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the plain, and the yet remaining tokens of the That he possessed, in the structure of his mind, a divine fire, he remarks that “ there are still to be sensibility highly favourable to the development seen ashes reproduced in the fruits; which, in- of philanthropic feelings, and an energy of purpose deed, resemble edible fruits in colour, but on be- which no ordinary difficulties could paralyze, may ing plucked with the hands are dissolved into be readily admitted. But a careful inspection of smoke and ashes.” In this account, after a due his diary can hardly fail to impress the conviction allowance for the marvellous in all popular re- that his active exertions in his various works of ports, I find nothing which does not apply al
benevolence were stimulated and supported by most literally to the fruit of the Osher, as we saw it. It must be plucked and handled with great
religious considerations. care, in order to preserve it from bursting. We
Whether he was labouring to feed the starving attempted to carry some of the boughs and fruit population of Spitalfields, to arrest the career of with us to Jerusalem, but without success.- the African slave-trade, to shield the victims of Hasselquist finds the apples of Sodom in the negligence and poverty from the punishments fruit of the Solanum melongena, (night shade, awarded by the Draconic laws of his country, to mað apple,) which we saw in great abundance at enlighten the understandings of the students at Ani Jidy, and in the plain of Jericho. These apples are much smaller than those of the Osher, erful in his own and in foreign countries, to extend
Guy's Hospital, to encourage the wealthy and pow. and when ripe, are full of small black grains. the benefits of a Christian education to the children There is, however, nothing like explosion-nothing like • smoke and ashes ; ' except, occasion of the poor, or to diffuse among his varied acquaintally, as the same naturalist remarks, " when the ances a knowledge of the doctrines and principles fruit is punctured by an insect (Tenthredo) which in which he most certainly believed, we still find converts the whole of the inside into dust, leav- him humbly seeking to the exhaustless Fountain of ing nothing but the rind entire, without any loss life and love, for wisdom and strength. The New of colour." We saw the Solonum and the Osher Testament appears to have been his daily comgrowing side by side ; the former presenting no-panion; and in the midst of his multifarions thing remarkable in its appearance, and being engagements he found and embraced frequent found in other parts of the country; while the latter immediately arrested our attention by its opportunities for silent retirement, and waiting singular accordance with the ancient story, and upon God for the renewal of spiritual strength. is moreover peculiar in Palestine to the shores So far, indeed, were his philanthropic labours of the Dead Sea.-Robinson and Smith's Travels from absorbing his attention to the exclusion of in Palestine.
secret and silent introversion of mind, that they were evidently invigorated and refined by the deep
felt solicitude for the present and everlasting welFRIENDS REVIEW.
fare of the whole human race, which an experi
mental acquaintance with the overshadowing of PHILADELPHIA, FIRST MONTH 1, 1848. the Father's love alone can produce. If, indeed,
we examine the characters of those who, in any In the present number we have the life of Wm. age or situation in life, have been conspicuous for Allen brought down to the period in his active and their labours to improve the physical, moral, and eventful career, when he took his place among the religious condition of mankind, we shall find, proacknowledged ministers of the religious society to bably, without a solitary exception, that a deep which he belonged. His travels in the service of feeling of religious responsibility was the great the gospel had hitherto been performed as a com
master-spring that impelled them all. panion to others who were engaged to visit the
The attention paid, at an advanced period of his churches, but in his new situation, the order of day, to the languages of the continent, may be society presented no obstruction to his engaging fairly attributed to his desire to facilitate the interin such services, with the approbation of his friends,
course which his religious and philanthropic labours on his own responsibility.
required to be maintained. Long before his day In our estimate of his labours during the portion the Yearly Meeting of London had endeavoured of his life which has passed under review, we may its members, as appears by the following extract
to promote the study of those languages among be liable, upon observing the readiness and
energy with which he engaged in almost every plan which from an epistle issued in 1737: presented for relieving the distress or increasing “It has been the concern of this meeting, from the comforts of our race, to consider him as a man the relation given of truth's spreading in foreign constitutionally sensitive to the sufferings of others; the prosperity of truth at heart, would, in the edu
countries, that Friends who are of ability, and have acting upon the impulse of a benevolent feeling, cation of their children, take care, as suitable rather than from apprehension of religious duty. I opportunities and occasions may offer, to let them
be instructed in some modern tongues, as French, I beginning of the sidereal day at that place, the High and Low Dutch, Danish, &c., that so when passage of the same star over the meridian of any they are grown up, they may reap the benefit other place will be the beginning of the sidereal thereof; and as it shall please the Lord to dispose and incline them, may be of service to the church." day at the latter. From this it evidently follows
that when it is 12 o'clock sidereal time, under a
given meridian, it is 11, under the meridian 15 deMagnetic TELEGRAPH.—By recent accounts it grees to the west, and 1, under that which is 15 to appears that this new species of communication the east. has been extended to St. Louis. There is there- Suppose now a clock at Boston and another at fore a line from Boston to the banks of the Missis- St. Louis to be accurately adjusted to sidereal sippi, through which intelligence can be transmit- time; and that by some means an observer should ted with the velocity of lightning. One of the in- be enabled to examine them at the same instant teresting results of this brilliant discovery, is a of time, the difference of the hours which they infacility hitherto unknown, with which the relative dicate reduced into degrees, at the rate of 15 to longitude of places connected by telegraph may an hour, or 1 degree to 4 minutes of time, would be determined.
represent the difference of longitude. This is in The discovery of an easy, practical and accurate effect what the telegraph accomplishes. Conceive method of determining the longitude at sea has an observer, B, at Boston, and another, L, at long been an object of pursuit with men of science. St. Louis, ready to answer the signals of each Large rewards have been offered by the British other
. When B observes that his clock indicates government for the best method of accomplishing 12, he gives the signal, which is immediately this object. The means generally used are lunar transmitted by the telegraph to L, who notes the observations and accurate chronometers.
time at St. Louis, which we suppose to be 10 hours, To determine the longitude of a place either on 45 minutes, 48 seconds. The difference, 1 hour, the ocean or the land by chronometers, requires 14 minutes, 12 seconds, reduced into degrees, as. that the instrument used should be transported above, would show that St. Louis was 18° 33 mifrom the place with which the comparison is to nutes westward from Boston. Some small corbe made, to that whose longitude is required. The rections would no doubt be required in practice, accuracy of the result will depend upon the cor- but by reversing the order of the observations, and rectness of the time-keeper, during the transporta-repeating the trials a sufficient number of times, tion. The method by lunar observation requires the errors could be very nearly compensated. This considerable care and skill in the application of method cannot be applied to navigation, in the instruments, as well as no inconsiderable labour present state of our knowledge, but it promises to in making calculations.
furnish a means of introducing greater accuracy Whatever method may be used, the real diffi- than has been hitherto attained, in fixing the reculty to be surmounted is to determine the exact lative position of places on land. time of day, at the same instant, under the meridians whose longitudes are to be compared. This
DIED, -At Weare, New Hampshire, on the 12th is more conveniently done in the case before us, of 11th month last, Enoch Breed, in the 82d year by using sidereal time. As the earth revolves on of his age, a faithful elder in the church, having, its axis with uniform velocity, the interval between through a long life, sustained the character of a
consistent Friend and an honest man. two successive passages of a fixed star over any given meridian of the earth is always the same month last
, Lydia Breen, wife of the above-named
at the same place, on the 23d of 4th This interval is termed a sidereal day; and is Enoch Breed, in the 720 year of her age. In the nearly equal to 23 hours, 56 minutes, 4 seconds of decease of this dear Friend, the Church and the solar time. Dividing the sidereal day into hours, community at large, have sustained a heavy loss. minutes and seconds, in the same manner as the She possessed a clear and discriminating mind; solar day is divided, it is clear that the globe will influences of the Holy Spirit
, she became instru
and having, in early life, yielded to the sanctifying perform one-twenty-fourth part of its diurnal rota- mental for good to many. It pleased the Head of tion in a sidereal hour. Hence two meridians of the Church to dispense to her a gift in the ministry, the earth which intercept an arc of 15 degrees on
which she sweetly and faithfully occupied. Her
public communications of this nature were genethe equator, must pass the same fixed star at the rally concise, but full of instruction, and uttered in interval of one sidereal hour; the western meri- demonstration of the spirit and of power. She was dian passing it last, because the rotation is from deeply concerned for the support of right order and west to east.
wholesome discipline; and with her discriminating
mind, under the influence of divine grace, she was If, then, we take the passage of a given fixed star able to detect and expose error. But while she over the meridian of a place on the earth as the stood with unflinching firmness for the truth, she
end was peace.
ever remembered the frailties to which all are It will be seen that the ignorance and jeasubject, and was always ready to exercise that lousies of mankind often cause as much annoycharity' which hopeth all things. For many years, ance to peaceful philosophers as to real enemies. with her husband, she occupied the place of Super. On the cessation of hostilities between France intendent in the Yearly Meeting Boarding School at Providence, which responsible station they filled and England, in 1783, a proposition was made, acceptably to Friends. Her health, for several through the French ambassador, to the governyears previous to her decease, was feeble, but she ment of the latter country, for a joint survey 10 was very diligent in the attendance of meetings, determine the exact distance between the oband in the discharge of many and varied duties servatories of Greenwich and Paris; the proand appointments
, under much bodily debility and position was favourably received, and the measuffering: When in the progress of her disease, she was finally prevented from leaving her house, her surement of the portion of the line between friends continued to seek her counsel, which she Greenwich and Dover intrusted to General Roy, was still enabled to impart to their great comfort who had already been employed in similar and edification. To a friend, from a distance, who labours. In a survey of this nature, the distance visited her near her close,' she expressed with is measured by a continuous series of triangles, much clearness her prospect and the ground of her commencing from one base line, which must be hope. She recapitulated briefly her course of life, determined with the greatest possible precision. and recounted some of the preservations which General Roy's base line, more than 27,000 feet she had witnessed from her Heavenly Father; and in length, was measured on Hounslow Heath; while she could look back with a consciousness of having been in good degree engaged to discharge
near London; its correctness was insured by the duties that had devolved upon her, she felt the employment of three several kinds of meathat she was altogether an unprofitable servant, sures—a steel chain, and wooden and glass and that her acceptance wholly depended upon rods, all constructed by the celebrated Ramsthe mercy of God in Christ Jesus, fully realizing den: this preliminary operation occupied from the Gospel truth, which she had often been con: April to August of the year 1784; and from the cerned to proclaim to others, that not by works of line thus laid down, the measurement was carrighteousness which we have done, but according to his mercy, he saveth us, by the washing of ried on to Dover, when three members of the regeneration and renewing of the Holy Ghost. Her French Academy were sent over to confer with
the English savans, and to decide on the points at Springfield, Delaware county, Pa., on of land on which the signal-lights should be the 24th of last month, Sidney, the wife of George fixed, by which the measurement was continued Allen, in the 49th year of her age.
across the Channel. The large folio in which in Detroit, Maine, on Sixth day evening, all these proceedings are detailed, attests the dilithe 19th of 11th month last, Sarah JENKINS, wife gence and zeal with which they were conducted. of Moses Jenkins, in the 49th year of her age. In 1790, the French Academy, in consequence
in Winslow, Maine, on First day morning, of a request from the National Assembly, apthe 19th ult., at the residence of her father, Sarau pointed a commission to report on a new standard C. Hobber, daughter of John and Phebe Hobbey, of weights and measures. in the 25th
On referring to the year
standards already in existence, they were found These were Friends of reputable character, and to be so imperfect, that it was recommended to their end, we trust, was peaceful and happy.
measure anew an arc of the meridian, as the
only means of obtaining a true standard. The MEASURING AN ARC.
extreme points chosen on this occasion were The accurate measurement of a portion of the Dunkirk and Barcelona, both on the sea level; earth's surface involves so many points of high the necessary operations were commenced in scientific and commercial interest, that the labours 1792, but with great impediments in the turbuundertaken to effect the object may be regarded lence of the Revolution. Mechain, to whom the as among the greatest triumphs of philosophy. southern end of the line had been assigned, was Such measurements were made at an early arrested while making his observations at the period by the Greeks, and have been repeated base of the Pyrenees, as a traitor conveying subsequently, as the necessity for greater accu- signals to the enemy; and was afterwards impriracy became apparent. An almost incredible soned for nearly a year in Spain, as it was feared amount of labour and difficulty has been en- that the local knowledge he had obtained might countered in performing the operations, arising be employed in favour of the French arms. from various causes. From the confines of the Delambert, his coadjutor, who surveyed in the polar circle to the equator, nearly every nation interior of France, was exposed to still greater has contributed its share to this important work, risks; he was beset by mobs, his observatories of which the ordnance survey now carried on and signal-posts were thrown down and dein England may be looked upon as a necessary stroyed, and, together with his assistants, he cortsequence; there are few governments which was frequently imprisoned. On one occasion, have not had a desire to know the precise posi- at St. Denis, they were only saved from the potion and configuration of the country over which pular fury by the presence of mind of the mayor. they ruled.
Sometimes passports were refused them, and at
of her age.
others they were compelled to leave their ob- weary with his journey. I cannot express the servations, and give an account of themselves at feeling of vivid reality which the sight of this one of the numerous clubs which then existed well gave to the history and the scene connected in every part of France. The depreciation in with it. Jesus • left Judea, and departed again value of the assignats with which they had been into Galilee: And he must needs go through supplied to pay for what they wanted, was also Samaria,' which lay directly between Judea a cause of great inconvenience. Besides these, and Galilee, unless he had taken a very cirthere were natural obstacles to be encountered cuitous road, crossing and recrossing the Jordan. and overcome: in placing the signals, it was As he sat on the well, faint and weary, there often necessary to climb to the top of precipitous cometh a woman of Samaria to draw water. and almost inaccessible heights, and to sleep All travellers express surprise why she should there without any protection from the weather. come a mile and a half to draw water, when Such, however, is the energy inspired by a there are fountains close to the town of Sychar. genuine love of science, that the work was at I think there is every reason to suppose she did last successfully completed by the eminent indi- so as a religious ceremony, similar to that pracviduals engaged.
tised by the Jews in Jerusalem on the great day Some time afterwards, on extending this line of the Feast of Tabernacles.”
When our from Spain to the Balearic Islands, the persons Lord had told this woman all things that ever employed underwent severer privations. Biot she did,' she perceived He was a prophet, and and a brother philosopher were shut up for two immediately sought instruction from Him on the or three months in a temporary cabin on the top disputed point between Jews and Samaritans as of a rock in the little island of Formentera, while to which was the holy place, where men ought waiting for an opportunity to observe the signals to worship. How striking is the reply of our on the heights of Ivica. Arago, who watched Lord, when considered in the very place where during a similar period from a dreary spot called the fulfilment of its prediction is now so manithe desert of Las Palmas, was afterwards taken fest,— Woman, believe me the hour cometh for a spy at Majorca, and on attempting to escape when ye shall neither in this mountain, nor yet disguised as a peasant, was captured, and im- at Jerusalem, worship the Father.' He next prisoned several months in the citadel. On re- plainly told her with which of the contending gaining his liberty, the ship in which he em- parties the truth then lay. Ye worship ye barked was wrecked on the coast of Africa; he know not what; we know what we worship, then sailed for Marseilles in an Algerine vessel, for salvation is of the Jews.' To one of His which was made prize of by a Spanish corsair brethren, according to the flesh, these words, at the entrance of the port. The Algerine was, We know what we worship,' are peculiarly however, reclaimed; and sailing a second time affecting, our Lord so plainly identifying himfor France, narrowly escaped destruction on the self with the Jews. But how important to all shores of Sardinia, and was ultimately driven His true disciples of every nation under heaven back, with several feet water in her hold, to is the declaration that follows,— But the time Algiers. In this city M. Arago lived for six cometh, and now is, when the true worshippers months, in the garb of a Mussulman, until an shall worship the Father in spirit and in truth; opportunity offered of sailing once more for for the Father seeketh such to worship Him; France. The convoy was met and captured by God is a spirit, and they that worship Him an English squadron; but in this instance for- must worship Him in spirit and in truth.'. As tune favoured the astronomer; the vessel in if he said, — At present “ salvation is of the which he had embarked was the only one that Jews;" there is with them, and their instituescaped and arrived safely at Marseilles. When tions, an arbitrary and official sanctity, appointed to this account we add the labours of the Swedish by God Himself; and all who would worship philosophers while measuring an arc in the dreary aright must be joined with them; but the hour and frozen regions of the north, we have striking is at hand when this state of things shall pass examples of what may be accomplished by per- away. Now there are ordinances of divine severance; to this apparently humble virtue the service, and a worldly sanctuary,” because the greatest philosopher, as well as the humblest way into the holiest of all is not yet made maniartisan, is indebted for success --Chambers's fest;' now there are priests that offer gifts acEdinburgh Journal.
cording to the law, who serve unto the example and shadow of heavenly things;' but when the
une sacrifice' has been offered, when the great VISIT OF HERSCHELL, A CONVERTED JEW, TO HIS
reality has come, all these shadows shall vanish, official sanctity of place and person
shall cease, “ There is a low vaulted chamber built over and nothing shall henceforward be accounted as the mouth of the well, the lower part of which worship, save the homage of the heart, the may have been originally the ledge that sur- worship of God in spirit and in truth. More rounded it, on which, or on a similar one of an than eighteen centuries have elapsed since this older date, our Lord may have sat to rest when I declaration, (John iv. 21--24,] and yet we find
in the Christian church, instead of a universal , day, men should be disposed to say, when testimony that it is the Spirit alone that quick- deeply impressed in a particular spot, • let us eneth, the flesh profiteth nothing, a cleaving to build a tabernacle' here; but even if experience outward rites and ceremonies, as if these were had not shown the futility of such attempts to still* the appointed channels through which the perpetuate the impression, I believe the princiSpirit is conveyed! A large portion of the pro- ple is in itself wrong, as tending to encourage a fessing Church of Christ seem still in the con- low estimate of the degree in which God's predition of the Samaritan woman, obliged to go to sence may be now enjoyed. If we really bethe well of Jacob to draw water, instead of pos- lieve that where two or three are gathered tosessing in themselves a well of water springing gether in Christ's name, He is there in the up unto everlasting life.' If I am still to be de- midst of them, actually, though invisibly, prependent on a priest, either for the commence- sent, we ought to feel that to us the place where ment or sustenance of spiritual life, I see little He is now present in spirit is more holy than to distinguish the Christian from the Jewish the place where he was in person many hundred dispensation; if, instead of hereditary priests of years ago ; and thus the upper room, the open a sacred family, chosen by God Himself, I am field, or our own private chamber, where God directed to regard as officially holy, priests made condescends to meet with us, should be to us by the will of man, in many cases from mere • none other than the house of God and the gate worldly motives; if I am to have priests with- of heaven.' I firmly believe, that if we seek to out Urim and Thummim, and a temple without affect the mind by the aid of architecture, painta Shechinah; instead of giving me a substance ing, or music, the impression produced by these in lieu of a shadow, I am only presented with adjuncts is just so much subtracted from the an empty mockery of a glory that has departed. worship of the unseen Jehovah. If the outward The Church of Christ may still be edified by eye is taken up with material splendour, or real gifts, and real sanctity; but the ritual and forms of external beauty, the mind's eye sees official are mere beggarly elements,' passed but little of • Him who is invisible;' the ear that away for ever.”
is entranced with the melody of sweet sounds, • Jesus went forth with his disciples over listens not to the still small voice' by which the brook Cedron, where was a garden. And the Lord makes his presence known.” Judas knew the place, for Jesus oftimes resorted thither with his disciples.' The brook Cedron, or Kidron, is now only a dry channel, through OUTBREAK OF THE ELEPHANT. which no stream flows, except during the heavy rains of winter; but on crossing it, near the
A scene of unusual excitement was exhibited northeast corner of the city, you come to a plat on the 22d ult., at the Menagerie of Waring & of ground, enclosed with a stone wall, which Co., in this city, in consequence of the elephant has long been pointed out as the Garden of Columbus becoming enraged and ungovernable. Gethsemane; and as the situation corresponds The facts of this stirring incident, attended as it to the place described in the Gospel narrative, was with serious consequences to one of the being near the Mount of Olives, there is little parties engaged in the affair, appear to have reason to doubt that in or near this spot the been as follows: mysterious agony of our blessed Lord, when he The keeper, Wm. Kelly, of New York, whose
offered up prayers and supplications with strong acquaintance with Columbus was only short, crying and tears unto Him that was able to save was employed after one o'clock, in paring his him from death,' took place. In this enclosure feet and otherwise preparing him for exhibition are eight very old olive trees. I felt this a so- in the afternoon, when the animal becoming lemn spot; it was impossible to visit it, for the restive, Kelly left him and procured a fork with first time at least, without a lively recollection with which to chastise him; but the sagacious of Him who • poured out his soul unto death.' animal seeing him returning with the weapon, I felt how natural to the human mind is the screeched, and instantly seized him with his worship of the visible,—the love of relics. I extended trunk and threw him twice into the air, could not resist pulling many twigs of those and then left him, foaming with rage. He inancient olive trees.
It is easy to understand stantly knocked down the cages in which were how, from the time of Peter unto the present a hyæna and a wolf, both of which escaped
therefrom, and ran several times round the ring
before they were captured and secured, which • It is not correct to say, as the author seems to in
was done without any injury to the persons who timate, that rites and ceremonies, even when Divinely authorized, were the appointed channels through which performed that daring and dangerous act—the the Spirit was conveyed. External observances never animals being dreadfully alarmed at the screeches constituted the essence of worship, they were merely of Columbus and his ungovernable fury. It the appendages. This is clearly indicated by our was truly a fearful time; for all the animals, from Lord's declaration,
the hour cometh and now is, when the King of the Forest down to the most insig. true worshippers shall worship the Father in spirit in truth.-ED.
nificant reptiles, were struck with consternation