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the Caledonia; yet some writers, both in England / of them being copied from the State Constitutions and America, express the opinion that the worst of the United States. The spirit of the whole of the mercantile crisis is past, and that a change may be inferred from an extract: for the better may now be shortly anticipated.

“ All power is inherent in the people : all free The Liverpool deputation, mentioned in our last, governments are instituted by their authority, and had an interview with the Prime Minister, who for their benefit, and they have a right to alter

and reform the same when their safety and hapexpressed much sympathy and regret for the con

piness require it. dition of the country, but held out no hope of

“ All men have a natural and unalienable right Government relief. Fourteen additional failures to worship God according to the dictates of their are reported, ten of which occurred in Liverpool. own consciences, without obstruction or molestaThere is a slight improvement in the Corn market: tion from others; all persons demeaning themCotton has declined about 1d. per pound.

selves peaceably, and not obstructing others in Everything seems to indicate a renewal of suf- their religious worship, are entitled to the profering in Ireland the ensuing winter. " Food | tection of law in the free exercise of their own riots” have occurred in several places, and much religion, and no sect of Christians shall have lawlessness and insubordination are manifested by exclusive privileges or preference over any other the people in many parts of the Island. Much sect, but sħall be alike tolerated ; and no religious

test whatever shall be required as a qualification destitution also exists among the manufacturing for civil office, or the exercise of any civil right. classes in England, and in particular, the condition “ The powers of this government shall be of the population of Lancashire threatens to be divided into three distinct departments, the scarcely above that of the inhabitants of Ireland legislative, executive and judicial; and no person itself.

belonging to one of these departments shall exerA civil war appears to be im pending in Switzer- cise any of the powers belonging to either of land, where the Protestant and Catholic Cantons the others. This section is not to be construed are respectively mustering their forces for a bloody to include justices of the peace. conflict.

“ The liberty of the press is essential to the The emancipation decree of the King of Den- security of freedom in a State ; it ought not,

therefore, to be restrained in this republic. The mark-mentioned on page 79 of this journal-has printing press shall be free to every person who been proclaimed in the Island of St. Thomas, in a undertakes to examine the proceedings of the form not exactly concordant with our previous legislature or any branch of government; and no accounts.

law shall ever be made to restrain the rights The famous Girard College, which has been thereof. The free communication of thoughts fourteen years in building, may now be considered and opinions is one of the invaluable rights of finished. On the 13th inst., the Building Commit- man; and every citizen may freely speak, write tee formally transferred the possession of the and print on the subject, being responsible for the buildings to the Board of Directors. The latter

abuse of that liberty.” give notice, that on the 1st of First month next, the the Government are made conformable to our

The Legislative and Executive branches of college will be opened for the reception of orphans. own; except that the President and Vice-Presi

dent are to be elected every two years.

The LIBERIA.

Constitution concludes thus: The Republic of Liberia now takes its place “ Done in Convention at Monrovia, in the among the independent nations of the earth.

county of Montserrado, by the unanimous conThe constitution has been received at Washing- sent of the people of the Commonwealth of Liton, as adopted by its Convention, and fills over beria, this 26th day of July, in the year of our seven columns of a printed sheet. It opens with Lord, 1847, and of the Republic the first. In a rapid historical sketch of the establishment and witness whereof we have hereto set our names.” the prosperity of the colony, which concludes -N. American and U. S. Gazette. with the following speech :

“ Therefore, in the name of humanity, and virtue and religion-in the name of the Great God, our common Creator, and our common A French steamer from St. Thomas, reports judge, we appeal to the nations of Christendom, the capture of four slave ships. Three of them and earnestly and respectfully ask of them that were taken by the Ferret; the first, a Brazilian they will regard us with the sympathy and brigantine, on the 27th of June; the second, the friendly consideration to which the peculiarities Sebasticano, three weeks later s and on the 16th of our condition entitle us, and to extend to us of July, the Faiska, a new ship from Hamburg that comity which marks the friendly intercourse and Liverpool. Capt. Dixon, of the Rapid, capof civilized and independent communities." tured a Brazilian brigantine, on the 6th of July.

Next follows the declaration of rights-many Christian Observer.

FOUR SLAVERS CAPTURED,

THE AFRICAN SLAVE TRADE.

ading squadron. H. M. Commissioners at Rio

remark, “If all the arguments are good which are The Eighth Annual Report (or that for the brought forward to prove that the total suppresyear 1847) of the British and Foreign Anti-sion of slave-importations would at once ruin Slavery Society, which has been recently re- the agricultural interests, it must be conceded, ceived, contains some startling disclosures re- that during the last four years those interests specting this odious traffic. From that branch have prospered, because the importation of slaves of the report the following is extracted:

has undeniably augmented on this part of the “ There is no reason for believing that the Brazilian coast;' and they add, • It would appear slave-trade has been less active during the past that there exists a brisk demand in the inland year, than it was in' that which preceded it. On districts, supplied from this seaport and others the contrary, the Committee are convinced that in its vicinity. The Commissioners at Sierra it has increased rather than diminished in extent. Leone write that • The trade still continues to be The introduction of slave-grown sugar into the carried on to a considerable extent from the British markets has greatly increased the demand Portuguese possessions in Mozambique ; and for that article, and consequently the demand for that under whatever colours the vessels engaged slaves. From the Slave-trade Papers for 1846 therein may sail, the negroes who are carried we make the following extracts, which will off are destined for the ports of Brazil.'

Alshow its recent movements. The Commission- luding to the capture of slavers, which had been ers at Sierra Leone say, that • The Cuban slave-made, they say, “Of these vessels, eight were trade, which, under the honourable administration taken in the Mozambique, but we believe that of General Valdez, had been almost annihilated, these cases are few in number, compared with has latterly been revived to a very lamentable those which have succeeded in carrying off their extent.'. In reference to the Brazilian slave- cargoes and landing them on the coast of Brazil ; trade they observe, that « The number of vessels and our last accounts from Rio de Janeiro tend engaged in it exceeds that in any previous year to confirm this belief, as they mention that no since this British and Brazilian Mixed Court less than thirty vessels were in preparation for came into operation ;' and they add, 'It is pro- the eastern coast of Africa alone.' The Combable, also, that the list of Spanish vessels missioners at Boa Vista, Cape de Verde, after would have been even larger than it is, but for stating that 12° north of the line had been left the temporary depressing effect which recent unwatched, observe, "That the slavers destined disturbances among the slave-population of Cuba for Sherbro, or Gallinas, have been sent with has had in creating a want of confidence on the almost equal ease to the wholly neglected ports part of the slave-factors on this coast, and deter- of Rio Pongas, Cacheo, &c., and the losses of ring them from making large shipments to the Pedro Blanco, and the slave-dealers of the former Spanish colonies on speculation.' They further places, have been counterbalanced by the inobserve, notwithstanding the activity of the in- creased gains of Kyeten (Don Caitano Nozzocreased squadron,' and the addition of effective lini) at Bissao, and his confederates in the Cape steam vessels to the cruizers on this coast,' de Verde Islands.' • still we believe that the slave-trade is increasing, Great expectations were raised, that the comand that it is conducted, perhaps, more systema- bined exertions of the British, American, and tically than it has ever been hitherto. The French squadrons employed on the coast of Afsame authorities say, Nearly all the former rica for the suppression of the slave-trade, would noted slave-haunts appear to be still frequented, prove effectual for that purpose.

Had facts and in spite of the stringent measures adopted been taken into account, those expectations by the British commodore, with the powerful would never have been indulged. The Ameriforce under his command, there can be no ques- can squadron can only capture vessels actually tion but that there has been a very large number engaged in the slave-trade bearing the United of slaves transported both to Cuba and Brazil.' States flag. The French squadron is restricted Her Majesty's Commissary Judge at the Ha- to the capture of vessels bearing the French or vanna, after stating the fact that 10,000 slaves the British flag. If a fleet of slavers covered by had been introduced into Cuba, during the year other flags were to sail into their midst, they 1844, observes, "Great, however, as this number could not be captured. It is the British squadron may be considered, I regret to have to state that, alone that can capture the vessels of all nationsif it has not amounted to the average of the im- the American excluded—by virtue of the treaties portations in the years previous to the adminis- which this country has with them, giving her tration of General Valdez, the cause must be as- the right to do so. Referring to this point, cribed to the smaller demand for slaves, rather Commodore Jones, in his reports to the Admithan to the diminished activity of the dealers, or ralty, says, ' In carrying out the objects of the prohibitory measures of the government.' Speak- squadron, it has been found necessary to rely ing of the slave-traffickers, he says, “If it suited entirely on our own resources, with little or no their interests to send vessels, I doubt whether reference to the assistance which might have they would be deterred by the fear of the block- been looked for from the joint cruizing with the

page

120.)

foreign ships of war which were expected to viously, but that they had disappeared, and he combine with us in the suppression of the slave- believed them to be optical illusions similar to trade.' • The French cruizers do not appear the mirage. It was then, for the first time, so to have made a single capture.'

The perfect was the deception, that I conjectured the American squadron employed on this station has probable fact that these figures were the reflecmade one capture.' The Commodore further tion of our own images by the atmosphere, filled says that, French merchant vessels act as car- as it was with fine particles of crystallized matriers for cargoes of slave-goods between Brazil ler, or by the distant horizon, covered by the and the factories on the coast.' It is, however, same substance. This induced a more minute the American vessels, which more particularly observation of the phenomenon, in order to deaid, abet, and even carry on the slave-trade. tect the deception, if such it were. I noticed a Under cover of the United States flag, the single figure, apparently in front in advance of slavers frequently defeated the object of the all the others, and was struck with its likeness British cruizers, because it is declared unlaw- to myself. Its motions, too, I thought were the ful to visit their vessels on the high seas.' At same as mine. To test the hypothesis above present the Committee are informed that the suggested, I wheeled suddenly around, at the whole of the American squadron is withdrawn same time stretching my arms out to their full from the coast of Africa, in consequence of the length and turning my face sideways to notice Mexican war."

the movements of this figure. It went through

precisely the same motions. I then marched From the Louisville Morning Courier.

deliberately and with long strides several paces; A DAY IN THE DESERT OF CALIFORNIA.

the figure did the same. To test it more tho

roughly, I repeated the experiment, and with the (Concluded from

same result. The fact then was clear. But it During the subsidence of this tempest there was more fully verified still, for the whole array appeared upon the plain one of the most ex- of this numerous shadowy host in the course of traordinary phenomena, I dare to assert, ever an hour melted entirely away and was no more witnessed. As I have before stated, I had dis- seen. The phenomenon, however, explained mounted from my mule, and, turning it in with and gave the history of the gigantic spectres the caballado, was walking several rods in front which appeared and disappeared so mysteriously of the party, in order to lead in a direct course to at an earlier hour of the day. The figures were the point of our destination. Diagonally in front, our own shadows, produced and reproduced by to the right, our course being west, there appeared the mirror-like composition impregnating the atthe figures of a number of men and horses, srine mosphere and covering the plain. I cannot here fifteen or twenty. Some of these figures were more particularly explain or refer to the subject. mounted and others dismounted, and appeared But this spectral population, springing out of the to be marching in front. Their faces and the ground as it were, and arraying itself before us heads of the horses were turned towards us, and as we traversed this dreary and Heaven-conat first they appeared as if they were rushing down demned waste, although we were entirely conupon us. Their apparent distance, judging from vinced of the cause of the apparition, excited the horizon, was from three to five miles. But those superstitious emotions so natural to all their size was not correspondent, for they appear- mankind. ed nearly as large as our own bodies, and conse- About 5 o'clock, P. M., we reached and quently were of gigantic stature. At the first passed, leaving it to our left, a small butte, rising view, I supposed them to be a small party of solitary from the plain. Around this the ground Indians (probably Utahs) marching from the is uneven, and a few scattering shrubs, leafless opposite side of the plain. But this seemed to and without verdure, raised themselves above me scarcely probable, as no hunting or war party the white sand and saline matter, which seemed would be likely to take this route. I called to recently to have drifted, so as nearly to conceal some of our party nearest to me to hasten forward, them Eight miles brought us to the northern as there were men in front coming towards us. end of a short range of mountains, turning the Very soon the fifteen or twenty figures were point of which, and bending our course to the multiplied into three or four hundred, and ap- left, we gradually came upon higher ground, peared to be marching forward with the greatest composed of compact volcanic gravel. I was action and speed. I then conjectured that they here considerably in the rear, having made a might be Captain Fremont and his party, with detour towards the base of the butte, and thence others from California, returning to the United toward the centre of the short range of mounStates by this route, although they seemed to be tains, to discover, if such existed, a spring of too numerous even for this. I spoke to Brown, water. I saw no such joyful presentation, nor who was nearest to me, and asked him if he any of the usual indications, and when I reached noticed the figures of men and horses in front and turned the point, the whole party were He answered that he did, and that he had ob- several miles ahead of me and out of sight. served the same appearances several times pre-- Congratulating myself that I stood once more on

fact as

terra firma, I urged my tired mule forward with | 9 o'clock, displaying and illuminating the unnaall the life and activity that spur and whip could tural, unearthly dreariness of the scenery. inspire her with, passing down the range of “Old Jenny” for some time had so far beat mountains on my left some four or five miles, me in the race, as to be out of my sight, and I and then rising some rocky hills connecting this out of the sound of her footsteps. I was entirely with a long and high range of mountains on my alone, and enjoying as well as a man could with right. The distance across these hills is about a crust of salt in his nostrils and over his lips, seven or eight miles. When I had reached the and a husky mouth and throat, the singularity of most elevated point of this ridge, the sun was my situation, when I observed about a quarter of setting, and I saw my fellow travellers, still far a mile ahead of me a dark stationary object, in advance of me, entering again upon a plain or standing in the midst of the hoary scenery. I valley of salt, some ten or twelve miles in breadth. supposed it to be “Old Jenny,” in trouble once On the opposite side of this valley rose abruptly more about her pack. But, coming up to a and to a high elevation another mountain, at the speaking distance, I was challenged in a loud foot of which we expected to find the spring of voice with the usual guard salutation, “Who fresh water that was to quench our thirst, and comes there ?" Having no countersign, I gave revive and sustain the drooping energies of our the common response in such cases, " A friend." faithful beasts.

This appeared to be satisfactory; for I heard no About midway upwards, in a canada of this report of pistol or rifle, and no arrow took its mountain, I noticed the smoke of a fire, which soundless flight through my body. I rode up apparently had just been kindled, as doubtless it to the object, and discovered it to be Buchannan had been, by Indians, who were then there, and sitting upon his mule, which had become so had discovered our party on the white plain much exhausted that it occasionally refused to go below, it being the custom of these Indians to along, notwithstanding his industrious application make signals by fire and smoke whenever they of the usual incentives to progress. He said notice strange objects. Proceeding onward, that he had supposed himself to be the last I overtook an old and favorite pack-mule, which man” before "Old Jenny" passed, who had we familiarly called “Old Jenny.” She carried given him a surprise, and he was quite thunderour meat and flour-all that we possessed in struck when an animal, mounted by a man, came a sustenance of life.

Her pack had charging upon him in his half crippled condition. turned, and her burden, instead of being on her After a good laugh and some little delay and back, was suspended under her belly. With the difficulty, we got his mule under way again and good sense and discretion so characteristic of rode slowly along together. the Mexican pack-mule, being behind and fol- We left, to us, in our tired condition, the lowing the party in advance, she had stopped seemingly interminable plain of salt, and entered short in the road until some one should come to upon the sagey slope of the mountain about ten re-arrange

her cargo, and place it on deck instead o'clock. Hallooing as loudly as we could raise of under the keel. I dismounted and went our voices, we obtained, by a response, the di. through by myself the rather tedious and labori- rection of our party who had preceded us, and ous process of unpacking and repacking. This after some difficulty in making our way through done, “ Old Jenny set forward upon a fast the sage, grass and willows, (the last a certain gallop, to overtake her companions ahead, and indication of water in the desert,) we came to my own mule, as if not to be outdone in the where they had discovered a faint stream of race, followed in the same gait. “Old Jenny,” water, and made their camp. Men and mules, however, maintained the honors of the race, on their first arrival, as we learned, had madly keeping considerably ahead. Both of them, by rushed into the stream and drank together of its that instinct or faculty which mules undoubtedly muddy waters, made muddy by their own dispossess, had scented the water on the other side turbance of its shallow channel, and sluggish of the valley, and their pangs of extreme thirst current. urged them forward at this extraordinary speed, Delay of gratification frequently gives a tempoafter the long and laborious march they had rary relief to the cravings of hunger. The same made to obtain it.

remark is applicable to thirst. Some hours preAs I advanced over the plain, which was viously I had felt the pangs of thirst with an covered with a thicker crust of salt than that pre- acuteness amounting almost to an agony. Now, viously described, breaking under the feet of the when I had reached the spot where I could graanimals like a crust of frozen snow, the spread-tify my desires in this respect, they were greatly ing of the fires in the canada of the mountain diminished. My first care was to unsaddle my appeared with great distinctness. The line of mule and lead it to the stream, and my next to lights was regular like camp fires, and I was take a survey of the position of our encampment. more than half inclined to hope that we should I then procured a cup of muddy water and drank meet and be welcomed by an encampment of it off with a good relish. The fires before nocivilized men, either hunters, or a party from the ticed were still blazing brightly above us on the Pacific bound homeward. The moon rose about side of the mountain, but those who had lighted

them had given no other signal of their proximity. I must have it, for we are the lords of the land.' The moon shone brilliantly, and Jacob, Buchan- Well down you go,' said we, throwing the rope nan, McClary, and myself concluded we would over their shoulders, .and you shall have the trace the small stream of water until we could bakshish.' •Nay, verily,' said they, you mean find the fountain spring. After considerable to hang us; let Jacob do what he pleases.' Jacob search among the reeds, willow, and luxuriant was ready at our command; and when he had green, we discovered a spring. Buchannan was tied the rope round his body below the shoulders, so eager to obtain a draughtof cold pure water, that he received our parting instructions. We asked in dipping his cup for this purpose the yielding him to call out to us the moment that he might weeds under him gave way, and he sank into arrive at the surface of the water, and told him that the basin, from which he was drawn out after a we should so hold the rope as to prevent him good ducking," by one of those present. The from sinking, if there was any considerable depth next morning this basin was sounded to the depth of the element. We told him also to pull out of thirty-five feet, and no bottom found. We one of the candles with which he had stored his named this spring, “ Buchannan's Well.” We breast, and to ignite it when he might get below. lighted no fires to-night, and prepared no evening As he looked into the fearful pit on the brink of meal. Worn down by the hard day's travel, which he stood, terror took hold of him, and he after relieving our thirst, we spread our blankets betook himself to prayer in the Hebrew tongue. upon the ground, and laying our bodies upon them, We of course gave him no interruption in his slept soundly in the bright moonshine. Several solemn exercise, as, in the circumstance of the of our party had been on the road upwards of case, we could not but admire the spirit of deseventeen hours, without water or refreshment votion which he evinced. On a signal given of any kind, except a small draught of cold coffee we let him go. The Arabs held with us the from our powder-keg, made of the salt-sulphur rope, and we took care that he should descend water at our last encampment, and had travelled as gently as possible. the distance of seventy-five miles. The Salt “When our material was nearly exhausted, he Plain has never at this place, as far as I could called out, • I have reached the bottom, and it is understand, been crossed but twice previously at present scarcely covered with water.' Forthby civilized men, and in these instances two with he kindled his light; and, that he might days were occupied in performing the journey. have every advantage, we threw him down a National Intelligencer. quantity of dry sticks, with which he made a

blaze, which distinctly showed us the whole of THE DEPTH OF JACOB'S WELL.

the well from the top to the bottom.

“ We saw the end of the rope at its lower Dr. Wilson, of England, who has recently tra- part; and we put a knot upon it at the margin velied through the Holy Land, and published the above, that we might have the exact measurement results of his travel under the title of " The Land when Jacob might come up. After searching of the Bible Visited and Described,” presents the for about five minutes for the Bible among the following relation of his visit to Jacob's Well :

stones and mud at the bottoin, our friend joy“At Sheehem, Dr. Wilson found a remnant fully cried out: It is found ! it is found! it is of the Samaritans still, and had some interesting found! We were not slow, it may be supposed, conversation with one of their priests. In the in giving him our congratulations. The prize immediate neighborhood is Jacob's Well, where he carefully put into his breast, and then he our Lord encountered the woman of Samaria, declared his readiness, with our aid, to make the and with simplest images instructed her in the ascent. sublime mysteries of spiritual truth. The well “ We found it no easy matter to get him is situated amid the ruins of a church which pulled up, as we had to keep the rope from the once surrounded it. The mouth was covered edge of the well lest it should snap asunder. with two large stones. Rolling away these, the When he came into our hands he was unable to travellers, with their attendants, swung them- speak, and we laid him down on the margin of selves down to a kind of platform, where they the well that he might collect his breath. Where hindled a light, and commenced preparations for is the bakshish ? were the first words which ascertaining the depth of Jacob's Well. he uttered on regaining his faculty of speech. It

* It was now time to disclose our plan of ope- was immediately forthcoming, to the extent of ration to our native attendants. • Jacob,' said about à sovereign, and to his fullest satisfaction. we, “a friend of ours, an English traveller and A similar sum we divided among our Arab minister, (the Rev. Andrew Bonar, of Collace,) assistants. The book, from having been so long dropped the five books of Moses and the other steeped in the water and mud below, was, with inspired records into this well about three years the exception of the boards, reduced to a mass g), and if yon will descend and bring them up of pulp. In our effort to recover it, we had we shall give you a handsome bakshish.' • Bak- ascertained the depth of the well, which is shish?' said the Arabs, kindling at the sound; exactly seventy-five feet. Its diameter is about • if there is to be a bakshish in the case, wel nine feet. It is entirely hewn out of the solid

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