« ΠροηγούμενηΣυνέχεια »
A RELIGIOUS, LITERARY AND MISCELLANEOUS JOURNAL.
PHILADELPHIA, TWELFTH MONTH 11, 1847.
EDITED BY ENOCH LEWIS.
For Friends' Review
the inhabitants of that place who professed the
doctrines of Friends; and a number who, though Published Weekly by Josiah Tatum, not openly espousing our principles, regarded No. 50 North Fourth Street, corner of Appletree Alley, them with favour. We may form some concepPHILADELPHIA.
tion of the privations to which the people of Price two dollars per annum, payable in advance, or six Stavanger were subjected, from the fact stated to copies for ten dollars.
them by a Lutheran dean, that out of five or six This paper is subject to newspaper postage only. hundred families inhabiting the place, not more
than fifty were in possession of a bible; yet they were willing to purchase and pay for the scrip
tures, if they could be had. Our friends were LIFE OF WILLIAM ALLEN.
informed that a young priest, with whom they Continued from page 148.)
became acquainted, was obliged to borrow a bible
for his own use. In one case a young man enIn the early part of 1818, we find the subject treated them to sell him one; but they had preof this review engaging in a service for which, in sented his father with a copy, which they enthe midst of his numerous philanthropic pursuits, joined them both to read to their neighbours; and * his mind had evidently been preparing. Although their supply was too scanty to allow the young he was then in his forty-eighth year, and had long man's desire to be gratified. Our friends enbeen accustomed to speaking in public, in the deavoured to make the needful arrangements for presence of mixed assemblies, his engagements supplying, at least partially, this pressing dein the ministry appear to have been marked with ficiency. child-like simplicity, and with a reverent regard One circumstancé, brought to their view at this to the openings of duty. His first appearance place, is worthy of notice. Upon conversing seems to have occurred on a visit, in company with a man who had been judge during twentywith some other friends, to the prisoners at six years, he informed them that in the district Newgate.
of Stavanger, comprehending forty thousand inNear this time, a letter from Stephen Grellet habitants, spread over one hundred and forty informed W. Allen of a prospect, which had geographical miles, not one person had undergone long exercised his mind, of paying a religious capital punishment within the time he had held visit to the northern parts of Europe, particularly his office. The only capital offences there, were Russia ; and which had so far ripened as to be murder and high treason. The cases of theft laid before his Monthly Meetting. It does not were represented as about six or seven a year, appear, from the narrative, that this letter contained and these could generally be traced to idleness. a proposal that he should unite in the labour, yet For small offences, the culprits were confined 10 immediately after its receipt, an apprehension their own houses upon parole. These facts may fixed on his mind that he would be required to be fairly cited as evidence of the safety and adbear his friend, S. Grellet, company in that ar- vantage of a mild penal code.
а duous service. This exercise continued with
From Stavanger they sailed to Christiansand, him until the latter arrived at London ; his so- and thence commenced a toilsome journey to hcitude being, not to feel excused from the sacri- Christiania. After visiting several places in Norfice, but clearly to ascertain whether it was way, in which they frequently met with persons required at his hands. After a season of close who were piously disposed, to whom they imexercise, his doubts on the subject were wholly parted religious instruction, and with whom they removed, under the constraining influence of the were sometimes comforted under the consoling Master's love, and he was enabled, in the confi- evidence that they were in the way divinely cast dence of prayer, to commit his only child to up for them, our friends arrived near the beginDivine protection.
ning of the Tenth month, at Stockholm, the Our travellers left England in the Eighth Swedish capital. In this journey they had the month, and after a voyage of a few days, landed company of Enoch Jacobson, an inhabitant of 21 Stavanger, in Norway. There were a few of Norway, who had been convinced of the principles of Friends, and speaking the language of gospel love which wishes the eternal well-being the country, acted as their interpreter.
of all, we have felt it our duty to pass through Our two friends spent about three weeks in thy dominions, on our way to other countries, the city and vicinity of Stockholm, where, al- and to salute those every where who, we believe, though they do not appear to have found any love our Lord Jesus Christ in sincerity—whatever who held the principles of Friends, they met may be the form of religion which they may prowith a number of pious and highly benevolent fess; for we know no distinction of sect or party, individuals. Among these their time was in- believing that the true church is composed of industriously employed in visiting the charitable dividuals of all sects and denominations, who are institutions of the place, and, where opportunity faithfully endeavoring to know and perform the offered, in explaining the doctrines and principles divine will concerning them; these, wherever of our religious society. And here it may be scattered, are united in one head, even Christ, remarked, that the acquaintance which William and, in the fellowship of his gospel, feel that Allen had formed in his native country, with men they all are brethren. in the upper ranks of life, and the esteem in “We are deeply convinced that, in proportion which he was held by them, had produced for him as the benign spirit of the gospel is submitted to numerous letters of introduction to the most emi- in the hearts of men universally, it will lead to nent men who resided in the countries through order, to subordination, and to peace in the which they expected to pass. These letters gave earth; for, proceeding from the source of infinite them easy access to the persons to whom they love, it produces nothing but good will towards were addressed, and opened their way to inspect the whole human family,—it teaches charity for 'the institutions for philanthropic purposes, one those who differ from us; and, accordingly, the hundred and seventeen of which were then in true church has been under persecution at times operation in or near the Swedish capital. They from the earliest ages, but has never persecuted. were early introduced to H. S. Phillipson, a man “We have been particularly gratified in being of considerable property, who devoted great part informed of thy disposition to grant liberty of of his time to objects of general benevolence, in conscience and indulgence to religious scruples ; which he was seconded by his active and for, as every man must give account of himself amiable wife.
unto God, he is bound to perform worship in, They had on their premises a large building, the manner which he is convinced, in his own appropriated to schools for learning and industry. mind, is most acceptable in the divine sight; "There were two hundred and fifty children, sixty and we take the liberty to solicit thy kind protecof whom were taught at Phillipson's expense; tion of those who, though they may differ in senand their literary instruction was happily com- timent from the religion of the country, yet, by bined with works of industry. The children their lives and conduct, give proof that their only were taught to make their own clothes, from be-object is to preserve a conscience void of offence ginning to end; the wool and flax being brought toward God and toward men. It is by conceninto the house and manufactured into garments. trating all the talent and all the good feeling Boys and girls were instructed in such business which exist in the body of the people, and dias to fit them for the management of families. recting it to one object--the general good-that
Our] friends afterwards visited a number of nations become strong; and we are sure, with benevolent establishments, among which was a thy enlightened mind, it is not necessary for us house of industry, where any poor persons, on to dwell on the happy effects produced by a free application, might receive wool, cotton or flax, toleration, in matters of religion, in those counto spin ;' and, in case they did not possess a tries in which it is enjoyed. wheel, one was lent to them. They had nine “In reflecting upon the cares and difficulties hundred wheels out on loan, besides six hundred which must necessarily attend the high station which were kept in the house, where poor per- in which it has pleased Divine Providence to sons were at liberty to go and use them. place thee as King of these realms, we have felt
During their visit to this city, they had two our minds engaged in affectionate sympathy, earinterviews with the King, whose authority ex- nestly to recommend thee to rely upon that grace tends over Sweden and Norway; and had the and good spirit which, as it is believed in and satisfaction to find his opinion on the subject of followed, will render us always acceptable in the capital punishment, very nearly coincident with divine sight. This, 0 King, would assist and their own.
At the latter conference they pre- support thee more powerfully than any mere sented him with an address, which W. Allen had human means, and make thee a happy instrupreviously written, and, being translated into ment to forward that great work which the AlFrench, was read in their presence.
mighty has in the earth, and which at the present The following is the principal part of this day is so conspicuously going on in different nacommunication:
tions in a variety of ways, but tending towards " To Charles John, King of Sweden and Norway, fc. the same glorious object~the advancement and "May it please the King:
exaltation of the Redeemer's Kingdom. Thus "Únder, we humbly trust, a degree of that I would thy throne be established in righteousness,
supported by the hearts and affections of all the learned in medicine, and yet how few are the inwise and the good. For them who honour me, juries that have resulted from its use ! So few, will I honour,' saith the Lord!"
indeed, as to convince us, that with a further After the address was read, the King remarked knowledge of its effects, a more perfect mode of that “the warrior who sought for glory, and administration, and the same amount of caution those whose objects were to aggrandize them- that is habitually had recourse to in the use of selves in the world, had their gratification in other active remedies,—with these precautions we things external and transitory, while those who insist that we have within our reach one of the went about doing good, enduring fatigues, and most powerful, and at the same time most managesubmitting to many privations and difficulties for able agents, for the relief of suffering humanity, that purpose, had a much richer reward in the that Providence has hitherto vouchsafed to man. inward satisfaction of their own minds.” Upon What are the objections to the Letheon ? Some speaking respecting their friends in Norway, persons object to it that it stupifies the senses he told them that the subject of marriage, which and suspends consciousness. So does opium, it seems had caused some difficulty there, had and every other anodyne that relieves pain or been before the council, and it was concluded induces sleep; and which, without this property, that, provided it was performed after the manner would be of little or no value. Besides, the of Friends, and registered, it should be lawful, oblivious state resulting from ether is of shorter and that he would protect not only the Friends duration than that from other narcotics. It is also there at present, but those who might join them objected that it is occasionally followed by bodily in future. He said, “ Your Friends cannot avenge indisposition ; but this seldom extends beyond a themselves,-all that their principles permit, is, disordered stomach or a temporary head-ache, if possible, to parry the blows which may be which are surely secondary evils when comaimed at them, but they cannot otherwise defend pared to the distress or agony that
have themselves; they, therefore, have a double claim been removed by the ether. to protection," and this, he assured them, they Again—we are told that the arterial blood beshould have. On this W. Allen remarks, comes dark coloured or venous, in consequence * This was a highly interesting opportunity, and of the inhalation of ether, as proved in surgical it was, indeed, the crown to our labours in this operations. Let experience speak on this point : place. Here, as at Rosenthal, we felt the pre- “ The blood that flows in operations under the cious influence of that power, which, in every influence of ether, is not much altered in colour. place, had set an open door before us, and we The blood which spirts from a divided artery, is could only, in deep humility, say, “It is the sometimes of its usual vermillion tint, at the very Jord's doing, and marvellous in our eyes.””
time the inhalation is going on ; frequently, under (To be continued.)
these circumstances, however, the arterial blood is rather less bright than usual, but the venous
blood being at the same time less dark than comTHE LETHEON.
mon, the flow of mixed blood is of the ordinary
colour of such blood, and the patient's lips reLetheon is but another name for rectified sul- main unchanged in hue. It is only when the phuric ether, which has recently acquired a great patient has been holding his breath or coughing, renown for its wonderful control over the sentient that I have observed the arterial blood to be of nervous system, and established “ a memorable a dark colour; and I consider that those writers epoch in the annals of medical science.” It gives who have described it as being, usually or always, us the power of mitigating the most excruciating of a venous appearance, must have used inhalers pains to which the human body is liable, whether that did not allow of a proper supply of fresh these pains are the attributes of disease itself, or air."'* are consequent to surgical operations. Its effects It has moreover been said that patients are are rapidly induced, and as rapidly pass off when more likely to bleed after operations performed the ether is withdrawn, leaving behind less distress under the use of ether. Of this there is not the or difficulty than ordinarily follows in the train smallest proof; but suppose it to be a fact, the of any active article of the materia medica. If a surgeon has unfailing resources in such an emerfew sinister results have attended the inhalation
gency of ether by many thousand patients, they only Finally-we are told that patients have died show, what is a proverbial truth, that the same immediately after the operation ; but was this medicine is not equally adapted to every constitu- misfortune owing to the ether? Has not every tion, and that we have yet much to learn in the
surgeon, of large experience, seen persons die application of this wonderful agent. It has been from the mere constitutional shock of an operain use about a year and a half; it has been tried tion? Again-statistical observations seem to in every variety of cases, in every diversity of prove, that such results have been no more frephysical and mental constitution ; and in many quent since the use of ether than they were before ; different and distant parts of the world ; it has heen resorted to by the ignorant as well as by the Dr. Snow, on the Inhalation of Ether. London, 1847.'
For Friends' Review,
For Friends' Review.
and to attribute them solely to that agent would | handle of the knife to withdraw it, and in that be both unjust and unphilosophical.
situation was discovered by the horsemen, and We have seen ether used on many occasions, seized as the murderer. 'The man who made always mitigating pain, mostly preventing it al- this confession, is represented, in the narrative together, and in no instance followed by any before us, to have mentioned several particulars other than the most transient discomfort. Further which proved, too clearly to admit a doubt, that --the writer has taken it repeatedly himself, he saw the arrest of Blake, and of course must under circumstances of great bodily suffering, have been near the place where it occurred. attended by almost entire absence of sleep; and It is very possible that this article of news his personal experience corresponds with the may be an imaginary case, yet we have numbers great mass of testimony in favour of the ether of a similar character which are unquestionably -its surprising power of controlling pain, when true; and so long as our laws continue to auother means have proved unavailing, and this, thorize the punishment of death, we may reasontoo, without necessarily depriving the patient of ably expect that mistakes of this kind will be cither consciousness or volition. Push its use occasionally made. Till human tribunals become yet further, and an oblivious sleep ensues, during infallible, the infliction of capital punishment can which the most frightful operations can be per- hardly be less than presumptuous. This would formed with perfect safety, yet without the be true even upon the admission that the actual knowledge of the patient.
murderer might, with propriety, be consigned to We are far from urging the indiscriminate use the gibbet. of ether. There are many cases in which it If the man, who, without the authority of should be resorted to with caution-some in law, destroys the life of another, is to be adjudged which it is wholly inadmissible. Experience must a criminal worthy of death, in what category decide such points; but our prepossessions should must we place the legislator who makes or supnot hastily condemn a remedy which has already ports a law,which in its practical operations, must done so much good, and which promises to be sometimes, almost unavoidably, consign the income, more and more, a balm for “the many ills nocent to the gallows? Is it less criminal to that flesh is heir to."
commit murder by law than without law? It
civilization will so far illuminate our legislative
halls as 10 establish the principle that reformaIn a late number of the Massachusetts Spy, we lion, not extinction, is the legitimate object of find an account of an execution consequent on a penal law. The mission of our Lord was to conviction which was founded upon evidence seek and to save that which was lost; he came chiefly or wholly circumstantial. Yet the cir- not to call the righteous, but sinners to repentcumstances must, at the time, have been strongly ance. Probably few murders on record were against the person accused. From the narrative, more atrocious ihan that of the martyr Stephen, it appears
that two men, while riding along the to which Saul of Tarsus was consenting; yet road, heard, at some distance before them, a man the Divine mercy was extended to Saul, and shriek out, “mercy, Harry ;” and upon coming the gifts of apostleship conferred upon him. to the place, they found a man with a knife in his Moses slew the Egyptian without law; yet he breast, and another, who bore the name of Harry was appointed to lead his people out of bondage, Blake, with his hand on the handle, endeavoring and was peculiarly honoured of the Most High. to draw it out. The weapon, it appears, had With these, and other cases equally strong, in been so forcibly impelled that it was difficult our view, who will assert that the man who, to retract it, and Harry Blake did not succeed in without legal authority, takes the life of another, effecting it. Though no one saw the stroke, yet is beyond the pale of Divine forgiveness? And the circumstances were so strong that Harry shall man, and particularly a Christian, be inexBlake was convicted, on the testimony of one of orable in cases which the Almighty has condethose who witnessed what has been above rela- scended to pardon?
L. ted, and executed.
A few months after this event, a prisoner, who also bore the name of Harry, being sentenced to die for some crime which he had committed, and Maintain a constant watch at all times against finding his fate inevitable, sent for the judge who a dogmatic spirit. Fix not your assent to any passed sentence on Harry Blake, and the witness proposition in a firm and unalterable manner, till upon whose testimony he was convicted, and you have some firm and unalterable ground for stated to them, that he was the murderer; and it, and till you have arrived at some clear and that upon inflicting the fatal wound, he heard sure evidence-till you have turned the proposithe sound of horses' feet, and immediately sprang tion on all sides and searched the matier through into a cluster of bushes which were at hand; and through, so that you cannot be mistaken. that Blake, coming up at the instant, seized the . And even when you think you have full grounds
for assurance, be not too early nor too frequent, while at night the men were locked up in the in expressing this assurance in too peremptory jails of the town. Each family, according to and positive a manner, remembering that human size, received from four to eight shillings a-month nature is always liable to mistake in this corrupt for its support; but as the mouths increased in and feeble state.-Watts.
number, this grew more and more inadequate,
and the children were sent out by their parents From Chambers's Edinburgh Journal. to work, beg, pilfer, or forage for themselves in REMARKABLE SCHOOL OF INDUSTRY.
any way they thought proper. Colonel Slee
man saw that this system could not go on. As Some years ago, we gave our readers a sketch the children grew up, their wants would be of the race of hereditary robbers and murderers greater, and their will stronger, and the convict in India called Thugs; and we have now the village would turn out to be a nursery of crime. task, as strange as it is pleasing, of describing Under these circumstances, he suggested to his a series of measures by which, in the part of the able and energetic assistant, Lieutenant Brown, country where the experiment has been tried, the necessity of their attempting to introduce these preternatural monsters have been already habits of industry among the convicts and their converted into quiet and useful citizens. We families. are enabled to do this by the kindness of a Lieutenant Brown set to work with his cusstranger, who dates in July last from Jubbulpoor, tomary alacrity, and erected a few sheds near in the Saugor and Nerbudda territory.
his own house, where he induced about two Jubbelpoor, we may premise, is a town of hundred of the approvers themselves to repair, about 20,000 inhabitants, and somewhat re- for the purpose of working at some common markable, even in India, for ignorance and super- manufacture. These men, however, had never stition. Its neighbourhood was specially in- in their lives tried their hands at anything but fested with Thugs and poisoners, and its citizens, murder, and such work as they were now set to a man, were-and most of them are still to did not come kindly to them. Their reward devout believers in the grossest species of sorcery. was to be the profit on the articles manufactured ; We mention this to show that the singular but the manufacture was so bad, and the profit, School of Industry we are to describe set out in consequence, so small, that the labourers bewith no peculiar advantages of locality.
came first discontented, then disgusted, and then The grand difficulty that was at first found in enraged, at their having condescended to anythe suppression of Thuggee, arose from the vast thing at once so mean and unprofitable as reguextent of the territory it pervaded, and the want lar industry. One day, in order to make an of local courts for the special cognizance of that end of the business, they set fire to the whole gigantic crime. Such tribunals were at length place, and burned it to the ground. Here they formed in the capital cities of various native had reckoned, however, without their host, Lieuprinces, with our Residents for their judges; tenant Brown; for the circumstance only made while at Jubbulpoor, Colonel Sleeman esta- him the more determined and peremptory. He blished himself, in 1836, as chief superintendent turned out the whole village, morning and evenof the whole. Thanks to the energy of this me- ing, for six hours, to make bricks sufficient for a ritorious officer, murder was now no longer per- shed eighty feet by forty; and having completed mitted to traverse the country unchecked. Up- the building, he borrowed £50 from the governwards of a thousand Thug families were appre- ment to roof it in. The lieutenant himself, hended, aud sent in to Jubbulpoor for trial; and however, had to attend to his magisterial and as everything is on a great scale in India, it was other duties from ten till five o'clock; and the no uncommon thing to see in a single morning native guards were useless in superintendence, fifteen, twenty, even twenty-five, of these wretches as they stood in the most abject awe of their swinging upon the gallows. The consequence desperate prisoners, and allowed them to work of this severity was, that the whole race was or play just as they pleased. He applied, there
, seized with a panic; the gangs separated and fore, for an overseer, and obtained, in 1840, the fed; their individual members, of course, found services of a Mr. Williams, a daring and indetheir occupation gone; and in a space of time fatigable officer, who kept four hundred despewonderfully short, a system that had been for radoes at work from seven A.M. till five P. M., hundreds of years routed in habit and religion thrashing with his own hands the idle and rewas broken up and destroyed.
fractory. Under this discipline, the convicts But all the convicts could not be hanged, and were able in two years to spin hemp, weave many were found useful as approvers in obtain-common carpeting, make coarse towels, dooring the conviction of the rest, as they were cap- mats, &c. all of which were sold at Jubbulpoor tured from time to time. Of these there had and the surrounding stations. collected at Jubbulpoor, in the year 1837, 450 It was now considered advisable to make an men with their wives and families, who resided attempt with the children; and the approvers during the day in a walled village in the neigh- were informed that all who chose might bring bourhood built on purpose for their reception, their sons to the factory, who would be taught a