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For Friends' Review
they ignorantly worshipped; as likewise the tention to foreign languages appears a singular site of Plato's academy; but there appears to engagement for a man of fifty, overloaded with have remained little of the philosophy of Plato, other concerns. But we may readily conceive or the religion of Paul. The general condition that the interest which he felt in the religious of knowledge and of morals among the Greeks advancement of the people whom he had recentwas found to be deplorably low. T'heir state of ly visited, may have suggested an apprehension cruel subjection had induced habits of duplicity that he might find it his duty to travel through and falsehood to a lamentable degree. This, those countries again ; and the experience alWilliam Allen justly considered as an evidence ready attained could not fail to impress the imof the necessity and importance of the work portance of acquiring sufficient knowledge of which they were labouring to promote ; a system their languages to dispense with the assistance of general education, conducted on rational and of an interpreter. Christian principles.
(To be continued.) From Greece, William Allen proceeded, by way of Malta, anciently Melita, the island where Paul was shipwrecked, Rome, Florence, Milan, Geneva and Paris, and arrived safely at home
THE LETHEON. near the end of 2d month, 1820, after an absence Permit me to offer a few remarks in reply to of eighteen months.
those of your correspondent T., and here, as far On meeting his brother and only child, who as I am concerned, the discussion ends. He came to Rochester to meet him, he remarks:- does not claim any experience, derived from per* Our hearts were filled with humble gratitude, sonal observation, in the question at issue ; my and with the blessed Saviour's peace; my mind own, I grant, has been very limited, but, as far was bowed in thankfulness to the Father of as it goes, I will state it. I have seen the ether mercies, who had so signally supported and pre- administered on twenty different occasions, inserved me in this arduous engagement, and was cluding four times in which I inhaled it myself; restoring me to all that was dearest to me in life. and yet no symptom has occurred that would for I surrendered up all into His hands, and he has a moment deter me from taking it again, or adreturned it to me again with interest.”
ministering it to others, with ordinary precauBefore returning to his own residence, he pro- tions. The symptoms, in all these cases, were ceeded to Dalston, the dwelling of his aged mo- varied according to the duration of the process. ther, who was in a feeble state, but as well as In most instances sleep was induced, which could be expected. She was contrited in hum- lasted from five minutes to half an hour, (seldom ble gratitude, and offered up thanks to the Al- so long as the latter period,) from which the pamighty Preserver.
tient awoke without further discomfort than 'Though William Allen, during this long jour- slight nausea, or headache, or both, but mostly ney, was frequently engaged in the ministry, he without either. There was no distortion of the remained under the appointment of elder; but face, no expression of distress, no appearance soon after his return, he was released from that that would not have resulted from a sound sleep, station, and regularly acknowledged as an ap- with or without an anodyne. In several inproved minister. This appears to have brought stances (my own among the rest) perfect cona fresh concern upon him, that in this capacity sciousness remained, and yet the relief from he might be preserved from bringing reproach pain was most surprising. When sleep eventuon the great cause which he was called to advocate. ally followed, it differed in no perceptible re
During the remainder of the year 1820, we spect from the ordinary conditions of that state. find the subject of this review proceeding, with One fact is particularly curious in a physiologihis accustomed assiduity, in the performance of cal point of view. I was present when Dr. his various duties, civil, philanthropic and re- John McClellan was performing a protracted ligious. In company with his friend, Stephen operation, which, under ordinary circumstances, Grellet, he attended the Half-Year's Meeting for would have been acutely painful. The patient, Wales, the Yearly Meeting at Dublin, and a who was a refined and educated person, though number of meetings in England. The subject entirely insensible to pain, repeatedly requested of capital punishment and the education of the that a fly that lit upon his skin should be brushpoor still occupied his attention. The acquaint- ed off, as it gave him much annoyance. ances which he had formed in his late visit to T. quotes from the Edinburgh Medical and the continent, and the Ionian isles, and the wide Surgical Journal, a dramatic and almost tragical field which he saw opened there for the labours account of the effects of etherization in an indiof philanthropists, necessarily engaged him invidual of that city. It is to be remembered, an extensive and interesting correspondence.- however, that the prejudices of some Edinburgh Yet he found time to resume the lectures at surgeons were early enlisted against the ether; Guy's Hospital, to take lessons in the Russian but further experience, with a more complete language, and to devote an hour and a half be- | apparatus for inhalation, has caused some of fore breakfast to German and French. This at- them, at least, to change their minds ; for Pro
fessors Syme and Simpson and Dr. Duncan are ration he was rapidly recovering, without a sinnow employing the ether with great success. gle unpleasant symptom. Dr. Ranking, in his last Half Yearly Abstract, The same surgeon, at nearly the same time (the first six months of the present year,) states and place, removed a large tumour of the mamthat he has noted “upwards of one hundred mary gland, while the patient was under the efcases in which the inhalation had been followed fects of ether, and the results have in all respects by the most perfect success; and these cases proved as satisfactory as in the preceding instances. occurred in London and Edinburgh.*
We have been permitted to refer to these cases, Dr. Ranking also quotes a table of M. Bour- in advance of their publication in a medical guieres, a French writer, of two hundred and journal, because they embody strong additional eleven operations performed in the French Hos- evidence in favour of the ether. pitals, in which ether had been administered; Now, as respects the unfavourable results of and, according to this author, the comparative ether in isolated cases, let us ask what active mortality of the different classes of operations, medicine could sustain itself, if judged by its with and without ether, shows a gain in favour exceptions? Where, for example, would opium of those where the ether has been used.”+ have been at this time? I have seen persons
These results are strictly statistical, and pub- killed by opium ; others deranged and demoralised lished by authority, with all the necessary de- by its use. I have seen a child die from the tails.
effects of laudanum applied over the stomach The first employment of ether in Vienna oc- by a nurse to allay pain; I have seen persons casioned apprehensions of its safety, and Dr. to whom, in the smallest doses, it was a poison ; Schuh, one of the first surgeons of that city, af- and one instance in which the mere application ter several trials, abandoned it. His mode of of it to the temples produced speedy nausea and administration, however, was probably faulty ; vomiting. Nay, more, have we not known opium for the subsequent experience of the other sur to demoralise a nation of people, and involve geons of that city has been altogether favourable that nation in a sanguinary war with a Euto the ether; several hundred cases have been ropean power? Witness the recent conflict beoperated on, and Dr. Schuh has himself resumed tween China and Great Britain—the opium war. its use. Again, Dr. Gibson, the distinguished If the moral of the question is to be discussed, Professor of Surgery in the University of Penn- let it be done, in respect to ether, with candour sylvania, has recently returned from a profes- and justice; and I think the letheon will be as sional visit to Europe, and stated, in my hearing, likely to retain its place in public and professionthat he had seen several hundred operations on al estimation, as any agent of its class in the etherized patients, and that they were uniform- materia medica.
M. ly successful. As to the success of the practice in this coun
From the Spirit and Manners of the Age. try, it is only necessary to turn to the pages of any
AN ANGEL VISIT. unbiassed medical journal, or to inquire of any On the evening of one thirty-first of Decemsurgeon, or physician, or dentist, who has given ber, I had been cherishing the humiliating and practical attention to it, to obtain ample evidence solemn reflections which are peculiarly suitable in its favour. The experience of Drs. Gibson, to the close of the year, and endeavouring to bring Horner, Mütter and Pancoast, is already before my mind to that view of the past, best calculated the public; and to these names we may add to influence the future. I had attempted to rethat of Dr. John M'Clellan, who has employed call the prominent incidents of the twelve months the ether on many occasions with the most grati- which had elapsed; and in this endeavour I was fying results. He was lately called to visit, in led frequently to regret how little my memory Luzerne county, in this state, a boy of nine years could retain even of that which was most imof age, who, for seven years of his life, had been portant to be remembered. I could not avoid, a mariyr to calculus. Dr. M. provided himself at such a period, looking forwards as well as with one of Ropers' inhalers, and a bottle of backwards, and anticipating that fearful tribunal rectified ether; he performed the operation of at which no occurrence shall be forgotten ;lithotomy, by what surgeons call the lateral whilst my imagination penetrated into the dismethod, and although the operation, owing to tant destinies which shall be dependant on its the enormous size of the calculus, which nearly decisions. At my usual hour I retired to rest, filled the containing organ, and had to be removed but the train of meditation I had pursued was so in fragments,) lasted thirty minutes, the patient important and appropriate, that imagination conneither felt nor expressed any sensations of pain tinued it after sense had slumbered. “In thoughts at the time, nor has he since suffered any con- from the visions of the night, when deep sleep stitutional shock. Eighteen days after the ope- falleth upon man," I was mentally concerned in
the following scene of interest. I quote these and some other statements from an able Report made by Dr. Isaac Parrish, of this city, to to the chain of reflection, the progress of which
I imagined myself still adding, link after link, the Philadelphia College of Physicians, November 2, 1817. Ibid. Ibid.
the time for repose had interrupted; and whilst
thus engaged I was aware that there remained | me." I was conscience stricken. In another but a few moments to complete the day. I part of the record, I read the title - Duties Perheard the clock as it tolled the knell of another formed.” Alas! how small was their number! year, and as it rung slowly the appointed number, Humble as I had been accustomed to think the each note was followed by a sting of conscience, estimate of my good works, I was greatly disapbitterly reproaching me for my neglect of pre- pointed to perceive that many performances on cious time. The last stroke was ringing in my which I had looked with pride, were omitted, ears-painful as the groan announcing the de- " because," my visitor informed me, “the moparture of a valuable friend—when, notwith- tive was impure.” It was, however, with feelstanding the meditative posture in which I was ings of the most affecting gratification, I read besitting, I perceived that the dimness of the apart- neath this record, small as it was, the following ment suddenly became brighter; and on lifting passage: “Whosoever shall give a cup of cold my eyes to discover the cause, I was terrified at water only in the name of a disciple, he shall in discovering that another being was with me in no wise lose his reward.” Whilst I gazed on my seclusion. I saw one before me whose form many other similar records, such was the intense indeed was human; but the dazzling splendor feeling which seemed to be awakened within me, that beamed forth from every part of his beau- that my brain grew dizzy, and my eye became tifully proportioned form, convinced me at a dim. I was awakened from this state by the glance, that it was no mortal being that I saw. touch of my supernatnral instructor, who pointed Under one arm he bore two volumes ; in his me to the volume in which I had read my own hand he held a pen. I instantly knew the re- terrible history, now closed, and bearing a seal, cording angel. With a trembling which con. on which I read the inscription : "Reserved unvulsed my frame, I heard his voice. “Mortal," til the day of judgment." 66 And now," said he said, thou wast longing to recall the events the angel, “ my commission is completed.”of the past year—thou art permitted to gaze up- Thou hast been permitted what was never granton the record of this book. Peruse and be ed to man before. What thinkest thou of the wise."
As he spoke thus, he opened before me record ? Dost thou not justly tremble? How one of the volumes which he had brought. many a line is here, which, dying, thou couldst In fearful apprehension, I read in it my wish to blot?' I see thee already shuddering
I own name, and recognized the history of my at the thought of the disclosure of this volume own life during the past year, with all its minu- at the day of judgment, when an assembled world test particulars. Burning words were those shall listen to its contents. But if such be the which that volume contained : all the actions record of one year, what must be the guilt of thy and circumstances of my life were registered in whole life? Seek, then, an interest in the blood that dreadful book, each under its respective of Christ, justified by which, thou shalt indeed head. I was first
struck with the title of “Mer- hear, but not to condemnation. Pray, that when cies received.” Some were there, the remem- the other books are opened, thy name may be brance of which I had retained—more which found in the book of life. And see, the volume were recalled, after having been forgotten—but prepared for the history of another year: yet the far greater number had never been noticed at its page is unsullied. Time is before thee-seek all. Oh! what a detail of preservations, and to improve it; privileges are before thee-may deliverances, and invitations and warnings, and they prove the gate of heaven! Judgment is privileges, and bestowments! In observing the before thee-prepare to meet thy God." He recapitulation, I could not but be struck with one turned to depart, and as I seemed to hear the circumstance--it was, that many dispensations rustling which announced his flight, I awoke. which I had considered as calamities, were enu- Was it all a dream? merated here as blessings. Many a wo which
“Whatever passes as a cloud between had riven the heart-many a cup whose bitter- The mental eye of faith and things unseen, ness seemed to designate it as poison, was there Causing that brighter world to disappear, verifying the language of the poet:
Or seem less lovely, or its hope less dear; “E'en crosses from his sovereign band, are blessings
This is our world, our idol, though it bear in disguise."
Affection's impress, or devotion's air.” Another catalogue was there—it was the enumeration of " Transgressions." My hand trem
EMBALMING TIE Dead.—The practice of embles as I remember them! What an immense balming the bodies of the dead, so prevalent variety of classes! My supernatural visitant among the ancient Egyptians, arose more from here addressed me—“Dost thou observe how necessity than choice, and, like many other cussmall a proportion thy sins of commission bear toms of the land, may have been identified by to those of omission?” As he spoke he point the priests with the national religion, in order to ed me to instances in the page like the follow- ensure its continuance. The rites of sepulture ing: “I was hungry and thou gavest me no in Egypt, grew out of circumstances, according meat"_“I was thirsty and thou gavest me no to Champollion, peculiar to that country. The drink "_“I was sick and thou didst not visit scarcity of fuel precluded the use of the funeral
pile ; and the sands of the desert afforded no pro- the churches in America, but thy husband has tection from outrage by wild beasts—while the hindered thee;" and told her the will and regular inundations of the valley forbade it to be resignation of her mind was accepted for the used as a charnel house, under penalty of pesti- deed, and she was excused from the journey lence to the living. Hence grew the use of an- which was before her; and should die in peace tiseptic substances, in which the nation became with God and man. Then addressiug her husso skilled as to render the bodies of their dead band, he said, “thy wife had a concern to visit inaccessible to the ordinary process of decay.- the churches in another country beyond the sea, Frost's Pictorial History of the World. but thou wouldst not give her leave; so, she
shall be taken from thee;" and, repeating part
of what he had said to her, added, “ thy wife PETER GARDNER.
will be happy: but the Lord will blast both thee In the year 1694, Peter Gardner, a Friend and thine; for behold the Lord's hand is against who lived in Essex, had a concern to visit thee, and thou shalt be reduced to want thy Friends in Scotland; but being in low circum- bread.” This message was not received in that stances, and having a wife and several children, love in which it was delivered; but in heat and was under discouragement about it. The Lord passion, he came after Peter; and calling in in mercy condescended to remove his doubts, by great haste, as he sat on horseback, at John letting him know he would be with him; and Richardson's door, seemed very angry with though he had no horse to ride, and was but a John, and asked what man and message he had weakly man, yet he would give him strength to sent to him. “As to message,” said John, “ I perform the journey, and sustain him so that he know nothing of it; but as to the man, I may should not want what was sufficient. Having tell thee, he is a man of God, and whatever he faith, with innocent weight he laid his concern has said to thee, be it upon thee. Therefore be before the Monthly Meeting to which he belonged: still, and weigh the matter; for I knew not of his they highly esteemed his gift, and had full unity going to thy house, but thought he was in bed, with his concern; and proposed procuring him and did not inform him about thee nor thy wife." a horse for his journey. But he said, “ Nay: At which he went away in great haste. my Master has promised to give me hind's feet." So Peter pursued his journey towards Scot
He accordingly went on his journey along the land, John Richardson and another Friend going east side of the nation, through Norfolk, Lincoln with him to Scarborough on horseback-for he shire, and Yorkshire; and coming to a week-day would not let them go on foot with him. He meeting at Bridlington, where John Richardson kept before them full as fast as they chose to then dwelt , he lodged at his house. In the evening, ride : and when they had got about half way,
he the doors being shut, he said to John, pointing gained ground upon them. John was filled with his finger in a particular direction, “ Is there any admiration, for he seemed to go with more slight Friend lives that way?” John told him he and ease, he thought, than ever he had seen any pointed towards the sea which was not far from man before. And riding fast to overtake him, thence. He said he believed he must go and and going over a field for a nearer cut, he see somebody that way in the morning. John appeared to be surrounded by glory, and his asked him if he should go with him; he said he feet seemed not to touch the ground.' When he believed it would not be best; and so went to overtook him, John said, “ thou dost travel very bed. In the morning, after John had walked fast:" Peter replied, “my Master told me before over his grounds, and done his usual business, I left home, that he would give me hind's feet; he came in, and inquired after Peter. His wife and he hath performed his promise to me. said she had not seen him, and believed he was when they came in sight of Scarborough, he not risen. John went up into his chamber, and said, “ do take me to some Friend's house finding him not there, came down, and in a Friend's indeed, for I am greatly distressed." pleasant way said to his wife, “ there is the “ I will have thee to a house where I lodge, nest, but the bird is flown.” Soon after, came and have spent many hours with pleasure; in Peter. He had risen before the sun, and and if thou art not easy there, I will go until we went to the village, by no other direction than find a place, if it may be.” And just as they that internal intelligence he immediately received; entered the door, they heard some one go up and, at sun-rising, beheld a Friend leaning on a stairs; and anon, the woman Friend coming post at his own door, in a pensive and solitary down, with a neighbour of hers, invited them to mood. Peter went to him, and asked him after sit down. In a little while, Peter appeared very his welfare, and if he had any family ; he said uneasy; which John perceiving, asked how it he had a wife, confined to her bed with a danger- was with him; he said, “I cannot stay in this ous illness, and invited him to see her; to this house: here is light and darkness, good and he replied, “ For that end am I come.” He bad.” The woman, after she had got them went up stairs, and sitting down retiredly by her some refreshment, came and asked John, “who side, in an awful and solemn manner, said "thou hast thou brought here ?" “A man of God," hast long had a concern on thy mind to visit he replied. Whereupon they went away.
Having a meeting at Scarborough the next about the seventh day. He was quite sensible day, John Richardson stayed with him, and said to the last; and in a remarkable manner was he had good service. He also went with him given to know the inward states of those that to several Friends' houses there; and he fre- came to see him. And further, the money which quently spoke his sense of the state of the fami- John Richardson had handed to him, actually lies: but as they were near entering one house, lasted out so as to defray the expenses of his Peter stopped, and said, “ my master is not there interment and other charges incurred there.- I will not go in :" so they turned away. Being Diary of Alexander Jaffray. about to part, he queried with John if the small pox was in any town on his way. John replied,
APPLES OF SODOM. * why? Peter, what hast thou to do with that?" He answered, “ I am satisfied I shall die of that One of the first objects which attracted our distemper; and my Master told me to make notice on arriving at Ani Jidy, was a tree with speed in this visit, for I had but a short time to singular fruit; which, without knowing at the do it in ;" repeating his promise of giving him moment whether it had been observed by former hind's feet. John felt himself much affected; travellers or not, instantly suggested to our minds and, considering his mean appearance, asked the far-famed fruits how he was prepared for money, telling him his
“Which grew journey was long, it being expensive travelling
Near that bituminous lake where Sodom stood.” in Scotland, Friends being so thin. Peter an- This was the Osher of the Arabs, the Ascleswered, “I have enough : my master told me pias gigantea vel procera of botanists, which is I should not want; and now a bit of bread, and found in abundance in Upper Egypt and Nubia, some water from a brook, refresh me as much and also in Arabia Felix ; but seems to be conas a set meal at a table.” But John insisted to fined in Palestine to the borders of the Dead see how much money he had : it was but two Sea. We saw it only at Ani Jidy; Hasselquist half-crowns. He felt an immediate impulse to found it in the desert between Jericho and the tender him some money ; and, putting his hand northern shore; and Irby and Mangles met with into his pocket, took out a number of small it of a large size at the south end of the sea, and pieces, which Peter modestly refused, saying he on the isthmus of the peninsula. We saw here doubted not his Master's provision. John forced several trees of the kind, the trunks of which him to take it; telling him it was as free to him were six or eight inches in diameter; and the as his own; for so the Lord had put it into his whole height from ten to fifteen feet. It has a heart. Thus they parted.
grayish cork-like bark, with long oval leaves; In about two weeks after, the man's wife, and in its general appearance and character, it before mentioned, died, as Peter had foretold. might be taken for a gigantic perennial species of At that time, the same man had three ships at the milk-weed or silk-weed, found in the northsea; his son was master of one, his second son ern parts of the American States. Its leaves and was on board another; and, in their voyages, flowers are very similar to those of the latter they were all wrecked or foundered, and their plant; and when broken off, it in like manner cargoes chiefly lost; his two sons and several of discharges copiously a milky fluid. The fruit the hands being drowned. So that, from con- greatly resembles externally a large smooth apsiderable affluence, he was soon after reduced so ple or orange, hanging in clusters of three or four low as to be maintained by Friends, though he had together, and when ripe is of a yellow colour. been in good circumstances, if not very rich, It was now fair and delicious to the eye, and soft before those unexpected losses, at sea and land, to the touch; but, on being pressed or struck, it in houses and children had befallen him. The explodes with a puff-ball, leaving in the hand woman, at whose house Peter was so uneasy at only the shreds of the thin rind and a few fibres. Scarborough, had put her husband to bed in a It is, indeed, filled chiefly with air, like a bladstate of intoxication; which John Richardson der, which gives it the round form ; while in had not known him guilty of before.
the centre a small slender pod runs through it John Richardson further related, that after from the stem, and is connected by thin filasome time, he heard that Peter Gardner had died ments with the rind. The pod contains a small in Cumberland, on his return from Scotland; quantity of fine silk with seeds : precisely like and being attached to him in near affection, the pod of the silk weed, though very much went to inquire how he ended. John Bowstead, smaller-being, indeed, scarcely the tenth part as a Friend near Carlisle, gave account that Peter large. The Arabs collect the silk and twist it had been through Scotland, and came to Carlisle; into matches for their guns, preferring it to the the small-pox being there, he took the infection common match because it requires no sulphur to very suddenly, and lay ill with it. So John render it combustible. The most definite acBowstead went just as the pock was coming out count we have of the apples of Sodom, so called, upon him, and took him to his own house ; is in Josephus, who, as a native of the country, they did not come out kindly, but swelled him is a better authority than Tacitus or other foreign very much, so that he was blind, and died' writers. After speaking of the conflagration of