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tered into conversation. They formed a motley | aries, cormorants are regularly trained to catch group of sallow, sunken cheeks, and glassy, wa- fish and bring them to their masters. tery eyes, as with idiotic look, and vacant laugh, Mr. Smith thus describes his reception at a they readily volunteered information, and de- mandarin's table:scribed the process of their own degradation. “On Sept. 3d I went with some friends to There was to be seen the youth, who, just visit the principal Mandarin in Ning-po, usually emerging from boyhood, had only commenced styled the taou-tai. Due notice had been given the practice a little time before, and was now some hours previously, and there were circumhastening to a premature old age. There was stances attending our visit which insured a polite the man of middle age, who, for half his life a reception from his Excellency. We were borne victim of this pernicious indulgence, was bearing in chairs along the streets to the ya-mun, or pubwith him to an early grave the wreck of his lic office, in which the taou-tai was then residing. worn-out constitution. There was again the As we approached the large folding-doors, leadmore elderly man, whose iron strength of frame ing into the first of a number of spacious courts, could better ward off the slow but certain ad-a gong was struck, which was immediately anvances of decrepitude, but whose bloated cheek swered by other gongs and a bell from within. and vacant stare, told of the struggle that was At the same time a native piper commenced raging within. There was again the rarely seen playing a noisy air, accompanied by a kind of spectacle of old age, and the man of sixty lived cymbal

, to do honour to us as we passed. As yet to tell of forty years consumed in the seduc- door opened within door, we saw signs of bustle tion of this vice. They all assented to the evils and activity among the numerous attendants, till and sufferings of their course, and professed a our sedan-chairs were set down on a pavement desire to be freed from its power. They all at the bottom of a little flight of steps leading complained of loss of appetite—of the agonizing into a vestibule. Here the great man, Ching-tacravings of the early morning-of prostration of jin, descended to welcome us; and after a good strength, and of increasing feebleness, but said deal of bowing and other salutations, we were that they could not gain firmness of resolution to conducted to a reception-hall, where we were overcome the habit. They all stated its intoxi- invited to take our seats. But preliminary cating effects to be worse ihan those of drunken- matters of etiquette had to be settled, which ocness, and described the extreme dizziness and cupied some time. The taou-tai would not ocvomiting which ensued so as to incapacitate cupy the highest seat on the left side, the place them for exertion. I subsequently visited about of honour; and the members of our little party thirty other opium shops in different parts of affected like humility. One pressed the other, the city. The people say that there are nearly and tried to lead him into the uppermost seat, a thousand such establishments in Amoy." which gentle attempt the other as gently resisted.

A confirmed opium smoker generally consumes Under ordinary circumstances this would have daily about a mace of opium, which is equal to been fatiguing; but in the excessive heat of the one drachm, of sixty grains, the price of which summer it was doubly irksome: and matters is about eight pence sterling, a large sum of were at last abruptly brought to a satisfactory money in China. In fact, many of the poorer adjustment by one of our party coolly occupying classes consume from a third to a fourth of their the highest seat, and thus terminating the debate. whole earnings in this pernicious practice, not- One of our friends was a fluent speaker of Chiwithstanding they may have a wife and family nese, and acted as our spokesman. The taoudepending on them for support. This is a tai's cap of authority, which was ornamented melancholy account, and can only find a parallel with the usual knob or button of a light blue in the gin and whiskey consumers of our own colour, indicating his rank as being of the third island. For one million pounds' worth of opium, of the nine orders of Mandarins, was now taken however, which is thus used in the extensive from his head, and handed to an attendant, who empire of China, there are at least twenty mil. placed it in a conspicuous part of the room. Soon lions' worth of intoxicating liquors consumed in after, another servant came at his bidding to assist Great Britain.

in removing his upper garment of blue silk, and So generally is the country under cultivation, as, notwithstanding the heat, we had paid his and such has been the density of population for Excellency the compliment of appearing in many ages, that wild animals, especially game, woollen coats, we gladly availed ourselves of his are very rare in China. To make up for this, invitation to put off the incumbrance, and sat however, domestic animals are reared in consid- during the rest of our visit in our shirt-sleeves. erable quantities, such as bullocks, sheep, pigs, The room did not afford the signs of any great fowls, and even dogs, which are admitted into wealth in the proprietor, the furniture being simthe category of culinary beasts among this peo-ple and substantial, rather than elegant. A ple. In Chusan, and probably in many other number of servants were standing outside, and places throughout the country, young ducks are sometimes, in their eagerness to see and listen, hatched in thousands by artificial heat, and then pressed around the door. A wave of the hand fed up for the table; and on the rivers and estu-' from their master once or twice seemed to remove them to a little distance on either side. life agreeable; while the elements of education But when he subsequently sat so as to have his have been very generally diffused, and a mild and back towards them, they quietly returned, and peaceful philosophy, not devoid of the general their number was increased by the addition of precepts of morality, has been engrafted in the several others eager to satisfy their curiosity. minds of the people; yet nowhere is public and After we had taken tea, the signs of preparation private virtue at a lower ebb. This assertion is for a morning collation were apparent in the not made with regard to any particular locality, various dishes brought and set out on a table in or any one grade, but applies to the whole mass the centre of the room. On the announcement of society, from the highest official down to the being made that all was ready, the same cere- lowest member of the community. It shows mony and delay as to precedence took place. the effect of a utilitarian philosophy, and a moral The taou-tai took his seat at the lowest end of code of expediency, without the element of some the table. As our meal proceeded he reverted higher and nobler aim to guide and direct the to former topics, especially to our literary de- grovelling and ever-wavering mind. Thus, for grees. As I had been introduced as a literary instance, Confucius teaches, that speaking the teacher, he now inquired what literary degree in truth is a right and proper thing; but then he my own country I had attained. My friend allows that children, on some occasions, may very inconsiderately replied that I was the same tell a lie for the good of their parents. Once as a tsin-sze, i. e. the second of the four Chinese admit a qualification of this kind, and a parent literary degrees, to which Ching-ta-jin had him- may think it no great harm to tell a lie for his self attained. The tanu-tai then commenced own benefit, and thus the tide of falsehood flows congratulating me on the felicity of my lot in abroad. No doubt, Confucius holds it a very getting literary promotion at so early an age. detrimental thing for society, that one person He proceeded to take a strict survey of my phy- should murder another; but then some zealous siognomy, and made some remarks on my per- advocate of the “greatest happiness principle sonal appearance. At last, fortunately for our may discover, that by cutting off in the budpreservation of gravity, the conversation was that is, by simply murdering one-half of his led to the subject of literary examinations and babes, he will have a larger support for himself degrees in China, on which he was very length- and the survivors. In short, we have exempliened in his observations."

fied here the result of all those delusive specula** At length, after many unavailing attempts to tions which would teach men to live for their rise from the table, which he as often prevented, mere appetites and pleasures alone, instead of we were enabled to make preparations for our living for another and a higher state of existence. departure. During our stay of more than an hour, he showed us the usual marks of politeness and courtesy. As his jurisdiction extended over

THE PLAIN LANGUAGE. three of the eleven departments into which the province of Che-keang is divided, he was an No testimony, scarcely, led the early mem-' officer of some consequence, and ruled a territory bers of the Society of Friends more frequently as large as Scotland. He was apparently about into suffering and the cross, than the use of the fifty-six years of age, and his manners were com- plain language.” Scorn and personal abuse, manding and graceful. In spite of our remon-cruel mockings, bonds and imprisonment," strance, he insisted on accompanying us to our were often the result of their faithfulness. Many sedans, and we took our departure with the same readers will recollect the reply of Thomas Eliceremony, and amid the same noise of piping and wood to his father, when the latter, after having gongs, as greeted us on our entrance."

cruelly beaten him over the head with a cane, Throughout this populous and toiling empire, said with great anger, “Sirrah, if you say thee there is no seventh-day's rest or Sabbath bell to and thou to me again, I'll knock your teeth down call the minds of the multitude from their gross your throat!" But his hand fell as Thomas and worldly pursuits, and elevate them to Hea-Ellwood solemnly replied, " What if God should ven. New-year's day is observed as a holiday, serve thee so, when thou sayest thee and thou and they have frequent festivals in honour of to him ?” William Edmundson was threatened their ancestors, and of their idols, when feasts by a trooper, with a drawn sword, “ that if he are spread out either in temples or in the streets, thou'd him again he would cleave his head," or in groves and gardens. The abundant viands, the instant execution of which was prevented by after being laid out and offered to the manes of an officer. A remarkable conversation occurred their kindred, are then feasted on by the assembled between William Leddra, who was executed at company.

Boston for his faithfulness to the principles of The Chinese afford a striking moral spectacle Friends and his duty, and the court which conamong nations. The civilization of many thou- demned him :-Being brought to the bar, he was sand years has done its utmost for them. It has told he was to die. He asked what evil he tamed and subdued the fierce passions, and intro- had done. He was told that he owned those duced all those domestic arts which tend to make Quakers who had been put to death, and had

For Friends' Review.



said that they were innocent; and besides, he I can't bear it!” The wound thus inflicted is would not put off his hat in court, and said thee sometimes of a very serious character. Plain and thou. • Then,” said he, “you will put me and influential Friends, who thus remark, or who to death for speaking English, and for not putting only perhaps discourage by the example of their off my clothes !” To this General Denison re- own practice, sometimes cast a grievous stumturned, “A man may speak treason in English.” | bling block in the way of others younger and William Leddra inquired, " Is it then treason to more timid than themselves. In such young say thee and thou to a single person?" Friends in persons, the fear of the profane world may not those days were willing to suffer the loss of all be half so strong. I do not make these statethings, even of life itself

, rather than risk their ments at random; the case of a person well everlasting happiness, by unfaithfulness to a re- known to me has just come to my knowledge, quirement which had been shown them. And who endured long and painful suffering for years, others, to whom this duty had been distinctly for want of full faithfulness in the CORRECT use shown, found that by flinching, even in what of the plain language, while the fear of those might appear a small thing, that darkness and older and perhaps plainer, who used the erroneterror were their portion, until they were willing ous mode, operated as an almost incredible barto yield.

rier. Suffering for this testimony has not wholly I have reason to believe there are many such, ceased with those who now would be faithful. variously scattered. May all such, whether old Scorn and ridicule, are, to some, more severe

or young, remember that the way to the crown than bodily torture—especially if from those still remains to be the way of the cross; and whom they regard as friends and superiors. But may all who have not been strictly faithful, en. will it be believed that a large portion of this deavor, before this subject is dismissed from reopposition, at the present time, has come from collection, to look for help to Him who is touched our own members? And that those who have with a feeling of our infirmities, and knows ex. felt that Divine peace depended on the strict ful- actly how to succour those who are tempted ; that filment of this duty, have trembled with fear in this apparently small, but really important testiview of what others, older and considered more mony, which our early members were willing experienced than themselves, might regard their to seal with their blood, may be more faithfully adherence to duty ? Such has, at least in some upheld.

T. cases, been the fact. The modern practice of using what is called the

N. Y., 11th mo., 1847. plain language, though it may be stripped of the objection to that whose origin is in human adulation, wholly loses that other recommendation, correctness. Persons unaccustomed to this com

PEACE MANUAL. mon but improper mode of address, are struck with the glaring absurdity of substituting the ob

The following Circular, we understand, has jective pronoun thee, for the nominative thou. been sent to a number of our serious and liberal If I ask my friend, “ How does thee do?" I can- citizens, together with a copy of the “ Peace not claim superior accuracy should he answer, Manual,with a hope that they will render “ Me is well." Nor would it be more incorrect pecuniary aid; and we are informed that Isaac to say, “ Us are in good health”. Him is gone

Collins of this city is authorized to receive and to Baltimore,” &c. The strange effect produced transmit to the Treasurer of the American Peace by such phrases, is not greater than that on the Society any funds that may be given for the minds of informed people not familiar with the object. language of Friends, produced by the substitution " It would appear from the expression of of thee for thou. A pious young Presbyterian public and private sentiment, that great numbers of my acquaintance said, on first meeting with of our intelligent and influential citizens, throughFriends, “How beautiful would be the correct out the United States, are heartily tired of the use of Scripture and English—but how the Mexican war, and the present is deemed a suitFriends do murder the language !"

able tiine for the friends of Peace to circulate Singularity, if on a good foundation, will en- books and pamphlets on this important subject. dure a rigid test, and be respected by all consid- To effect so good a purpose, it is proposed to erate persons; but singularity, unnecessarily so, endeavour to collect the sum of $1000, to enable cannot be respected. No wonder, then, that the American Peace Society' to publish 10,000 with strangers we are charged with needless copies of the • Peace Manual,' and send a copy oddity. And no wonder that some young peo- of it to the President of the United States, and ple, favorably disposed, have faltered and ex- his Secretaries ; also to every member of the cused themselves, when seeing this inconsistency. Federal and State Legislatures, and to the GoHow often have we heard from our own mem- vernor and Executive Officers of every State in bers, in allusion to this correct mode of address, the Union ;-also, copies to influential and disperhaps with a suppressed smile, " How stiff tinguished individuals throughout this country,"

For Friends' Review.


For Friends' Review. followed. It would therefore be well, before we WASHING ONE ANOTHER'S FEET.

speak of the faults or errors of others, seriously In the narrative of our Saviour's last supper to reflect whether we are in that state of mind with his disciples, as given by the Evangelist in which we could willingly wash their feet. John, we have a circumstantial account of his An old friend, long since gathered to his fathers, washing the feet of his followers. From the being asked by a person, who was a guest at his characier of the country, and the use of the house, whether a controversy which he was sandal, washing the feet in the evening, was, no known to have had with one of his neighbours, doubt, a common practice. When performed by was settled, rose and brought out a couple of others, it was evidently regarded as a very menial bottles filled with water and carefully corked. service. Thus, when the messengers of David This enigmatical reply not satisfying his visitor, presented to Abigail his proposals of marriage, he explained it by stating that about a year prior she expressed her huinble acquiescence by sug- to that time, while ruminating on this unhappy gesting that she might be a servant to wash the dissension, he thought he felt willing to wash feet of the servants of David ;—and Peter was at his neighbour's feet. He accordingly filled first unwilling that his Master should perform those bottles with water, and taking one in each this service for him.

hand, and a towel on his arm, proceeded to the From the solemn and deliberate manner in residence of the neighbour in question. Upon which this act was performed, and the minute- his arrival there, he stated the object of his visit; ness with which it is recorded, we must conclude but the offer was rather unceremoniously rejected. that some important instruction was intended by The old Friend, however, kept the bottles filled it. It was unguestionably a forcible example of with water as a memento; and observed, as he humility, and one which he informed them they was then willing to wash his feet, he never inought to follow. If I, then, your Lord and tended to soil them any more.

L. Master, have washed your feet, ye also ought to wash one another's feet. For I have given you Extract of a letter to a gentleman in Hurtford. an example, that ye should do as I have done to

PARKERSBURG, (VA.) Nov. 6, 1847. you. Now I have no idea that this implies the What would you give to see such a philonecessity of following the example in the precise sophical experiment as I lately witnessed? A manner and form wherein it was given. The flame of carburetted hydrogen gas, six feet wide, practice of the Christian world sufficiently proves three feet thick, and one hundred yards in that it is not so understood probably among any length, burning night and day for months, withprofessors of Christianity. But if we could out a moment's cessation! I visited lately the suppose that the institution of ceremonies of any Kanawha Salines, a great manufactory, or rather kind was

a part of our Lord's mission, we a town of manufactories of salt, in Kanawha should find it no easy matter to assign a satis-county, near Charleston, Virginia. There are factory reason why this should not be one of numerous salt wells. The water is about six them. On that point, however, little need be hundred feet in depth, and is usually forced up said ; it is the substance, not the form, on which by forcing-pumps worked by steam. Coal is I insist.

abundant in the vicinity, and is used for working Without attempting to dive improperly into the pumps and evaporating the water. In a few the spirituality of the injunction, we may fairly instances they have bored to great depths, from infer that it implies a scrupulous regard to the one thousand to seventeen hundred feet, and character of others. That direct charges or perforated a stream of gas of astonishing volume. oblique insinuations derogatory to the reputation The last perforation was made in May. last. of our acquaintances, are irreconcileable with the When the gas was struck, the augurs, with over spirit of this injunction, can scarcely be doubted. one thousand feet of rods attached, were blown If we are sufficiently humble to wash each other's out of the well into the air, followed by a jet of feet, we shall feel very little inclination to cast salt water and hydrogen gas, which shot out to a dust upon them. And if we are anxious that magnificent height. After much labour strong the steps of our friends shall be in clean paths-tubes have been attached to the well, by which of which washing the feet is unquestionably the salt water and gas are separated, and the symbolical—we shall feel ourselves constrained water conveyed to immense caldrons for evapoto be careful into what ways we lead them by ration, and (mirabile !) the gas is conveyed into word or example.

the furnace below the water, where it is burned To wash the feet, may plainly signify to in a magnificent flame, by which the water is cleanse the ways, and when done for another, evaporated, and forty-five barrels of salt manuimplies an act of the most Christian benevolence. factured daily, not one-fourth of what the flame But he that would wash another, should be is capable of boiling if the evaporating basins careful first to see that his own hands are clean, were large or numerous enough. The diameter for if they are not, he may possibly defile what of the bore of the well is three inches. Oh, he attempts to cleanse. The injunction of our what would you give to see such a sight! Lord appears imperative ; his example is to be Hartford Courant.





The celebrated Wesley has given his views of such injustice among Christians, in the follow- Let sceptics doubt, philosophers deride ing characteristic manner :

The Christian's privilege-“ an inward Guide :"

Wisdom is of her children justified ! “ Are you persuaded you see more clearly than I? It is not unlikely that you may. Then, Let such as know not what that boon implies,

God's blessed book, above his Spirit prizem treat me as you would desire to be treated yourself

No stream can higher than its Fountain rise! upon a change of circumstances. Point me out a better way than I have yet known. Show me Let them whose spirits types and shadows crave,

For Baptism, trust the elemental wave: it so by plain proof of scripture. And if I linger

One Lord, one Faith, one Baptism, still must save! in the path I have been accustomed to tread, and am therefore unwilling to leave it, labour

Let them who, like the Jews, “require a sign,"

Partake, unblamed, of outward bread and wine: with me a little, take me by the hand, and lead

Thou, Lord! within canst make the substance mine! me as I am able to bear. But be not displeased

Believing in thy glorious Gospel-day, if I entreat you not to beat me down, in order

Types, Emblems, Shadowsmall must pass away ; to quicken my pace. I can go but feebly and

In such I dare not place my trust, or stay! slowly at best; then, I should not be able to go

Abba! on thee, with child-like trust, I call, at all. May I not request of you further, not to

In self-abasement at thy footstool fall, give me hard names, in order to bring me in the

Asking to know but Thee, I find thee all ! right way. Suppose I were ever so much in the wrong, I doubt this would not set me right.

THERE IS NOTHING IN VAIN. Rather it would make me run so much farther from you, and so get more and more out of the way.' Nay, perhaps, if you are angry, so shall Oh! prize not the essence of Beauty alone, I be too; and then there will be small hopes of And disdain not the weak and the mean in our way, finding the truth. If once anger arise, this For the world is an engine—the Architect's own,

Where the wheels of least might, keep the larger in smoke will so dim the eyes of my soul, that I

play. shall be able to see nothing clearly.”

We love the fair valley, with bloom in the shade, But perhaps we cannot find, in the whole We sing of green hills--of the grape and the grain; circle of orthodox writers, a more faithful in- But be sure the Creator did well when he made

“ 'The

The stark desert and marsh—for there's nothing in structor on this subject than Dr. Watts.

vain. iniquity of uncharitableness," says this truly Christian divine, " has more springs than there we may question the locust that darkens the land, are streams or branches belonging to the great But remember they come from the Infinite Hand,

And the snake, flinging arrows of death from its eye; river of Egypt, and it is more fruitful of serpents

And shall Man, in his littleness, dare to ask wby? and monsters too." Many of these springs he Oh! let us not speak of the “ useless” or “vile," has traced out, and exposed them to open view. They may seem so to us - tut be slow to arraign: Sometimes, this iniquity, he observes, proceeds From the savage wolf's cry, to the happy child's smile, “ from a malicious constitution of nature, an

From the mite to the mammoth, there's nothing in

vain. acrimonious or choleric temper of blood.”

Το suppress the angry motions of such a temper, There's a mission, no doubt, for the worm in the dust, s is a work of toil and difficulty, perpetual The sloth and the newt have their places of trust,

As there is for the charger with nostrils of pride; watchfulness and unceasing prayer.' tiines it springs from self-love, and pride, and a Oh! could we but trace the great meaning of All,

And the agents are needed, for God has supplied. vain conceit of our own opinions. Hence a man, And what delicate links form the ponderous chain; “ who is almost always in the wrong," will be From the dew-drops that rise, to the star-drops that

fall, prompt “in pronouncing error and heresy' upon

We should see but one purpose, and nothing in vain. every notion and practice that differs from his He takes the freedom to choose a re

MARRIED,-On Sixth day, the 5th of last month, ligion for himself, but he allows no man besides

at Friends Meeting House, Yarmouth, Mass., the same liberty. He is sure he has reason to DANIEL S. Wing, to Chloa C., daughter of Joshua dissent from others, but no man has reason to Swift, deceased, also of Yarmouth. dissent from him.-Herald of the Prairies.

WEST TOWN SCHOOL. Do nothing in a passion. Why wilt thou put The Committee to superintend the Boarding to sca in the violence of a storm ?-Ibid. School at West Town, will meet in Philadelphia,

on Sixth

day, the 10th inst., at 3 o'clock, P. M.

The Committee on Instruction meet the same Diet,-in China, Maine, on 30 day, the 2d of day at 10 o'clock, A. M.: and the Visiting Comlast month, PATIENCE Allen, of Vassalboro, mittee attend at the School on Seventh day mornwidow of Peter Allen, in the 70th year of her ing, the 4th inst. age. She was a member of our religious Society,

Thomas Kimber, Clerk. and one of an honest heart.

Philada., 12th mo. Ist, 1847.


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