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much solace to my tender and deeply-sorrowing ven above, to show me more clearly the sinfulfather, had but my heart been duly subjected to ness and depravity of my own heart

, and to give the restraining power of the cross of Christ; me stronger and fuller views of the glory of that and oh! what cause have I to adore the pre- gospel, which is the power of God unto salvaserving grace which saved my feet from the path tion to every one that believeth:' here, then, let of destruction, at a time when my own folly and me set up an Ebenezer, and say,— Hitherto inconsideration would have made me an easy hath the Lord helped me.' Whether days or prey of our soul's enemy: then, perhaps, were years may be added to the fleeting span of those prayers of my beloved parents, which had life, is known only to Him who seeth the end for so many years been offered up, permitted to from the beginning: wonderful in counsel and descend on their unworthy child, in the blessing excellent in working, He doeth all things well: of that God who heareth and answereth prayer, to this only wise God, our Saviour, I desire to and who, in his tender mercy, was pleased to commit myself and those dearest to me.” follow me with the reproofs of instruction.

Soon after the death of her mother, the health “ The ten years subsequent to this, were years of our dear friend became very delicate, and conof chastisement and discipline, variously admi- tinued so, with some variation, through the renistered. Our inestimable father was taken from mainder of her life. In the apprehension that a us, under circumstances which, even now, move change of residence might prove beneficial, she every feeling within me, when they are vividly removed, in the year 1821, with her only and brought to remembrance. After his redeemed beloved sister, Hannah Middleton, to Southampspirit had joined its beloved companion in the ton. Here, as elsewhere, her benevolent heart world of rest and purity, a series of trials,—was often brought to feel deeply for the poor some, of my own procuring, for want of prayer- and the afflicted, and she was actively engaged ful dependence on an Almighty Saviour, -some, in efforts to alleviate their sufferings, and to immore directly in the course of providential dis- prove their moral condition. In 1825, she was pensation, were made the means of humbling acknowledged as a minister, and in the following and softening, in some degree, my hard, obdurate year, in company with her sister and her valued heart. I was brought to feel my own sinfulness, relative, Ann Alexander, she visited some parts helplessness and misery, and to cry, I humbly of Holland and Germany, as well as the Friends trust, in sincerity of soul, .God be merciful to of Pyrmont and Minden, and was afterwards me a sinner;' to lie prostrate at the feet of Jesus, engaged in farther religious service. my compassionate Saviour, and, in a precious

(To be continued.) feeling of resignation to his will, to beg that He would do with me whatsoever seemed good in his sight. Then was the love of Christ felt to be a constraining principle, and after many deep JOHN ARCHDALE, THE QUAKER GOVERNOR conflicts of spirit, I was made to bow before the

OF CAROLINA. Lord, and brought to a willingness to testify to others what he had done for my soul. In our [A tract, including the two Carolinas, and a Quarterly Meeting at Poole, a few days after the considerable portion of the adjoining country, completion of my thirtieth year, I first spoke in was granted by Charles II. in 1663 to eight of the character of a minister. The sweet peace his courtiers, constituting them proprietaries of I was permitted to enjoy for a short time after the province, who endeavoured to erect a gowards, no language can describe; a sense of the vernment there upon aristocratical principles; pardoning love of God, in Christ Jesus my Lord, yet with liberal terms to those that should settle seemed to swallow up my spirit, and leave no- in the province. The first emigrants were of thing to disturb the soul's repose on his infinite, the most heterogeneous characters, often differ. everlasting mercy. Bless the Lord, O my soul! ing among each other, and almost always at vaand all that is within me, bless his holy name. riance with the proprietaries. There was an Bless the Lord, O my soul! and forget not all assembly in which the colonists were reprehis benefits.'

sented; but the governors acted under the au“And now what shall I say of the last ten thority and instructions of the proprietaries, and years? What a record would they present of found it nearly impossible to escape the censure, the faithfulness of God, of the tender care and either of their employers, or of the people over matchless


of my covenant Lord and Sa- whom they presided. The last of those governviour, and of my own ingratitude, unfaithfulness ors, previous to Archdale, was Thomas Smith, and negligence! My cup has, indeed, been made with the close of whose administration the exto overflow with blessings. To me belongeth tract begins.] only blushing and confusion of face, but I trust Though Governor Smith administered the I may acknowledge, with reverent gratitude, that concerns of the colony with prudence and inteto these temporal mercies, my Heavenly Father, grity, so as to preserve a character unimpeached in his abounding goodness, has been pleased to by any party, he found his situation rendered superadd somewhat of the blessings of the hea-so irksome, by the turbulence and discontents of

For Friends' Review,

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the people, that he soon solicited a release from of the people, by cultivating the good will of his his government. At the same time he urged the neighbours, both savage and civilized. A tribe of proprietaries to depute as governor one of their Indians, living about eighty miles from Charlesown number, clothed with authority to hear, and ton, had placed themselves under the English codecide on the spot, all the complaints and con- lonial government. A company of these people, troversies by which the province was distracted. while on a hunting expedition, met with some

“ The proprietaries, upon the resignation of Indians who resided not far from St. Augustine, Smith, agreed to adopt his proposal, and the and took them home as prisoners, with a view choice eventually fell upon John Archdale, who of selling them as slaves, to be conveyed to the had become one of their number. He is said, West Indies. Governor Archdale, hearing of by historians, to have belonged to the people the circumstance, caused the Indian chief and called Quakers, and was unquestionably a man his captives to appear before him. After exof great prudence and sagacity; well qualified, amining the case, he ordered the prisoners to be by his patience and command of temper, to re- taken back to St. Augustine, and sent a friendly gulate and control the turbulence of others. So letter to the Spanish governor there. The congreat was the confidence reposed in his wisdom sequence was, that a letter was received in reand integrity, that he was invested with powers, turn, thanking him for his humanity, and exwhich were deemed too absolute and extensive pressing a desire to maintain a pacific corresto be entrusted to others; and his commission pondence with the English.* In pursuance of contained a declaration, that the authority thus these friendly demonstrations, Governor Archconferred, was not to be claimed by future go- dale and the Spanish commandant issued orders vernors. Upon his arrival at Charleston he to the Indians under their respective jurisdicformed a council of judicious and moderate tions, to abstain from molesting each other. men; and by remitting some arrears of rent, This was a more efficient security against Indian and other conciliatory measures, joined with a and Spanish hostility than any militia could firmness not to be shaken, and a mildness not to furnish. be disturbed, he soon succeeded in composing “ The Indians in the vicinity of Cape Fear the jarring elements of which the community manifesting a desire to place themselves under there was constituted.

the protection of the English government, Arch“A meeting of the representatives being con- dale admitted them to the privilege, but required rened, a vote of thanks to the proprietaries, was as a condition, that instead of plundering vessels passed by that body: which is said to have been when wrecked on their coast, and murdering the first expression of such sentiments uttered by their crews, as they had sometimes previously the people of Carolina. The success of Arch- done, such unfortunate persons should be treated dale's administration has been partly attributed with kindness and humanity. A few weeks to his exemption from proprietary instructions. afterwards, a vessel from New England, with The unlimited authority with which he was en- about fifty passengers on board, was cast away trusted, was, no doubt, in his hands, an important near that cape. The company, finding themadvantage; but the whole tenor of his adminis- selves surrounded by the natives, were greatly tration authorizes a belief that such a governor, alarmed, and remained on the wreck till they however trammelled by instructions, would have were nearly starved. But the Indians manifestdone much towards maintaining the public tran- ing tokens of friendship, at length gained their quillity. He is said to have promoted a militia confidence; and, coming to land, they were hoslaw, for securing the defence of the colony. pitably supported until they found means to acFrom his conduct in other respects we may con- quaint the governor with their condition. He jecture that he permitted rather than promoted thereupon sent a vessel which conveyed them the passage of such a law. Provision, however, to Cooper River, where they were settled upon was made to excuse all persons from bearing lands allotted to them. arms whom the governor should furnish with “ In the short space of a year, under the mild a certificate expressing his belief that their re- and paternal administration of John Archdale, fusal was founded on conscientious persuasion.* the jarring spirits which had kept the colony in

« Whatever countenance Governor Archdale may have given to the military defence of the colony, it is fully agreed that he adopted the

• It is to be remembered that the shores of the humane and rational policy of securing the safety Spain, and that the Spaniards, in consequence, claimed

Mexican gulf were first explored under the banner of

the neighbouring country, to an indefinite extent, on • By the Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina the plea of prior discovery. Hence they regarded the every man between seventeen and sixty years of age colonists of Carolina as intruders on their domain; and was liable to be called into military service. These nearly all the intercourse between the Spanish and constitutions were given up but a short time before the English colonists, previous to the administration of appointment of Archdale: hence it is probable that Archdale, were of a hostile character. The coloniste this law was the first enacted in the province which had also frequently pursued the barbarous policy of secured an exemption from military service, on con- encouraging the natives to weaken each other by muscientious grounds.-ED.

tual depredations.-ED.

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commotion, appear to have been tranquillized; / but thirty millions, or six per cent., were exmagistrates were appointed to settle disputes ported the past year: yet the high price which among the colonists, and with their Indian ihis comparatively small quantity sold for in neighbours; public improvements were encou- Great Britain, enabled our farmers to obtain raged; and new laws enacted for the mainte-double price for all they could spare ; so that a nance of order and peace.

sale of only six per cent. of the immense crop, “ There was, however, one class of inhabitants doubled the money value of the whole. to whom he was unable to render entire satisfaction. The prejudices and antipathies, noticed

From Chambers's Edinburgh Journal. in a former chapter, were not then sufficiently THE GEOLOGY OF THE NIAGARA FALLS. softened to permit the French Protestants, who had taken shelter in Carolina upon the revoca

These Falls, which an American writer, with tion of the Edict of Nantz, to partake in the justifiable boldness, speaks of as the greatest elective franchise. The governor, not finding wonder in the world, occur, as is well known, his influence powerful enough to procure their on the course of that stream which forms the peaceable admission to the full rights of citizen- outlet of the great chain of Canadian kes. In ship, prudently refrained from irritating the pas- passing from the Atlantic up this grand natural sions of his countrymen by urging the measure: water-course, we first come to Lake Ontario, a but he impressively recommended these strangers sheet of water a hundred and seventy miles to the hospitality and compassion of the other long, and bearing all the ordinary appearances of colonists. He also advised these refugees them- a sea.

Between this lake and Lake Erie there selves, to observe a conciliatory and Christian is a connecting river of about thirty miles, usudemeanor, by which the strongest aversions are ally called the Niagara River, though it is the eventually melted away. And it is a satisfaction same stream, which, below Lake Ontario, bears to add, that by a patient adherence to this judi- the name of the St. Lawrence. It is about the cious advice, the jealousy of the English colo- middle of this short river course that the Great nists was, not long afterwards, entirely removed; Waterfall takes place. The arrangement of and an act of naturalization was passed by the physical objects essential to the fall is simple, colonial assembly.

and easily understood. The river flows over a "In reviewing the administration of Archdale, flat table-land, in a depression of which Lake we can hardly fail to regret that he continued so Erie is situated. Where it flows from the lake, short a time in Carolina, and that so few men it is three hundred and thirty feet above Lake of his principles and character have been placed Ontario, which is about thirty miles distant. It in prominent stations in political life. He was is here a mile broad, with all the appearance of evidently one of the few who exercised an im- an arm of Lake Erie. After flowing about fifperfectly defined authority, not for his own teen miles between low banks, and only deaggrandisement, but for the benefit of those scending as many feet, it comes to a series of whom he governed. He no doubt felt the force rapids terminating in a precipice of about one of the declaration: «He that ruleth over men hundred and sixty-five feet, down which it is must be just, ruling in the fear of God.' In the precipitated into a narrow ravine which extends following year (1696) he returned to England, for seven miles, and along which the waters followed by the benedictions of the people over make a comparatively rapid descent. 'The whom he had so wisely presided.”-MS. Hist. course of the river above the fall is occasionally of N. America,

three miles broad, and studded with low woody islands, one of which forms a considerable tract

of land. Below the fall, all is changed, for the For Friend's Review,

water then runs with turbid violence in a trough

or groove, generally not more than four hundred PRODUCTS OF THE UNITED STATES.

yards broad, and in some places only about half The Secretary of the Treasury, in his Annual that width. At Queenstown, again, having Report to Congress, states that the yearly value passed out of the elevated region, it once more of the products of the United States exceeds assumes a slow and gentle course over an open three thousand millions of dollars; of which country, and thus it continues till it joins Lake only five per cent., or one hundred and fifty Ontario. The course of the Niagara River is millions, are exported—leaving ninety-five per north and south; the country on the east or cent. to be used at home.

right bank belongs to the United States; that on The amount imported during the year was the west is part of Canada. about one hundred and forty-seven millions of A vast volume of water, the drainage of a dollars; of which about eight millions were re-country thousands of miles in extent, pouring exported; leaving only one hundred and thirty- over a rock one hundred and sixty-five feet high, seven millions to be used in the country. must needs constitute an object of uncommon

The crop of Indian corn alone now exceeds sublimity in almost any circumstances. It is five hundred millions of bushels; and of this I admitted that, if it took place amidst savage

Alpine scenery, its effect would be greatly in-, extremely glowing and vivid. The fragments of creased. As it is, there are some external fea- a plurality of rainbows are sometimes to be seen tures not unworthy of the neighbourhood of so in various parts of the misty curtain of the Falls. grand an object. The western shore is a cliff “ The exploration of the inferior regions of of about eighty feet above the top of the fall; the cataract is attended by some hazard and the eastern shore is lower, but is finely wooded. much difficulty ; but the thirst for the romaThe whole breadth of the river at the fall- nesque and sublime has overcome all obstacles, eleven hundred yards, or nearly two-thirds of a and led the ardent youth, the dauntless traveller, mile, and forming the chord of an irregular arc and the philosopher, a perilous pilgrimage along -is divided by a low wooded island, called Goat the slippery margin of storming eddies, beneath Island, into two parts, the eastern of which is impending rocks, amidst jarring elements, to the about three hundred and seventy-five yards in foot of the deluging torrents, and even to penecurvilinear length, constituting what is called the trate several feet behind the concave sheet of American Fall; while the western is about the headlong waters. It eminently requires seven hundred yards in the same measurement, fortitude and self-possession to make this proforming the more celebrated Horse-Shoe Fall, gress. The rocks over which we advance are so called from its strikingly curved form. Level sharp, broken, and excessively slippery, owing with the edge of this fall is a platform called to the perpetual moisture they acquire from the Table Rock, projecting over the abyss below, oozing crevices of the superincumbent cliffs and and from which a fine view of the cataract is the spray, so that one inadvertent faux-pas obtained. This rock seems much shattered, might plunge a victim into the whirling and and likely soon to give way; yet young and boiling vortex of the Falls. The danger is conheadstrong persons will sometimes lay them- siderably increased by the terror arising from selves prostrate on its front edge, and with the stentorian thunders of the tumbling floods, extended hand cleave the torrent as it leaps that ever resound from side to side of the humid down.

cavern, and seem to shake the firm rock to All beholders speak of the Niagara Falls in its foundation. The difficulty experienced in terms of the highest admiration, but with a breathing, from the combined moisture and comstrong sense of the impossibility of conveying pression of the air, the impossibility of hearing by words an adequate idea of the grandeur of the or being heard, the dizziness produced by the scene. We take leave to quote a few descrip- falling waters, the dimly discovered snakes and tive passages from Bouchette. “ The first object reptiles around, the whirl, the wind, the roar, that meets the eye, after descending to the Table all combine most powerfully to affect the soul, Rock, is the splendid gradation of swift rapids to overwhelm at once the senses and the imagiabove the Falls; then white revolving clouds of nation, and baffle all powers of description. mist, irregularly belched forth from the abyss, "Immediately at the base of the Falls, the rush across the platform, enveloping the be- raging waters are lashed into one thick mass of holder; and as these are swept away by perpe-froth and foam of dazzling whiteness; but their tually varying currents of air, he approaches surface farther down becomes comparatively nearer the verge of the rock, and beholds the still, though ever whirling and boiling, and exwhole length of the tremendous cataract. The hibits a totally different appearance from that of loud shrill roar of the rapids is lost amidst the any other part of the river. The labouring appalling thunders of the Falls, which give a real stream seems inwardly convulsed, heaving and or imaginary tremulous motion to the earth, and throbbing in dark and bubbling whirlpools, as if seem to threaten a disruption of the projecting it threatened every moment to eject some of the rock upon which we are standing. The view mystic terrors of the deep. This effect is asfrom this spot is extremely grand, and unspeak-cribed by Professor Dwight of the United States ably sublime; but it is too near and overpower to the reaction of the ascending waters. Pre. ing to permit the spectator fully to appreciate cipitated bodily to an extraordinary depth by the whole splendour of the scene. The summit their own prodigious gravity, and the force of of the bank, rising about one hundred feet above their impulsion, and involving in them a quantity the Table Rock, affords a more comprehensive of fixed air, they reascend to the surface in a and advantageous view. This position is most struggling career, checked by the weight of the commanding, and perhaps the point from whence superincumbent water. the collective magnificence of the cataract can be - The noise of the Falls is truly grand, comseen with the greatest effect. According to the manding and majestic. ... It is very variable altitude of the sun, and the situation of the spec- in its loudness, being essentially influenced by tator, a distinct and bright iris is seen amidst the the state of the atmosphere, the direction of the revolving columns of mist, that soar from the wind, and the position of the listener. It is foaming chasm, and shroud the broad front of sometimes scarcely audible within three or four the gigantic flood. Both arches of the bow are miles; and at others it may be heard at York seldom seen entirely elicited; but the inferior on the opposite shores of Lake Ontario, a dissegment is perfect, and its prismatic hues are tance of forty-six miles."




The configuration of the ground suggests a mentioned, Captain Basil Hall conversed with a curious inference regarding the history of the settler who had lived on the spot thirty-six years, Niagara Falls. The table-land-over the sur- and who had witnessed many such changes. In face of which the river flows for fifteen miles, a country so recently settled, we have unfortuand through which its channel is cut for other nately very short and imperfect records to trust seven to the depth of from two to three hundred to; but it so happens thai, so far back as 1697, feet-terminates at Queenstown in an abrupt a missionary called Father Hennepin published cliff ranging east and west, and facing towards a drawing he had taken of the Falls, and from it Lake Ontario. Below this point, the course of we find that there was then a third fall, crossing the stream is over a low flat country, with a very the direction of the other two, and caused by the slight descent. The most superficial observers opposition of a rock which does not now exist. unavoidably contemplate the deep channel of It was the belief of the old person consulted by seven miles as the work of the river itself; and Hall, that the fall receded at the rate of a yard the idea receives confirmation of the most de- per annum, and this received the sanction of the cided kind from the fact, that the waterfall is son of Mr. Bakewell, the well known geologist. continually, though slowly, wearing away the Mr. Lyell, however, made such inquiries as rock. The common belief of the country people, satisfied him that one foot per annum was nearer therefore, is, that the fall was originally at Queens the actual rate of the retrogression. The matter, town, and will in time get back to Lake Erie, after all, must depend very much upon the nawhich will consequently be emptied, and become ture of the rock which forms the substratum at dry land.

different points. In the early part of the proGeologists have examined the district, and cess, the basis rock was of a harder kind, and fully confirm these popular observations. Our the wearing would be slower accordingly, as it countryman, Mr. Lyell, has given it his especial will in time be slower again, when the fall reattention ; and in his - Travels in North Ame- cedes beyond the point where the shale forms rica,” has introduced some curious speculations the base of the precipice. The obvious reason on the subject. It appears from the inquiries of why the Falls assume a curved or horse-shoe Mr. Hall, geologist for the state of New York, form, is the fact, that the greatest volume of water that the table-land is composed of nearly hori- is always in the centre of a stream, and this zontal strata of the Silurian formation, the incli- evidently leads to the great narrowing of the nation being from Queenstown back to Lake river channel from the fall downwards. Erie, at the rate of about twenty-five feet in a The greater elevation of the plateau towards mile. It may be remarked that the land being the north, indicates that the above-fall portion highest at the cliff above Queenstown, the fall of the river formerly occupied a higher bed. must have been considerably more lofty and There remain actual memorials of this circumgrand when at that point than it is at present. stance, in certain patches of a fluviatile alluvium, Indeed there is another circumstance to be here or river deposite, which are found close to the taken into account-namely, that the space over present fall, and in places farther down. A which the river now runs between the fall and portion of this deposit rests upon Goat Island, Queenstown, would also be an addition to the at thirty-eight or forty feet above the top of the height of the fall. We may therefore suppose fall; a terrace-like portion is deposited on each it to have been at first upwards of three hundred side of the river, at an altitude so coincident as feet high—a stupendous altitude for the descent to show that they originally formed one unof such a volume of water. What chiefly has interrupted bed. In this alluvium are found, tended to the wearing away of the channel, is united with the remains of the extinct mastodon, the peculiar arrangement of the strata at this shells of the genera Unio, Cyclas, Planorbis, place. The superficial beds are a hard lime- and others usually found in fresh water, clearly stone, calculated to wear away very slowly; proving that it is a river or lake deposit. Three but underneath these are deep beds of soft shale, similar terraces exist near by, at somewhat lower which rapidly yield to the force of the water. levels, indicating rests which the river made in The river, pouring over the limestone, makes the process of depression which necessarily little impression upon it; but, falling upon the accompanied that of recession. Mr. Lyell exshale below, it readily makes a great abyss for tended this interesting class of observations, by the reception of its maddened waters, while the discovering other patches of ancient river allu. spray, driven by the wind against the wall be vium at two several places. They contained hind, scoops out a recess in that direction, thus shells of the same genera. “ These facts," he

of the limestone above, says, “appear conclusive as to the former exand preparing it for crumbling away in consider- tension of a more elevated valley, four miles at able masses.

Such is actually the way in which least below the Falls; and at this point the old the cataract recedes. There was a great fail of river-bed must have been so high as to be capa. rock in 1815, and another in 1828, causing very ble of holding back the waters which covered considerable changes in the appearance of the all the patches of fluviatile sand and gravel, falling waters. In the year before the one last | including that of Goat Island.” He adds, “ By

taking away

the support

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