destruction on the spot.
“ The king,” after giving a certain of their boat is borne, is remarkable. proportion to the mandarins, and appropriating a “ To return from the wide expanse of the certain fund for the support of the incorporated river-population to the streets in the suburbs, the society of beggars, contrives to appropriate the same spirit of contented adaptation to external remainder to his own use, and to become a rich things is everywhere observable; and it is diffiman. The beggars are covered with tattered cult which to regard with most surprise--the rags, wear long dishevelled hair, and are not narrow abodes of the one, or the little boats very particular in the mode of satisfying their which serve as family residences to the other. hunger.
There is something of romance in the effect of " I observed,” says Mr. Smith, “one of these Chinese streets. On either side are shops, beggars pass the shop of a confectioner, and decked out with native ware, furniture, and stealthily slip a cake into his hand, and throw it manufactures of various kinds. These are into his sleeve. One of the partners, who saw adorned by pillars of sign-boards, rising perpenthe theft, ran out and followed the thief, caught dicularly, and inscribed from top to bottom with him by the hair, made him restore the cake from the various kinds of saleable articles which may the folds of his sleeve, and then, by a species of be had within. Native artists seem to have lynch-law very common in a country where lavished their ingenuity on several of these inordinary law is expensive, and bribes must pre-scriptions, and, by their caligraphy, to give some cede justice, gave the beggar a severe beating, idea of the superiority of the commodities for and let him depart, amid the applause of the sale. Many of these sign-boards contain some crowd, the good humour of the tradesman him- fictitious emblem, adopted as the name of the self, and a remarkable nonchalance on the part shop, similar to the practice prevalent in London of the offender."
two centuries ago. On entering, the proprietor, ** The recently-arrived stranger naturally mani- with his assistants or partners, welcome a fofests surprise and incredulity on being told that reigner with sundry salutations ; sometimes adthe estimated population of Canton exceeds a vancing to shake hands, and endeavouring to million. As soon, however, as he visits the make the most of his scanty knowledge of close streets, with their dense population and English. They will show their saleable articles busy wayfarers, huddled together into lanes from with the utmost patience, and evince nothing of five to nine feet wide, where Europeans could disappointment if, after gratifying his curiosity, scarcely inhale the breath of life, the greatness he departs without purchasing. At a distance of the number no longer appears incredible. from the factories, where the sight of a foreigner After the first feelings of novelty have passed is a rarity, crowds of idlers, from fifty to a hunaway, disappointment, rather than admiration, dred, rapidly gather round the shop, and frequent occupies the mind. As the visitor pursues his embarrassment ensues from an incipient or imcourse, narrow lanes still continue to succeed perfect knowledge of the colloquial medium. In each other, and the conviction is gradually im- these parts the shop-keepers know nothing but pressed on the mind, that such is the general their own language, are more moderate in their character of the streets of the city. Along these, politeness, and, as a compensation, put a less busy traders, mechanics, barbers, venders, and price on their wares. To write one's name in porters, make their way; while occasionally the Chinese characters is a sure method of enhancing noisy abrupt tones of vociferating coolies remind their good favour. Sometimes no fewer than the traveller that some materials of bulky dimen- eight or ten blind beggars find their way into a sions are on their transit, and suggest the expe- shop, and there they remain, singing a melandiency of keeping at a distance, to avoid collision. choly dirge-like strain, and most perseveringly Now and then the monotony of the scene is re- beating together two pieces of wood, till the lieved by some portly mandarin, or merchant of weary shopman at length takes compassion on the higher class, borne in a sedan-chair on the them, and provides for the quiet of his shop by shoulders of two, or sometimes four men. Yet, giving a copper cash to each ; on receiving which with all this hurry and din, there seldom occurs they depart, and repeat the same experiment any accident or interruption of good nature. On elsewhere. The streets abound with these blind the river the same order and regularity prerail. beggars, who are seldom treated with indignity, Though there are probably not fewer than A kindly indulgence is extended to them, and 200,000 denizens of the river, whose hereditary they enjoy a prescriptive right of levying a copdomains are the watery element that supports per cash from every shop or house they enter. their little dwelling, yet harmony and good feel. It is said that this furnishes a liberal means of ing are conspicuous in the accommodating man- livelihood to an immense number of blind perner with which they make way for each other. sons, who, in many instances, are banded toThese aquatic tribes of the human species show gether in companies or societies, subject to a a most philosophic spirit of equanimity, and con- code of rules, on breach of which the transgressor trive, in this way, to strip daily life of many of is expelled the community, and loses his guild.
For Friend's Review.
little open space there are crowds question of this kind may be certainly decided of travelling doctors, haranguing the multitude for any time past or future. on the wonderful powers and healing virtues of Take then the first seven letters of the alphathe medicines which they expose for sale. bet to denote the seven days of the week, always Close by, some cunning fortune-teller may be denoting the first day of the year-whatever day seen, with crafty look, explaining to some awe- of the week it may be—by the letter A. Then stricken simpleton his future destiny in life, from as twenty-eight days make exactly four weeks, a number of books arranged before him, and con- the twenty-ninth of the first month will also be sulted with due solemnity. In another part, denoted by A; and the letters being taken in some tame birds are exhibiting their clever feats, alphabetical order, the thirtieth and thirty-first in singling out, from amongst a hundred others, will be respectively denoted by B and C. Cona piece of paper enclosing a coin, and then re- sequently the first of the second month will be ceiving a 'grain of millet as a reward of their indicated by D: In case the year is a common cleverness. At a little distance are some fruit-one, in which the second month has 28 days, stalls, at which old and young are making pur- the third month begins on the same day of the chases, throwing lots for the quantity they are week as the second. That day is therefore to receive. Near these again are noisy gangs of represented by D. Proceeding in this manner people, pursuing a less equivocal course of through the remaining months of the year, and gambling, and evincing, by their excited looks recollecting that the fourth, sixth, ninth and and clamours, the intensity of their interest in eleventh have thirty days each, we readily perthe issue. In another part may be seen disposed ceive that the days on which the twelve months the apparatus of some Chinese tonsor, who is of the year begin, commencing with the first, performing his skilful vocation on the crown of are denoted by the letters A, D, D, G, B, E, G, some fellow-countryman unable to command the C, F, A, D, F. To assist the memory in retainattendance of the artist at a house of his own.” ing these letters in their proper order, a simple (To be continued.)
couplet has been devised, the words of which begin with them :
“ At Dover Dwell George Brown Esquire, CHRONOLOGY.
Good Caleb Finch And David Fryer." It is sometimes highly convenient to be able Now, as a common year contains 365 days, to determine with facility the day of the week or 52 weeks and 1 day, the last day of such on which a given day of the month occurred. year is always the same day of the week as the D’Aubigne, in his History of the Reformation, first. Hence the new year immediately sucinforms us, that the mother of Martin Luther ceeding a common one, begins one day later in being questioned respecting the time of his birth, the week than its predecessor. It therefore folreplied that she remembered the day and the lows that whatever day is denoted by the letter hour, but was not certain as to the year. The A in one year-supposing it a common oneday, we are told, was the 10th of November; the next day of the week must be denoted by and the next day was Tuesday. The year was the same letter in the following year. Thus, supposed to be 1483. There the historian leaves confining our attention at present to years of 365 us to make out the date as we can.
days, suppose the year begin on the first day of A writer, on a certain occasion, professing to the week, then A, which always stands for the relate the circumstances of a transaction which first of the year, will represent First day: took place many years before, begins his narra- then styled the Dominical letter. But ihe next tive, “ On Sunday, the 22d of August, 1778.” year beginning on Second day, A will then The statements appeared questionable, and one denote the second and G the first day of the mode of sifting the testimony was to examine week; hence G is then the Dominical letter. whether the dates were consistent; if they were Again, the next year commencing on Third day, not, the whole testimony was greatly impaired. A must denote that day, G the second, and F But an almanac, fifiy or sixty years old, was the first; F therefore becomes the Dominical not likely to be at hand. Bonds, or other legal letter. Thus, we find that on passing from the documents, dated many years back, are some old year to the new, the Dominical letter (or times produced under circumstances which that which denotes the first of the week) falls furnish presumptive evidence that they were
one place back in the alphabet. forged long after their date. Now it may readily But in a leap year, the second month contains happen that an instrument, fraudulently dated four weeks and one day, hence the third month several years back, may bear on the face, a day begins one day later in the week than the second; which was in reality the first of the week. Such consequently, to make the same letter D denote a fact, fairly proved, would unquestionably set the first of both months, the Dominical letter the obligation aside. Let us then see whether must fall one place back upon passing from the an easy method, which requires no great ex- second month to third. Of course every leap ertion of thought,' may not be given, whereby a year has two Dominical letters ; one for the first
and second months, and the next preceding one From these premises the following simple in the alphabet for the other ten.
process is deduced. Take the number of the If, then, we know the Dominical letter for any century, (that is, use the two last figures denoting given year, it is readily determined for any suc- the year, omitting the former two,) add oneceeding or preceding year. The mode of doing fourth, and divide the sum by 7, the quotient this is to reckon one day backward in the alpha- being disregarded; count from the letter of the bet for every succeeding year, with an additional centurial year, backward a number equal to day for every intervening leap year. For a the remainder, and we have the Dominical letter preceding time, the reckoning must be made in for the year. If it is a leap year, that letter the order of the alphabet. The first thing to be applies to the last ten months, and the next foldone is therefore to find the Dominical letter for lowing one to the other two. Thus, to find the some given year, which is easily done when the Dominical letter for 1925, to 25 add 6 (its fourth day of the week on which it begins is known. part); the sum, 31, divided by ? leaves a reBat to place the subject on a general basis, we mainder of 3; and the Dominical letter for 1900 may begin with a centurial year. Under the being G, that for 1925 must be D. Suppose Gregorian style, now in use, the centurial years, now, we wish to know on what day of the week if the century is not divisible by four, are common the 4th of 3d month 1849, the day for inauguraones. Thus, in four hundred years, three leap ting the next President, will occur. To 49 add years are dropped; of course, there are 497 12, its fourth part, and divide the sum, 61, by 7, changes of Dominical letters in that time, which the remainder 5 counted backward from E, number is divisible by seven. Hence the Do- the letter for 1800, brings us to G, which will minical letters at the end of that time begin anew, therefore be the Dominical letter for 1849. The If, then, we determine the Dominical letters for letter D which indicates the 1st of the 3d month, four successive centurial years, under the new will therefore represent the 5th of the week, and style, we have them for all other preceding of course the 4th of the month will correspond or following centurial years. To begin then to the first of the week. with 1700, we require nothing more than the To accommodate our reckoning to the old or fact, that the present year 1847 began on Sixth Julian style, we observe that the first of the year day, and that every fourth year since 1700, with 1800, old style, corresponded to the 12th of the one exception, was a leap year. Now as A this first month in the new ; and computing as before, year denotes the sixth of the week, the first must we find that the 12th of the first month 1800 be represented by C, which is therefore the Do- was the first of the week. Hence the year 1800, minical letter. Now, from 1700 to 1847, there according to the old style, began on First day ; were 147, of which 35 were leap years; the and as A denotes the first of the year, the Domisum of which numbers is 182: and this sum nical letter for 1800, old style, during the first being divisible by 7, it follows that the Dominical and second months, was A, and for the other letter for 1700 was C, the same as for 1847. ten it was G, the next preceding one in the alNow from 1700 to 1800, there were 100 years, phabet. The Julian account makes every fourth 24 of which were leap years ; hence 124 being year a leap year; hence there are 125 changes divided by 7, the quotient shows that the Domini- of Dominical letters in 100 years, when the old cal letter had run seventeen times round the cir- style is used. But 125 divided by ing leaves a cuit, and the remainder 5 indicates that it had remainder of 6, and counting 6 backward from run over five letters from C in a retrograde order, the Dominical letters corresponding to one centuthus ending in 1800 at E. In like manner it rial year, we have those for the next; hence the would run during the interval between 1800 and Dominicnil letters for seven centurial years, old 1900, from Eto G. But as 2000 will be a style, are as below: leap year, the changes from 1900 to the third
1800 1900 2000 2100 2200 2300 2400 month, 2000, will be 125 : hence the Dominical
AG BA CB DC E D FE GF letters for that year will be Band A. The Dominical letters for the centurial years being thus
At the end of seven centuries the circuit bedetermined and fixed in the memory, those for gins anew; hence for 1400 the Dominical letters any intermediate years are easily found. Recur- were D C, as in 2100. Then to find the year ring to 1778, if to 78 we add its fourth, 19, the of Luther's birth, the old style being then in use, sum divided by 7, leaves a remainder of 6:
we try 1483. 'The number 83 increased by 20 whence counting back six letters from C, (the and the sum divided by 7, leaves a remainder of letter for 1700,) we stop at D, the Dominical 5; then counting back 5 from C, the letter for the letter for 1778. If, then, we trace the foregoing last ten months of 1400, we find that the Domicouplet to the eighth letter C, we find that the nical letter for 1483 was E. Consequently, D, eighth month, 1778, began on Seventh day; for the first of the 11th month (November) was the when D denotes the first of the week, č must 7th of the week; and the 10th must have been indicate the seventh. Hence as the 22d of the the 2d. We therefore find that the dates of 1483 month is always the same day of the week as the are consistent with the facts as represented. first, the 22d was on seventh day and not on the first. The necessary conclusion is, that unless an error
of at least five years was committed, the year | Prince of Peace, of whose kingdom there shall be 1483 was the true one.
no end. And that the dispensation which He came From these data we may easily decide, be- to introduce and establish, must eventually put an yond the possibility of cavil, the day of the week end to war. For to that conclusion the prophetic on which a given day of the month in any year, annunciations unavoidably conduct us. Here then past or to come, occurred or will fall. History would appear to be one important practical issue informs us that the great battle by which the Narragansett Indians were overpowered and upon which we can unanimously agree. If the large numbers of women and children consumed religion of our Lord and Saviour is immutable in in their burning wigwams, took place on the its nature, whatever it must produce at a future 19th of December, 1675. This being under the time, it may produce now, if not counteracted by old style, we readily discover, upon the princi- human perversity. And that perversity, while unples above explained, that this tremendous de- restrained, must always operate to a similar end. struction of life occurred on the first day of the Why then should Christians and philanthropists week.
wait for the fulfilment, at some unknown and dis
tant period, of a prophecy, which the religion proFRIENDS' REVIEW. sessed by us all is capable of accomplishing in our
own day? PHILADELPHIA, ELEVENTH MONTH 20, 1847.
In order to effect any object which requires the The Yearly Meeting of North Carolina was pro- tially needful to be impressed on the public mind;
concurrent action of many, two things are essenbably concluded near the end of last week, but no That the object proposed is really important, and information relative to its proceedings had been received when this number was put to press.
that the attainment is practicable. Whenever authentic intelligence on that subject
To fix a just impression of the importance of shall come to hand, the earliest opportunity will be general and permanent peace, the author of the taken of presenting it to our readers.
pamphlet before us devotes several chapters of
his work to an exposition of the physical evils of 'The poetical paraphrase, which is closed in this number, is not an American production, but was ber of estimates of the enormous expenditures at
Under this head we are presented with a numcopied from an English pamphlet lately received. The author's name is not given.
tendant upon warlike operations; sufficiently proving, that even in an economical view, the cost
is greatly beyond the value of the object for which The Peace MANUAL.-A small 18mo. volume of wars are professedly waged. The wars of Europe, 252 pages, with the above title, has been published from 1793 to 1815, are computed to have cost and at Boston within the passing year. The work is wasted not less than forty thousand millions of composed chiefly, though not wholly, of extracts dollars. judiciously selected. The object of the writer is The loss of life, and the personal sufferings, octo unite the professors of Christianity, of the various casioned by war are vividly portrayed; and the denominations, in a general effort for the abolition estimated slaughter by the various wars which of war. He, in consequence, avoids the discussion history records, is set down at fourteen thousand of those questions connected with the subject,.on millions of human beings; or about fourteen times which a diversity of opinion is known to exist, the whole population of the globe at the present even among those who hold the custom of war in time. abhorrence, and sincerely desire its extinction. Nearly ninety pages of the work are devoted to
There are no doubt many professors of the the moral evils of war. Here its demoralizing inChristian name, who fully assent to the truth of fluence is forcibly illustrated, and the important those sublime and impressive predictions which and undeniable fact brought to view, that the early abound in the prophetic volumes, particularly oi Christians refused to participate in war; not merely Isaiah and Micah, and yet entertain the belief, because of the idolatry then usually connected that, situated as the world is, war is sometimes with it, but because it was inconsistent with their allowable. The time when nation shall not lift up religion. sword against nation, or the people learn war any more, must unquestionably come, whenever the SUMMARY OF News.— The steamship WashingChristian religion shall have produced its full effect ton arrived at New York on the 9th inst., with dates among the nations of the earth. To this opinion, from England to the 24th ult., five days later than Christians in general will doubtless agree. We all our last report. The condition of affairs does not admit that the founder of Christianity was the seem to have at all improved since the sailing of