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never, for a moment, contemplate the dearest in the work of moral and physical reforms. vne I have lost, but as a glorified spirit! Oh, Acting himself on the broad principles of Chrismay I be permitted to follow in the Lord's due tian benevolence, he retained his influence with time, and have my lot with her for ever! Oh, men who were estranged from each other by Shepherd of Israel, gather me and mine into thy political jealousies. Hence he appears to have fold, and preserve us to the end.”
acted as a medium for producing an union of Being now bereaved of his greatest earthly effort among individuals, who, without such a comfort, a privation which can be fully appre- medium, could not easily coalesce. And while ciated by those only who have experienced it, he improved his intercourse with men occupying the mind of our friend was evidently drawn to the most elevated position in society, to sustain seek with greater intensity of desire, a nearer and advance the general good, he was evidently access to the Fountain of unfailing consolation ; solicitous to maintain an unflinching testimony and the prospect of engaging anew in the active to the plainness and simplicity of his own reliconcerns of life, was one from which he was gious profession. ready to recoil. His employment as a public In the summer of this year (1817) W. Allen lecturer appears to have been particularly burden- accompanied two female ministers from America, some, and none the less go from the plaudits H. Field and E. Barker, on a religious visit to which those lectures frequently elicited. But he the little society professing with us, in the south apprehended his duty required the sacrifice. of France. They had the company of Josiah And we may easily conceive that a public teacher Forster, who frequently acted as interpreter for whose mind was so copiously replenished with the women Friends. In the narrative of this the treasures of science, and so accustomed to service we may clearly perceive the evidence of look through nature up to nature's God, would an increasing concern, in the subject of this rerender his communications doubly instructive. view, to become more fully refined from the Indeed, the sketches of the introductory or con- dregs of the first nature. His exercises were cluding portions of his lectures, which we find evidently preparatory to a more public espousal scattered through these volumes, authorize the of the Master's cause than he had hitherto venconclusion, that the withdrawal of his instructions tured to make. The subsequent incident shows would have been a serious loss to his auditors, the coincidence of exercise, which is sometimes in a religious as well as scientific point of view. experienced among those who are labouring in And it can scarcely be doubted that a mind so the cause of the gospel
. Passing through a keenly sensitive and habitually active, as that of small town, where they had been a short time William Allen, required some definite and in-before, they stopped to allow their horses to be teresting object on which to employ its energies, fed, “when a great number of tender people soon and prevent the painful corrosion of thought crowded into the room, and we settled down and which his recent bereavement was likely to pro- had a very sweet and solemn meeting with duce.
them; love flowed towards them so freely in At the end of 1816, he remarks: “the year my heart, that if I had not been afraid to trust which has now closed has been singularly awful myself, on account of the language, I should to me. In it I have lost my precious Charlotte, have addressed them, and believe it would have who was the balm of my life, my comfort and been better if I had attempted it: dear H. Field, support under all my trials and labours for the however, commenced with the very subject good of others. In this year also, I have lost which was upon my mind, and was much my dear fellow-labourer in the great cause of favoured with best help in her communication. the education of the poor, Joseph Fox; and E. Barker afterwards spoke; the dear people here am I left behind ; yet truly, I must acknow- seemed reached and affected, and I was thankful ledge that the Almighty hath been good to his for the opportunity ; surely the fields are white poor afflicted servant. Lord, preserve me !" unto harvest."
The former part of the following year, was At Congenies they found that, small as was employed in active exertions to promote the the company, the accuser of the brethren had improvement of our race in various parts of the obtained admittance among them. There were world; and the means on which the principal two friends between whom some misunderstandreliance was placed, was the education of those ing had arisen ; on this William Allen remarks : who oecupy the humbler walks of life. · As this " This affair is such a burden on my mind, class must, in all countries, constitute the bone that I cannot hope for any good until it is reand sinew of the community, W. Allen was moved; for I clearly see that unless this be acparticularly solicitous to extend to them the bene- complished, it is vain to endeavour to build them fits of a virtuous education. His numerous en- up. gagements, scientific, philanthropic and religious, “In the evening we met the friends conhad brought him in contact with the most influ- cerned; my anxiety was great for the re-estabential characters of the day: and it is interesting lishment of harmony. I requested that we to observe how he availed himself of the oppor- might have a pause before entering on the intunities thus attained to enlist his acquaintances vestigation of the matter, that we might seek
that divine help in which alone our strength | which he deemed best; his was an earnest spirit consists. After some time dear H. Field spoke contending for the Truth as he understood it. excellently. Josiah interpreted. I was pressed He sought to walk with his Maker, and his in spirit in much affection to address them. path-not unchequered with trials, not wholly Josiah and E. Barker also spoke very suitably. free from impediments which he had himself We endeavoured to convince them of the im- thrown into it, was yet illuminated by that light portance of burying in oblivion, all that had which is vouchsafed to the pure in heart, and in caused any disunity amongst them. I think that the end, we doubt not, was permitted to shine on no occasion, since we came from home, have more and more unto the perfect day. we so sensibly felt the presence of our Lord as We are convinced that to us has been shown at this time.
in many respects “a better way;" but we feel “After a good deal more had passed, we had a that if we have any claim to the name of a dishope that they were disposed to a reconciliation ; ciple, we must needs love him who was so emiat length, the parties embraced each other with nently one of “ the brotherhood.” pears, and we separated under a precious cover- Charles Simeon was born in 1759. His ing of love. It is the Lord's doing alone, for family was a highly respectable one; and having without his gracious assistance, we could have been educated at Eton and Cambridge, he subseaccomplished nothing; whether the fruits will quently became a Fellow of Kings' College, he permanent or not must be left, but we are in that University, where, with the exception clear, having done what we could; and it has, of occasional excursions, his long life was unquestionably, been a time of renewed divine passed. Neither the training of his boyhood, nor visitation to the Friends of this part.”
the example of his family, contributed to proAfter an absence of nine weeks, during which mote religious sensibility, and at Eton he seems time they travelled by land and water nearly to have led a life, not of profligacy, but of recktwo thousand miles, our friends returned to less indifference to serious things. Yet even England with minds peaceful and thankful here he records that he was the subject of Difor the favours received.
vine visitations, and expresses his belief that One remarkable tendency in the mind of God would at that time have communicated William Allen, discernible in almost every part rich blessings to him, if he had not resisted the of his diary, and which may be advantageously operations of his grace and done despite to his imitated by those who have occasion to mingle blessed Spirit.” with men of various habits, conditions and edu- On entering College, in his 21st year, he was cation, was to observe and bring into view the unexpectedly told that he must make a profession amiable and valuable traits of character of the of religion, not by a continued course of selfpersons with whom he associated. This evident denial and humble, consistent-walking with his disposition to be pleased himself could not fail Maker, but by taking the Sacrament, as it was to render him an agreeable companion. And termed, in compliance with that absurd canon of the urbanity of manner, which this disposition the English Universities, requiring under penalty habitually cultivated necessarily produced, must of exclusion from the benefits of their course of have added greatly to his influence over others, instruction, a profession of sentiment which and enabled him to prosecute much more effi- many of the students wholly reject, and with ciently, and with the aid of more numerous co- regard to which the greater number have adjutors, the numerous plans for the melioration no opinion at all. Simeon's ingenuous mind of civil society which constituted a large portion was struck with his own utter unfitness to take of the business of his life.
part in such a ceremonial, and, in his case, the (To be continued.)
very unusual result appears to have been a deepened conviction of his own sinfulness, and a sincere application of heart to the Saviour, and
through the power of Divine grace, repentance CHARLES SIMEON.
and amendment of life. Half a century had
passed since Wesley had found, upon entering The name of Simeon is familiar to those who Oxford, the same formal profession of Christianity have watched the progress of vital piety, and, and the same contempt of its restraints ; the same we may add, of religious controversy, in Eng- Naughty rejection of all who did not recognize land during the last thirty years. He held the symbols of religion as by law established; opinions from which we wholly dissent; he the same bitter scorn of those who, professing sometimes taught as doctrine, what we cannot the creed, deemed it their duty to make their esteem other than the commandment of men,he lives conform to its requirements. Methodism verily believed himself called to do some things was a recognition of the right of Christianity to which we regard as tending to obstruct the control the lives of men. Its founders were slow spreading of the Gospel in its primitive purity to reject the ceremonials of the church, much Yet his life was devoted to the promotion of the less did they desire to separate from it. But the highesi interests of his fellow man in that way.church soon rejected them, and though for a
For Friend's Review.
time the influence which they had exerted for the great good of others. On the first day that good within its precincts, lingered around them, he preached in public, while returning home, his the final withdrawal of so many serious and attention was arrested by the loud wrangling of devout men, seems to have left the establishment a man and his wife; the door being opened, he to the lethargic sleep of another generation, from entered and earnestly expostulated with them for which its hierarchy was to be reluctantly aroused absenting themselves from public worship, and by the sound of those controversies with which for their unseemly conduct, and closed by kneelits walls still reverberate.
ing down and praying for them. He soon beSimeon's was not a mind to be easily brought came known to a few serious persons in the under the drowsy influences which surrounded vicinity, and was enabled to derive instruction him. He saw the clergy hurrying irreverently from social intercourse with some who, there through their appointed tasks to devote them- was reason to believe, had been in Christ before selves to sensual or intellectual pleasures; he saw him.” their smile at his devout participation in those Nor was it on public occasions only that he rites, which their common creed described as a manifested his zeal for the promotion of piety. means of sanctification ; he was shocked to find He thought it right to show forth the fruits of that nothing so surely brought down upon a the Spirit in his domestic intercourse, and to member of their order the reproaches of his su- reprove, with faithfulness, the levity of his periors, as an earnest and faithful performance of family connections. They, in turn, expressed those duties which their vows imposed. The their fears that he was about to lose all common students were such men as the example of their sense. Yet his patient assiduity seems at length spiritual guides was likely to make them. Open to have given him an interest with all his assoprofanity, the disturbance of public worship, and ciates—whether visiting from house to house, the application of every species of annoyance to affording to servants the opportunities of religious those who taught and those who acted upon instruction, in prison with the convicted felon, sounder views of religion were the ordinary indi- or arresting by his timely Christian caution the cations, by which persons who, by their own meditated suicidein all things he endeavoured act, or that of others for them, were said to to be about his Father's business. “This," rehave renounced the pomps and vanities of this marked a cotemporary, “is the young man once wicked world, showed the validity of their claims so vain of dress, that he constantly allowed more to be Christians. Such scenes only stimulated than £50 a year for his own person; now he Simeon to more faithfulness in the performance scruples keeping a horse, that the money may of his duty. He seems to have had little oppor- help the saints of Christ.” “Oh! to flame, as he tunity of religious communion with those who does, with zeal, and yet be beautiful with meekwere “ like minded." The only clergyman in ness." Cambridge whose views approached to the truth, as he understood it, was deterred, by the general
Abridged from the North British Review, for Friends' Review, character of the gownsmen, from inviting him to
CHINA. his house; and so much did he long for intercourse with serious persons, that he had almost
(Continued from page 134.) determined to insert an advertisement in the Mr. Fortune, while at the Shang-hai, was public papers to promote the object. We give particularly anxious to visit the famous city of his proposed advertisement as a most striking Soo-chan, situated about fifty miles inland. As indication of the state of things then existing at this was far beyond the limits that strangers are one of the great seats of learning in England, permitted to proceed from any of the free-port from which many went forth annually, professing cities, Mr. Fortune resolved to adopt the Chinese to be " Ministers of the Word.”
dress, and visit it incognito. In this he suc“A young clergyman, who felt himself an un- ceeded, and found this grand city, which is the done sinner, and looked to the Lord Jesus Christ great emporium of the central provinces of China, alone for salvation, and desired to live only to very similar in its general features to the other make known that Saviour unto others, was per- towns he had visited, only it appeared more the suaded that there must be some persons in the seat of luxury and wealth, and has none of those world whose views and feelings accorded with signs of dilapidation and decay which are appa his own, though he had now lived three years rent in such towns as Ning-po. A noble canal, without finding so much as one ; and that if there as wide as the river Thames at Richmond, runs
; were any minister of that description, he would parallel with the city walls, and acts as a moat, gladly become his curate and serve him gratis.” as well as for commercial purposes. This canal
He, however, resolved sedulously to apply is carried through arches into the city, where it himself to what he deemed his allotted duty; ramifies in all directions, sometimes narrow and and if his zeal was not always according to true dirty, and at other places expanding into lakes of knowledge, it was the result of great sincerity; considerable beauty, thus enabling the inhabitants and being accompanied by watchfulness over to convey their merchandise to their houses from himself, appears to have been often blessed to the most distant parts of the country. Junks
and boats of all sizes were plying on this wide them into good humour. In this instance the and beautiful canal, and the whole place pre- plan succeeded admirably; we were in a few sented a cheerful and flourishing aspect. The minutes excellent friends, the boys were running city gates were well guarded, and the streets and in all directions gathering plants for my specilanes inside were intersected at intervals with men-box, and the old men were offering me their gates, which are closed at nine or ten o'clock at bamboo-pipes to smoke. As I got a little nearer night. Groups of gay and cheerful-looking peo-to the village, however, their suspicions seemed ple loitered on the bridges, and sailed along the to return, and they evidently would have been canals. The ladies here are considered by the better pleased had I either remained where I was, Chinese to be the most beautiful in the country, or gone back again. This procedure did not and judging from those seen by our traveller, suit my plans; and though they tried very hard they deserved this character. Their dresses to induce me to wyloe' to my san-pan,' it was were of the richest material, and made in a grace of no use. They then pointed to the heavens, ful and elegant style—the only faults he could which were very black at the time, and told me discern were their small feet and the white pow. that it would soon be a thunder-storm—but even der with which their faces were too unsparingly this did not succeed. As a last resource, when covered.
they found I was not to be turned out of my way, Hong-Kong is a mountainous, rocky island, some of the little ones were sent on before to apabout ten miles in length and five in breadth. prise the villagers of my approach, and when I Its northern side bends into a capacious bay, reached the village every living thing, down even well adapted for shipping, and forming a secure to the dogs and pigs, were out to have a peep at harbor. Only small portions of the surface of the • Fokie.' I soon put them all, the dogs exthe island are capable of tillage, the greater part cepted, which have the true national antipathy consisting of bare rugged cliffs, with only a par- to foreigners, in the best possible humour, and tial vegetation of green herbage during the rainy at last they seemed in no hurry to get rid of me. season. Already has British enterprise cut roads One of the most respectable amongst them, and streets out of the solid rocks, and the town seemingly the head man of the village, brought of Victoria has risen up, containing many build- me some cakes and tea, which he politely offered ings of magnificent structure. The native popu- me.
I thanked him, and began to eat. The lation has more than trebled since the English hundreds who now surrounded me were perfectgained possession of it, and it is now entirely ly delighted; · He eats and drinks like ourselves,' under British rule and jurisdiction. The power- said one. • Look,' said two or three behind me, ful heat of the sun on this bare and rugged spot, who had been examining the back part of my the want of a free current of ventilation from the head, • look here; the stranger has no tail !' and hills of the adjoining mainland, and the noxious then the whole crowd, women and children inexhalations from the surface, all conspire to ren- cluded, had to come round me to see if it was der this a trying climate for Europeans, and lat- really a fact that I had no tail. One of them, terly the health of the inhabitants has suffered rather a dandy in his way, with a noble tail of greatly.
his own, plaited with silk, now came forward, Notwithstanding their inherent suspicion of and taking off a kind of cloth which the natives all strangers, the Chinese are neither unkind nor here wear as a turban, and allowing his tail to inhospitable. Mr. Fortune, whose botanical fall gracefully over his shoulders, said to me in pursuits frequently led him into the country, the most triumphant manner, Look at that! I almost invariably met with a good reception from acknowledged that it was very fine, and promised the peasantry, and from the inmates of such if he would allow me to cut it off I would wear temples and religious houses as he visited. One it for his sake. He seemed very much disgusted of these excursions we shall detail in his own at the idea of such a loss, and the others had a words, as it affords a characteristic sketch of the good laugh at him.”-Fortune. pp. 39, 40. timid yet inquisitive and kindly manners of the The tea districts are situated in the provinces Chinese peasantry :
of Canton, Fokien, and Chekiang. There are "I was one day travelling amongst the hills in two species, or probably only varieties of the tea the interior of the island of Amoy, in places shrub, the Thea Viridis and Thea Bohea of where I suppose no Englishman had ever been botanists. It has been frequently stated and bebefore. The day was fine, and the whole of the lieved that our black teas are derived from the agricultural labourers were at work in the fields. Bohea shrub, and the green teas from the Thea When they first saw me they seemed much ex- Viridis. Mr. Fortune, however, ascertained, by cited, and from their gestures and language I was actual inspection, that both shrubs yield green almost inclined to think them hostile. From and black teas, and that, in fact, although the every hill and valley they cried, • Wyloe-san-pan- Bohea plant is that which grows in the southern fokie,' that is, · Be off to your boat, friend ;' but districts, and the Thea Viridis in the northern, on former occasions I had always found that the both green and black teas are regularly prepared best plan was to put a bold face on the matter, in all the localities, and that the difference arises and walk in amongst them, and then try to get from the quality and mode of preparation of the
leaves. The tea plant requires a rich soil, other-, tion, and his old age and gray hairs are honoured, wise the continual gathering of the leaves would revered, and loved. When, after the labours of soon destroy its vigour. In the north of China, the day are over, they return to their humble the tea plantations are always situated on the and happy homes, their fare consists chiefly of lower and most fertile sides of the hills, and never rice, fish, and vegetables, which they enjoy with on the low lands. The shrubs are planted in great zest, and are happy and contented. I really rows about four feet apart, and about the same believe that there is no conntry in the world distance between each row, and look at a little where the agricultural population are better off distance like little shrubberies of evergreens. than they are in the north of China. Labour The farms are small, each consisting of from one with them is a pleasure, for its fruits are eaten by to four or five acres ; indeed, every cottager has themselves, and the rod of the oppressor is unfelt his own little tea garden, the produce of which and unknown.'”-p. 202. supplies the wants of his family, and the surplus
(To be continued.) brings him in a few dollars which are spent on the other necessaries of life. The same is the case with the cotton, rice, and silk farms; all are
THE AFRICAN SLAVE-TRADE. small, and managed by the members of the
(Concluded from page 139.) family. In the green tea districts, near Ning-po, the first crop of leaves is generally gathered The returns of Commodore Jones show that about the middle of April ; this consists of the the squadron under his command captured, beyoung leaf buds, just as they begin to unfold, and tween the 1st of April, 1844, and the 12th of forms a fine and delicate kind of hyson, which is March, 1846, no less than one hundred and highly esteemed by the natives, but it is scarce fifteen slavers. Fifty-eight of them bore the and expensive. About the middle of May, the Brazilian flag; nineteen, the Spanish ; four, the shrubs are again covered with fresh leaves, and Portuguese ; two, the Sardinian ; one, the Libeare ready for the second gathering, which is the rian; one, the American ; and thirty bore no most important of the season. The third gather-colours, or did not choose to exhibit them. ing produces a very inferior sort of tea, which is These captures prove the immense activity of rarely sent out of the district. When the weather the trade. is fine the natives are seen in little groups, on the The latest official reports leave no hope that hill sides, stripping the leaves off and throwing the slave-trade can be effectually extinguished by them into baskets. These leaves are then car- the cruisers. On the contrary, it may now be ried home to the barns adjoining their cottages, considered as established beyond all doubt, that and dried in pans held over little furnaces con-. whatever force can be brought against it will fail structed in the wall. They are then rolled up of accomplishing that object. There is every by the hand on a bamboo table, and twisted and prospect that the Spanish as well as the Brazilian curled into the shape we see them. After this slave-trade will become more extensive than ever. they are exposed upon a large screen, and dried The temporary checks which it receives, serve
а further in the sun, when they are again subjected the double purpose of increasing the gains, and to a second drying in the pans, and are then stimulating the exertions of the slave-traders. picked, sifted, and sorted, and finally packed up The proofs of this are unhappily abundant. for market. For the European markets this The Brazilian plan for prosecuting this nefarigreen tea undergoes a further process of colour- ous trade, according to the statement of the Coming, which is done by the addition of Prussian missioners at Rio, is to “ employ two vessels blue and gypsum ; but this adds nothing to the under charters, sending them to Africa from this flavour or other qualities of the tea, except place with cargoes adapted for the African marts, heightening the colour.
and also with water and other equipments for When the teas are ready for sale, extensive the transport of slaves. One of these vessels tea-dealers come from the towns and make pur- proceeds to trade at the different African ports, chases from the small growers. The tea is then under the direction of the chief super-cargo, conveyed to the shipping ports, and packed and while the other remains stationary, as a store shipped for the European and American markets. ship, at the place where the negroes are pre
“iThere are few sights,' says Mr. Fortune, paring for embarkation. This stationary vessel, more pleasing than a Chinese family in the in- generally one which has, according to the terms terior engaged in gathering the tea leaves, or in- of a former charter, been two or three previous deed in any of their other agricultural pursuits. voyages, is then, under the conditions frequently There is the old man, patriarch-like, directing found in such contracts, delivered over to the his descendants, many of whom are in their charterers as their property ; when, being preyouth and prime, while others are in their child- pared for the reception of slaves, and all the time hood, in the labours of the field. He stands in under an illegal flag, she is crammed with slaves the midst of them, bowed down with age. But as soon as the opportunity offers, and proceeds to the honour of the Chinese, as a nation, he is to her private rendezvous in Brazil. Thither always looked up to by all with pride and affec-) also her consort returns in ballast, with part o.