Εικόνες σελίδας
Ηλεκτρ. έκδοση

have given a very different account of the relative , not answer instantly. I saw the volumes, and working of his mind and body. They deny any also noticed he had left his marks on almost distortion of features, any clouding of the brow, every page. I asked to see his mathematical any diminution of the cheerful brightness of his works. He sprang into his study and produced boyish eye. They tell us that he walks with a me Greenleaf's Arithmetic, Perkins's Algebra, free step round the room, threading his way Playfair's Euclid, Pike's Arithmetic, Davies's behind chairs, gliding into corners, and looking Algebra, Hutton's Mathematics, Flint's Survey. up at the questioner as he passes with a smile, ing, the Cambridge Mathematics, Gummere's apparently no more fatigued than a boy with his Astronomy, and several nautical almanacs. I usual play. It would seem clear from this that asked him if he had mastered them all. He if he is fore-doomed, it is not by nature, but by replied that he had. And an examination of man. But the frail constitution, the delicate him, for the space of three hours, convinced me health, the small limbs, the brilliant eyes, the that he had, and not only so, but that he had far pallid countenance, are not necessarily indications outstripped them. His knowledge is not intuiof early death; and there are circumstances in tive. He is a pure and profound reasoner.” the case before us which give every hope that, if the boy only receives fair play, he may live

From Chambers' Edinburgh Journal. long enough to obtain a permanent place in the RISING AND SINKING OF LAND IN NORTHERN constellation of science, instead of passing away,

EUROPE. as some anticipate, like the meteor of the moment. One of these circumstances is what

In the temperate regions of the earth, we are appears to us to be the curious and interesting so accustomed to associate the idea of perfect fact

, that in him the intellectual does not require stability with the ground on which we tread, that to draw upon the physical man for aid in extra

we are prone to incredulity when told of upordinary emergencies. In ordinary cases, when heavals of the land, which cannot be immediately the feats, as in the present, are not performed by referred to the action of volcanoes or earthintuition, but are the result of previous study, the quakes. And when travellers have witnessed calculator or reasoner suspends, so far as he can, one of the latter convulsions for the first time, the exercise of those faculties that are applied to their description of their sensations presents a the uses of the body: he abstracts his senses singular mixture of bewilderment and alarm, from external objects, and appears either to exact jostling long-settled convictions. Startling, howfrom them some mysterious aid within, or at ever, as may be the phenomena of earthquakes, least to require a strict neutrality. With the the subsidence or elevation of hills, draining or Vermont boy, on the contrary, the external per- formation of lakes, and diversion of rivers, they ceptions seem to quicken in the mental excite-only represent on the sudden what has in all time ment. The exercise of his body goes on at the been effected by the slow and silent, though not same moment with the exercise of his mind; and less sure, operations of nature in various parts of if he is engaged in any ordinary employment at the world. That such changes have taken place the time, instead of suspending it, he redoubles in past ages, many persons are willing to believe; his energy. This affords a hope that in his case but they incline to doubt the existence of similar the mind may not be worked in any fatal dispro- movements in the present period. They have portion.

heard or read of beds of marine shells being found The value of that mind may be collected from at elevations and places far remote from the sea, the following statements by Mr. Adams, the gen- or of ancient vessels dug up far below the soil; tleman who tested its powers so rigourously. but these things have been conveniently referred

* But young Safford's strength does not lie to the Deluge, or some sudden inundation, under wholly in mathematics. He has a sort of mental the impression that since those events no farther absorption. His infant mind drinks in knowledge commotion has happened. But the observations

a sponge does water. Chemistry, botany, of scientific men testify to the alterations conphilosophy, geography, and history are his sport, tinually going on over large portions of the earth’s It does not make much difference what question surface, not less remarkable than those due to you ask him, he answers very readily. I spoke the violence of earthquakes. to him of some of the recent discoveries in che

Mr. Lyell was the first to make these phenomistry. He understood them. I spoke to him mena popularly known in this country, in his of the solidification of carbonic acid gas, by Pro- “ Principles of Geology," a work which we are fessor Johnston of the Wesleyan University. greatly pleased to see republished in a seventh He said he understood it. Here his eyes flashed edition, abounding as it does with sound and fire, and he began to explain the process. comprehensive views likely to do good service

" His memory, too, is very retentive. He has to the cause of geological science. This writer pored over Gregory's Dictionary of the Arts and directed attention to the gradual elevation of the Sciences so much, that I seriously doubt whether land in Sweden and adjacent portions of the north there can be a question asked him, drawn from of Europe ; and a summary of his observations, either of those immense volumes, that he will / as amplified in the new edition, will serve to




convey an idea of what is known of this inte | the early astronomers, who were deceived by resting phenomenon.

apparent motions of the stars, so these writers, We may premise that instances of upheaval and Celsius himself, were deceived by the apand submergence are more general than is com- parent subsidence of the sea. The speculations monly supposed. Many changes of level are to gave rise to a controversy, in which it was argued be traced in the valley of the Rhine. In Sicily, that as there was no proof of a rising of the shells, identical with those now existing in the ocean in other regions, there could be no sinking Mediterranean, are found at a height of three in the north. Playfair suggested that the appearthousand feet above the sea level. Calabria pre- ances were due rather to an elevation of the land sents similar appearances.

The latter country, opinion confirmed by Von Buch, who, after it is thought, is slowly rising—a point not yet exploring Sweden in 1807, expressed his condetermined, owing to the comparatively short viction that the whole country, from Frederickperiod during which observations have been shall, in Norway, to Abo in Finland, and permade. In the bay of Baiae, fish are now caught haps as far as St. Petersburg, was slowly and on certain parts of the coast, which, in 1807, insensibly rising.” This declaration from so were dry land ; the depression goes on at the eminent an authority led to a more critical exrate of one inch in four years. Places on the amination of the subject. Marks had been coast of Asia Minor are slowly increasing their chiselled in the rocks on various parts of the distance from the sea; and according to Van Baltic shores, to serve as an index of the water Hoff, a German writer, the island of Tahiti gains level. These were inspected by a commission in height every year. Mr. Darwin has shown in 1820–21, and a report was presented to the that the bed of the Pacific Ocean has undergone Royal Academy of Stockholm, in which the frequent upheavals and depressions, the coral subsidence of the water, subsequently to the inreefs being sometimes elevated into mountain cision of the marks, was clearly demonstrated ; ranges, at others sunk fathoms below the level at the same time new marks were made. at which they were formed. In 1822, a portion In 1834, Mr. Lyell set out for Sweden, to conof the South American continent, equal in extent vince himself, by actual observation, of the truth to the British isles, was raised; and similar or falsehood of the theory advanced. He first movements are still going on. To turn to our visited the famous castle of Calmar; the bases own country. The town of Brighton once stood, of two projecting towers were once washed by where the chain pier is now built, on a beach the sea, but now they are above the sea level, which the sea had abandoned for ages. In Shet- having risen four feet in as many centuries. He land and Cornwall great changes have occurred also examined the marks cut by direction of the within the memory of man. Evidences of up-commissioners in 1820-'21, and found them in heaval are apparent on some parts bordering the all cases from four to five inches above the surestuary of the Clyde. In the Isle of Arran a face of the water, which, when first cut, they circle of inland cliffs is distinctly visible. A large exactly indicated; and after careful consideration portion of Lincolnshire was once covered by the of the facts, and inquiry among the most eminent sea, where cattle now graze ; while on the oppo- Swedish engineers, assured himself that the evisite coast of Yorkshire, towns which were busy dence in favour of a rise of the land was altoports in the fourteenth century, are now covered gether conclusive. The absence of tides in the by the waves. At one part of the Norfolk shore Baltic, and the peculiar configuration of the there is a depth of water sufficient to float a frig- coasts of Sweden and Norway, render the deate, where, fifty years ago, stood a cliff fifty feet termination of the upheaval a comparatively easy in height.

task. On reference to a map of those countries, Many other facts might be adduced, were more a range of small islands will be seen a short disrequired, to prove the existence of constant tance from the mainland, and following its inchange. The results may appear small, when dentations ; these islands, locally termed skar, compared with the agencies at work, and the (shair,) are rocky and precipitous, and by relong ages required to produce them; yet when pelling the violence of the waves, leave the looked at as the means by which nature provides space within comparatively calm. The natives for the duration of her empire, we shall find take advantage of this circumstance for their short reason to estimate them at their full value. coasting voyages; and by passing frequently

About the beginning of last century, Celsius, through the intricate channel, become perfectly a celebrated Swedish naturalist, gave it as his acquainted with every

rock. Notwithstanding opinion, that the waters of the North and Baltic the slowness of the upward movement, it is sufseas were slowly subsiding, the decrease amount- ficient to derange the navigation; channels are ing to nearly four feet in one hundred years. narrowed, twisted, or altogether filled up. Rocks The fact he showed had been noticed by ancient which formerly were sunken, are now several writers, according to whom Scandinavia was feet above the surface of the water, and, by the formerly an island, but towards the ninth century resort of sea birds and other accumulations, in had become part of the continent by the retreat- time are converted into islands. As the process ing of the waters. In common, however, with goes on, the hollows between dry up, and become pastures surrounded by fir-clad cliffs. Instances, and from time to time led to deep reflection and of this transformation have occurred, within the secret conflict; the witness for truth left me not, memory of living witnesses, both on the eastern and as little sacrifices, such as declining gay and western coasts of Sweden. With regard to parties, seemed to yield a peaceful calm, I was this change, Mr. Lyell observes, “ My attention favoured with resolution to persevere. She was frequently called to low pastures from one also says “I was at times, and many times in to three miles inland, where the old inhabitants earlier life, very thoughtful as to the genuine or their fathers remembered that boats and ships effect of religion on the mind ; my constitution had sailed. The traveller would not have sus- was weak, which I have considered a favour, pected such recent conversions of sea into terra (amongst others,) as my nature was volatile, and firma ; there are few regions where a valley I was much left as to outward restraints.” She newly gained from the sea may so rapidly assume gradually became increasingly serious, but for an air of considerable antiquity. Every small several years made little alteration in her manisland and rock off this coast is covered with ners or personal appearance. wood; and it only requires that the intervening In 1776 she went to France, on account of the channels and fiords should dry up, and become precarious state of her health, and that she overspread with green turf, for the country to might be qualified by education to obtain for wear at once an inland aspect, with open glades herself, if needful, a respectable maintenance. and plains surrounded by well wooded heights." Whilst there she was much exposed to dissi(To be continued.)

pating company, but appears to have been re

markably preserved: soon after her return an A TESTIMONY

obvious change took place in her religious views, Of Warwickshire North Monthly Meeting

and she remarks: “In process of time I could

not conform to what I had been taught as being concerning Mary CAPPER, deceased.

necessary to salvation; I kept much retired withOur late dear and valued friend Mary Capper out attending any place of worship, or having a was born in 1755, at Rugely, Staffordshire. In view to any, although I think I had been at a a letter written to a relation in 1835, from which Friends' meeting for worship at Birmingham, most of the subsequent extracts have been taken, but do not call to mind any particular impression, she commemorates the Divine grace by which saving a tenderness of spirit, I think to tears." she was preserved throughout the course of a It appears, however, from a manuscript journal long life, in the following striking language : “In kept by our dear friend, that whilst making a the present day it seems as if all was swallowed short stay in London, on her way to France, she up in mercy, and in the marvellous watchful was introduced to several members of our Socare, which kept me in the days of my ignor- ciety, from whom she received considerable inance from wandering far in the broad way, and formation relative to our principles, and in whose has brought me hitherto, through a wilderness of company she attended a meeting for worship in pits and snares, and above all has settled my Gracechurch street. She resided for some time heart in a calm, peaceful, lowly state, no more with her brother, who was a minister of the tossed with floating opinions, but watching, episcopal establishment: whilst under his roof, waiting, and praying yet to be perfected and she was brought into very close exercise of fitted for the kingdom of Heaven.” Her parents mind respecting taking what is termed the sacrawere members of the national establishment, and ment, which she says "was administered by my brought her

up in the strict observance of its rites brother with much solemnity ;" but she adds, and ceremonies : she says “my dear and valued “ The best of teachers was pleased to calm and parents accustomed their children to read the quiet my mind on a subject so important, that I Scriptures, my beloved mother especially, to no more repeated the ceremony." whom I often read and asked questions relative About the year 1784 she went to reside with to some passages when I was about eight or ten one of her brothers in London, and became a

Whilst quite young she spent a regular attender of our religious meetings. She considerable tiine at Macclesfield, under the care says, “On my decidedly going to Friends' of an aunt, where she was allowed to accompany meetings, my dear father, no doubt in faithfulness her young companions to the theatre, and other to his own religious views, and the desire to rescue public places of amusement, nor was she at that a poor child from apprehended error, desired time sensible of the evil tendency of such prac- not my return to the parental roof unless I could tices. The first impression of a contrary nature be satisfied with the religious education he had distinctly remembered appears to have been conscientiously given me; this, with a tender during a residence at Birmingham, which she heart-piercing remonstrance from my dear mother, says, was whilst on my knees at my accustomed was far more deeply felt than I can describe, evening prayers: my thoughts being confused and marvellous in my view, even to this day, and dissipated, I lay down comfortless, believing was the settled firm belief, that I must follow on that whatever distracted and hindered prayer to know the soul's salvation for myself truly in a must be wrong ; this impression rested with me,' way that I knew not."

years old.”

Mary Capper was settled within the compass time would make known all that was needful for of Peel Monthly Meeting, and was admitted into their salvation, if they were faithful to that which membership by that meeting about the year was already manifested to them, and stating her 1788. Whilst residing in London she believed belief that such would never be suffered to perish herself called upon to express a few words in for lack of knowledge. Our dear friend was very our meetings for worship, which she thus de- exemplary in the attendance of our meetings for scribes. “ I have no distinct recollection as to worship and discipline, even in the latter part of any serious thoughts of speaking in a religious her life, when her bodily powers were much meeting ; it sometimes arose in my view, that weakened. She felt a lively interest in the possibly I might have to tell unto others how I spiritual and temporal welfare of her friends, had been taught and kept from the broad way of was ever ready to afford advice or assistance to destruction, but a few words arising in my mind those who stood in need of it, and with very with something of unusual power, I think at the limited means was an example of contentment, Peel meeting, I stood up and spoke them, and and liberality to the poor. Her correspondence, was very quiet, nor did I anticipate or foresee until within a few years of her death, was exthat such a thing might ever be again, and thus tensive, and many of her letters were addressed was I led on from time to time, not knowing but to those who were in affliction, or who she each time might be the last.” Our dear friend thought in some way needed her affectionate reremoved to Birmingham in 1789, and in 1794 membrance or sympathy; and for usefulness in she was recommended to the Meeting of Minis- this way she appeared peculiarly qualified. ters and Elders; in reference to which, she re- The natural cheerfulness of her disposition, marks, “I know not that I ever questioned the and her uniform kindness and courtesy, endeared propriety of such a step, yet really so simple, her to all who were acquainted with her, and so like a childlike learner to this day, I know not rendered her society both pleasant and instructhat I can claim the awfully important character tive. She was firmly attached to the principles of a gospel minister.” Her travels in the work of of our religious Society, believing them to be in the ministry were a good deal confined to her own full accordance with the New Testament, but and the neighbouring quarterly meetings; in largely cherished Christian love and charity to many of her religious visits she united with her all those who conscientiously differed from her. In friend, Mary Beesley, of Worcester; in ad- a letter written to a friend in the 80th year of her dition to several journeys nearer home, they age, she says, “I am bound in gratitude to acvisited, in 1798, Friends of Bristol and Somerset- knowledge the gentle hand of mercy which has shire, and in 1800 they united in a visit to the guided me hitherto and joined me in strong afmeetings and families of Friends in Oxfordshire. fection to the Society, and satisfied my seeking In 1803 she was liberated to unite with the same mind as to the genuine gospel principles of salfriend, then Mary Lewis, in a visit to Hamp-vation.” In a memorandum made about the shire, Somersetshire, and Devonshire.

same time, after referring to the earlier part of In 1811 Mary Capper removed to Leomins- her Christian experience, she proceeds : 6 The ter, and was recommended from thence back to sinfulness of sin in all its subtleties is not disBirmingham in 1816, where she resided until covered all at once, neither is the efficacy of her death. In 1823 she was liberated for service Divine grace manifested in its fulness, but as we in and about London, and in 1826 she visited the can bear it, obedience keeping pace in deep meetings and families of Friends in Derbyshire, abasement and humiliation with the Spirit reNottinghamshire, and part of Leicestershire, vealed,—God the Father revealing the Son in us, which appears to have been her last engagement the Light, the Life, the Way, wherein we come of this nature away from home.

to a view, though yet faint and imperfect, of the Her ministry was sound and of a spiritual atoning sacrifice for sin, with the new and living character; having herself largely partaken of the way cast up for the redeemed to walk in, and conflict between flesh and spirit, she was often whereby we have access to a reconciled God concerned to encourage the sincere-hearted pa- and universal Father. My simple, yet reverent tiently to submit to these proving seasons, look- testimony is to the love, the marvellous love of ing for effectual help to the light and power of God, as the guide of our youth, and the staff of our Lord Jesus Christ, and frequently, whilst lengthened years to those who acknowledge Him suffering from a sense of the low state of things in all their ways." amongst us, as a religious society, she looked Our dear friend was at meeting on the mornforward with encouragement and hope towards ing of the first-day previous to her decease, a brighter period. She was accustomed, both in and was enabled to address her friends in enher ministry and in her conversation, to express couraging language, and spoke particularly to the the great objection she felt to a disputatious spirit, dear children. The day following she was so particularly when exercised in matters relating unwell that it was thought desirable to send for to doctrine, recommending her young friends, her medical attendant, and on fourth-day mornwho were anxiously inquiring after truth, to wait ing, being hardly aware that her weakness for the unfoldings of Divine light, which in due I rendered it impracticable, she wished to be dressed that she might go to meeting, remarking the inhalation of ether? “The circulation at that many friends were absent attending the first becomes rapid, then slow and feeble ; the yearly meeting, and she wished to assemble with respiration bearing a due relation to the frequency those who remained. To a friend who called of the pulse, becomes laboured and stertorous; upon her after meeting she said, she hoped she the countenance is livid ; the lips and tongue are should not be cast off in her old age ; the friend | blue; the pupils are dilated; the muscles unireplied, she believed she would not, that she had versally relaxed; the functions of the brain and done her work in the day. 66 Ah !" she re- nervous system are suspended; sensation is marked, addressing herself to those about her, annihilated, and the patient, to all intents and “ you will feel a comfort in such a day as this, purposes, for the time being, is a senseless that you have been engaged in His service.” On corpse." (Ed. Med.and Surg. Jour., July 1847.) fifth-day she became much worse, several friends So much for the full influence of the remedy; called to see her, with whom she conversed very and although patients do constantly recover from cheerfully, and although she did not appear this state without any ultimate båd effects, still, aware that she should see them no more, she it can scarcely be credited but that this rather parted from them very affectionately. Previous alarming train of symptoms must frequently be to settling for the night, she said to her attendant, attended with unpleasant results. It has been “ I think thou hast not read to me in the Bible compared, by authors, to the state of insensibility to-day," and expressed a wish to hear a portion produced by intoxication, (being dead drunk, of it; the chapter in course was the 14th of John, as it is vulgarly called), to asphyxia or congesbeginning "Let not your heart be troubled," tive apoplexy; and certainly none of these conwhich seemed very consoling to her: as the ditions are ever devoid of danger. Do bad reading proceeded she responded to it, and spoke effects really result from the inhalation of this of the boundless goodness, mercy, and power of remedy? The Editor of the Monthly Journal of God, saying, “ how beautiful to go to a mansion the Medical Sciences, for April, 1847, says they ready prepared for us, and if such should be my do, and that “ many of them will be found related happy experience it will indeed be all of mercy, by Prof. Syme and Dr. Roberts, in our report of unmerited mercy.” She appeared to be much the meeting of the Medico-Chirurgical Society of engaged in prayer during the night. In the Edinburgh. Great excitement, cough, with exmorning her bodily powers were evidently fast pectoration of pus, hemoptysis and convulsions, failing; after this she spoke but little, and about have been witnessed, during the inhalation, by eleven o'clock in the forenoon her purified spirit ourselves. In some cases, erotic feelings, and gently passed away, exchanging, we doubt not, even nymphomania have been occasioned in through the mercy and mediation of our Lord/ females ; in others, hysterical symptoms, or those and Saviour Jesus Christ, an earthly for a of depression or intense headache, which have heavenly habitation.

continued for several days. In our last number, She died on the 23d of the 5th month, 1845, we noticed the occasional occurrence of alarming in the 91st year of her age, a minister about 55 sinking, which required vigourous measures to years.

restore the individual. In some cases, the individuals have been thrown into such a state of agitation as to render the performance of the

operation impossible." THE LETHEON,

A case related in the Provincial Medical and " Audi alteram partem.

Surgical Journal, illustrates some of the distressIn perusing the article in the last number of ing results which may follow the inhalation of the Review, on the inhalation of sulphuric ether ether. The experimenter was a medical gentleas a means of producing insensibility, and pre-man who wished have a tooth extracted, and venting pain in operations, the writer has been after inhaling the vapour for some minutes withled to fear that the views there given may lead out apparent effect, “ thrust the apparatus sudsome, who have not examined the subject, to denly from him, and exclaimed, that he could suppose that it is a remedy that may be employed bear it no longer, staggered about the room, and with as little consideration and with as little risk was assisted to a chair. His breathing became as a dose of any of our more powerful medicines. very difficult, his arms were stretched out, his Although agreeing with “M," that the effects of fingers extended, and he was perfectly catalepthe ether are of the most surprising character, tic.” The operator would then have proceeded, and that its use in a very large number of cases, but the breathing of the patient was so laborious, in different parts of the world, has revealed a and the resistance so great, that it would have much smaller number of fatal or even disagree-| been almost impossible to perform that or any able accidents than could have been anticipated; other operation.” “Each expiration was acstill there is another side to the question, which companied by a loud Hah! his eyelids were should not be passed over carelessly by those closed ; his head was hot; pupils not altered; who are disposed to be fully informed on the conjunctiva much infected, pulse 120, and his subject. What are the symptoms produced by appearance altogether was so distressing as to

For Friends' Review.

« ΠροηγούμενηΣυνέχεια »