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perfectness. We derive neither pleasure nor, than it was in the days of Fox, Penn and Barencouragement from contemplating the weak- clay,-or in those of our own Pembertons, Offey, nesses-small or great-of eminently pious or or Dillwyn. Those of large experience, and entire gifted persons. So far as spots pass over the dedication, may be introduced into a liberty in the sun, his light is obscured. Our Holy Pattern Truth, which we, who have scarcely learned the was without blemish--perfect.
rudiments, cannot dare to supposé ourselves entiWe have followed Elizabeth Fry in her career, tled. But it must ever be borne in mind, that this so far as we could do so with the ocean between liberty can never, under any circumstances, lead us, for more than a quarter of a century. When out of the path of self-abasement; that which the Memoir of her Life was announced, we an- draws into the broad way, from under the cross, ticipated unmingled gratification in its perusal. is a delusion. To his own master must every We took it up, highly prejudiced in its favour. one stand or fall, and let every one particularly But after having carefully examined its pages, him who thinketh he standeth-take heed lest he we are obliged to confess that our expectations fall.* When the second volume shall appear, have not been realized. We do not think that we intend to resume our notice of the work. thorough justice is done, either to the religious
U. M. or philanthropic character of its subject. Not being members of the Society of Friends, and
For Friends Review. not appreciating the nature and the spirit and the
Spare the Birds. bearing of our Testimonies and Doctrines, it is not strange that the Editors should be unable to I have a few words to say to the public on the portray-with that lucid clearness which only a increase of insects hurtful to vegetation, and if deeply experienced individual could do, who had the Editor of the Friends' Review thinks that walked by the same rule, and minded the same things the conflicts-the soul searching bap- * To the remarks of our correspondent, on the tisms, and humiliating dispensations, into which, danger to which Friends are exposed, by frequent their extraordinarily gifted mother was intro- and intimate associations with persons whose reliduced. Her Journal was written mainly for her gious principles and habits of ihought are widely own benefit-it is remarkable for its candour different from ours, it may be added, that much and artlessness; but many of the entries should will depend upon the motives and objects which surely never have passed through the press.
lead to such associations. When the prosecution That her associations with the highest classes and Christian philanthropy, and by an apprehen
of objects, into which any are led by an enlarged of society exposed Elizabeth Fry to danger, and sion of religious duty, necessarily leads to frequent often introduced her into an atmosphere unfriend- intercourse with men whose opinions and practice ly to Quakerism, it is but reasonable to believe. exhibit little or nothing of the simplicity and selfIndeed she was sensible of it herself, as numerous denial which constitute a conspicuous characterisentries and prayers for preservation, in her tic of genuine Quakerism, there is reason to hope Journal, clearly testify. Her “limits," she
that the sense of religious obligation which leads
says, “were large,” her line of duty was a remarkably thus engaged from inhaling, from the atmosphere
to those engagements, will preserve the servants extended one; and so was that of William Penn, with which they are surrounded, any elements deRobert Barclay, and Thomas Story. Theirs structive to the precious life. Elizabeth Fry was not a contracted Quakerism, nor was that having, in her early days, run through the giddy of their cotemporaries, but a profession which circle of fashionable life, and experienced its opened to them a broad field of action into which vanity and frothiness-having herself grasped the they were unquestionably called of the Lord, and phantom, and found it air—was not very likely to in which it was their duty to labour: and while thus Hence, we may reasonably believe that she might,
be dazzled by the glitter and tinsel of the world. labouring in his fear, there was surely no reason with little danger to herself, enlist, in the extensive for them to doubt the all-sufficiency of that grace, philanthropic labours which constituted the great by which alone, through faith, the least of us can business of her life, the wealth and influence of hope to be saved. Let none, however, presume men from whose principles and habits she conupon the experience and enlarged liberty of scientiously dissented. It is indeed no easy matter others, but rather let each one mind his own what she did without frequently coming in contact
to perceive how she could have accomplished calling. We profess to be ardently attached to with the extremes of society. Vice in its lowest the doctrines, and to have in the highest estima- and most degrading appearance, and vanity in its tion, the testimonies of our Religious Society. most refined and fashionable guise, must have been Thorough Quakerism, we hold to be Christianity, often before her. Her duty required her to guard perfectly illustrated. We drew our knowledge agaivst defilement from either : but we may justly of those doctrines and testimonies from the wri- question, whether the prudence and caution which tings of early Friends—from the New Testament, from the haunts of dissipation and vice in their
require the young and inexperienced to keep aloof and the corresponding convictions of our own mind : and we would most affectionately caution prevent any unnecessary association with the dis
more degrading forms, would not almost equally our young people against the apprehension, that sipation which often appears under specious disthe Quaker's path is now one of less self-denial guise in elevated life.
journal a suitable medium, I should be glad that as some imagine, poisonous; but like the lizthey might find a place there.
ards, and nearly all the snakes of our country, That insects, hurtful to fruit, are on the in- he is perfectly harmless. Being inoffensive, he crease in the Atlantic, or older portion of these is also timid, and loves best to dwell where he is States, the most superficial observet, I suppose, least molested. He makes his home under a has discovered. The cherries, for instance, rail, a stone, or a’sod; and some farmers, apprehave become more and more imperfect from the ciating his worth, provide him a shelter (which bite or sting of insects, till, this year, the writer he is pretty sure to find and occupy,) by throwhas hardly been able to find a single pound, ing pieces of plank upon the ground in different amidst the many choice varieties in market, that parts of every cultivated field; and doubtless, had not a considerable, and, in general, much the they are richly rewarded. greater portion, thus spoiled for culinary use. But the birds are our great protectors from the Indeed, in several varieties, it was not easy to ravages of the insect race, and my object was to find a single cherry, on careful scrutiny, that put in a plea for them. Yet, while writing the was not punctured, often in two or three places; word, I feel the blood mantle the cheek at the and wherever a puncture is, there is an insect, thought, that it should be necessary to plead for in embryo, or, in esse; usually, when the fruit these delightful companions of my early dayscomes to market, the animal is in the larva or these, our fellow creatures, and, in their measure, grub state, and often found within the kernel.. equally entitled with ourselves, to the earth and Plums appear to have fared little better. The its fulness. peach and other stone fruits have suffered less It is well known that many species of this tribe hitherto in this vicinity, but a friend near Boston live chiefly, if not wholly, in their wild state, thus writes, “The rose-bug has attacked the upon insects ; but the extent of their usefulness cherries and peaches, and the latter, of which in this respect is not so well known. Few have there was promise of a good crop, are expected, any just conception of the vast number of insects to be utterly destroyed.” Wheat, maize, the required by a single pair and their offspring, dupea; forest, fruit, and ornamental trees; even ring the few months they remain with us. Did the grasses, suffer, each from its peculiar insect the farmer know that a pair of robins required enemy; for there is a great variety of these tiny for themselves and their brood a number of inspoilers,* and they have diverse habits : some sects sufficient to ravage a whole orchard, he move and feed by day, others by night only. would surely protect, and not destroy them. Generally, they are indigenous to our country; Does he see the bark of a favorite apple tree a few have been imported; but, in turn, we have bored by the woodpecker? let him not war with exported some; the pea-bug, (Bruchus pisi,) for him for that; there was a worm beneath, and he instance, was a native of N. America, and' has may be assured it has been extracted in the most been introduced with American peas into Eng
manner. land, and the south of Europe.
Some three or four summers ago, the writer, Now, as the insect tribe is very prolific, it wishing to observe more closely than he had would, without some counteracting agent, doubt- done, the habits of the little house-wren (Trogless, overrun, and ere long possess, the whole lodytes ædon) then so common, but now less so, habitable earth. Such agent has been provided, it is feared, in this city, placed a nice little box (not in man, for in the encounter he has been in his yard, against a brick wall, with a northern found utterly powerless,) in some of the quadru- aspect. This was done late in the season, (about peds, in most of the reptiles, and, especially, in the middle of the 6th month, June) and without the family of birds; many of which make them much expectation of finding a tenant that year. their prey. Among the reptiles, the toad, the A pair of wrens had already a nest, in a house lizard, and the snake, should be named for perched on a high pole, in a yard less than a their efficiency. The toad, especially, seems square from me, and the male in his wanderings admirably adapted to destroy the large number the next day discovered the new tenement. Great of nocturnal insects ; seldom moving by day, he were his demonstrations of joy; he went in, came keeps diligent watch, in the garden and field, for out, fluttered about it and was off, soon to return these nightly depredators; while the husbandman again with his mate. It was now scrutinized sleeps, these sentinels will, if permitted, guard more carefully, within and without: the perch, faithfully his crops. It is well known to many, the ridge, the pillars that ornamented its front, (yet not sufficiently known,) that the common and especially the capacity of the door for the toad is, in this way, of great benefit, to both admission of materials for a nest, all seemed to farm and garden. True, he is not, to the su- be regarded, and found satisfactory. The male perficial observer, beautiful; but so neither is he, bird frequently returned during incubation, and
busied, or amused himself, in carrying in and Naturalists have hitherto discovered about seven bringing out straws and sticks, often quite blocktimes as many distinct species of insects, as of ing up the door. vegetables, in Europe; and about six times as many In a few weeks, their first brood having bein America; i. e. 6 or 7 to one.
come fledged, and taken wing, they deserted their
old habitation, and took regular possession of the But this was a 2d brood; we must add for new; and great industry did these little artizans
12,096 display in furnishing it appropriately for their Also, for the 1st brood, while the 2d was use. Not more than a week, I think, elapsed. rearing, 4 weeks,
8,064 before it was obvious the process of incubation | Then if we suppose the parents and two · had again commenced ;-and one fine morning, broods to remain with us 4 weeks longthe latter part of the 7th month, it was quite ap- er before migration, the account will parent that some event, of great interest, had oc- stand thus: 2 broods, 4 weeks, 8,064 curred in the family of our agreeable neighbours. each,
16,128 Their assiduity had been rewarded; their nicely Parents 4 weeks,
4,032 lined nest was fully occupied by a breathing progeny; and I never saw joy, in the feathered race, Whole number for 12 weeks,
52,416 so manifest as in the male present on this occa- This estimate, which provides for a single pair sion. Darting from his house to the fence, and their offspring for 12 weeks* only, seems thence to the overhanging tree, and from branch large; yet, I doubt not, it will be found within to branch, to return in an instant to the perch at the truth, when applied to the smaller insects the door leading to his precious treasure-in a generally. By the destruction, then, of a single moment he comes forth again, his swelling emo- pair of birds, which feed on insects, we expose tions evidently seeking relief in musculer action. Our crops to the depredations of 50,000 foes! Fetching a few whirls around the territory of But this is not the whole truth. If we supsome 20 feet, without stopping to light on any pose that one half of this number of insects, or thing, he suddenly attaches himself to the up- 25,000, be females, and that this 25,000 produce right brick wall, near his dwelling; his wings 20 each during the season, the number becomes beat the wall, the chatter he had all the time (besides the parents) 500,000! But if we allow kept up becomes a sharp twitter, and he seems for each female insect 200 offspring, which is bein perfect ecstacy.
lieved to be much nearer the ordinary rate of inBut with the joy came new wants to their crease, we have 5,000,000 added to the insect household, and great was the industry of these race in one year by the destruction of a single parents in supplying them; very frequent was pair of birds !! the return of each to the nest with the needed Could the heedless youth who saunters forth morsel in its bill. What this was, I could not for with gun in hand (a trespasser at law upon every some time make out, but on careful observation field he enters) endangering the lives of his neighfound it to consist of a little spider (Pholcus at- bours, frightening the birds, and perhaps killing a lanticus, I believe,) that had greatly infested the pair-could such a one, I say, reckless as he usupremises for several years. This little, long ally is, and potent only for mischief, be made to limbed, eight eyed, animal,* occupies the shrub- appreciate these numbers, even his hand might bery and out-buildings, and loves to attach him- be staid. But this young vagrant is usually sadself to the ceiling of our rooms. I do not think ly lacking in sagacity; still, the case is not hopeit probable that their food was restricted to this less. I have had a little experience in teaching, particular insect, yet as it was the only one that and have sometimes had a dull scholar; but a abounded in the neighborhood at that time, and persevering effort at instruction, has, almost alas I never saw them appear to have a different ways been rewarded. I would have our tyro kind in the mouth, I apprehend it was their first count 1000; when he had done that, he chief reliance.
should count 24,000 more; and now being told I frequently counted for ten successive min. this was one half the number, he would have utes the number of times these parents returned some notion of what the whole might be. To with food to their young; it was from four to he should be made to count 100,000, and then 9
comprehend the 5,000,000 will be more difficult; seven, and sometimes more, within that period. Now if we take the lowest number, four, for ten times 100,000 more; and now, if told he has minutes, it will give 24 for every hour; and if we 1,000,000, he will (unless very dull) have some allow 12 hours to the day-which is considera comprehension of what 5,000,000 means. He bly within their working time-we shall have may find the task a little irksome, but if his 288 insects for each day; and if we allow 28 vicious habits be reformed, it will be profitable to days for the fledging of the brood it will give as him, and greatly beneficial to the community. the consumption of the young for 4 weeks, 8,064
INDEX. add to this į as many more for the parents, 4,032
Philadlephia, 9th month, 1847. and we have for the family 4 weeks, 12,096 * It is not forgotten that the 12 weeks constitute
less than a quarter of the whole year; but as they
may have other habits and other food in other The naturalist does not regard spiders as insects, climes, we leave our friends of those regions to but the people-and I suppose the birds—do. note their habits, and to hold up the ægis of pro
For Friends' Review:
arrive in the conclusion at a satisfactory result,
sanctioned, as they most certainly believed, by PHILADELPHIA, TENTH MONTH 2, 1847. divine authority. The decision, in this case, was
attained by the instrumentality of men who were It is designed to send the succeeding numbers deeply experienced in the work to which they were of this paper to subscribers only.
called. The reader will find in the present number an
When we issued our first number, a month ago, extract from a MS. history of North America. It we had not half a dozen subscribers; and we canhas been generally supposed, even by persons of not avoid the feeling of gratification when we now extensive historical information, that the African glance over the list. We would, however, again slave trade, the opprobrium of the civilized world, respectfully solicit our friends to continue their exowed its vitality, if not its origin, to the encourage- ertions, and transmit, as promptly as may be, the ment given to it by Las Casas, the bishop of Chiapa. result of their labours. There are yet, of course, One writer, however, the Abbe Gregoire, has stout- many neighborhoods from which no intelligence ly denied that this benevolent prelate ever gave has been received, and from which numerous adany countenance to that odious commerce. It is ditions to our subscription book are anticipated. apprehended, that the extract before us, places the It is scarcely necessary to say that we need and conduct of Las Casas in its proper light; and may desire an extended list of subscribers; and to obtain therefore be acceptable to the lovers of historical them, we must rely upon the kind interest and attruth.
tention of our friends at a distance. Remittances The article on birds, from the pen of a valued will be made to the Publisher. correspondent, we trust will prove interesting to our readers. It is greatly to be wished that the value of this part of the creation could be fully ap
Las Casas. preciated by the community in general. The wan
From a MS. History of North America. ton cruelty which has almost exterminated the Near the end of Ferdinand's reign, the quesfeathered race, in many parts of the country, is tion whether the native Indians could be lawunquestionably as impolitic as it is barbarous, fully retained in slavery, was brought under They appear to be the agents prepared by a bene
serious discussion. ficent Providence to keep down the race of worms the extension of the christiani religion, among
It was mentioned in a former chapter that and insects which prey upon our fields and orchards. the heathen nations of the New World, was one Policy, no less than humanity, demands their pre- of the great advantages expected from the disservation from the gun of the sportsman.
coveries of Columbus, and that the conversion of In our account of the Yearly Meetings, it is in the natives of Hispaniola, was a primary object tended to pursue the course adopted in our preced in the view of Isabella. When Ovando, in the ing number, in relation to those of New York and beginning of 1502, sailed for that island, a New England; to use the printed minutes, when number of ecclesiastics accompanied him, who such are issued, in case they can be obtained with were designed to instruct the natives in the out improper delay; and thus give currency to the tholomew Las Casas, a native of Seville, who
christian faith. Among his attendants was Barnarratives of the meetings, as stated by themselves afterwards rendered himself famous by his laand in the case of those which do not print their bours in behalf of the Indians, and became unminutes, to obtain, if practicable, an account from deservedly notorious by his countenance of the some members of the meetings, on whose correct- African slave-trade. The father of Las Casas, ness entire reliance may be placed. The account accompanied Columbus to Hispaniola in 1493, of Ohio Yearly Meeting, which appears in the and having amassed a considerable estate, represent number, was obtained from Friends who turned to Seville in 1498. The young Las attended, and related what they saw and heard. Casas was placed at the University of Salamanca, In regard to the diversity of sentiment, which, him by his
father. When Isabella ordered the
where he was served by an Indian slave given as journalists, we are compelled to notice, we may Indians who had been carried to Spain as slaves observe, that unity of design does not always imply to be sent back to their own country, the slave coincidence of judgment—men equally desirous of of Las Casas was liberated with the rest. This supporting sound doctrine and correct practice, circumstance appears to have fixed the attenmay disagree in the choice of means. Even among tion of this amiable young man intensely upon the apostles and elders at Jerusalem, on one occa- the subject of Indian slavery. When, at the age sion, there was much disputing. Under the preva- of twenty-eight, he accompanied Ovando to the lence of a Christian spirit, they were favoured to New World, and saw the oppression to which
the natives were subjected, his zeal was kindled feudal service, the laborers thus employed being to the highest pitch.* And in this he was not required to serve during a stated part of their alone. The ecclesiastics who were charged time, and to be at liberty during the rest. This with instructing the natives, soon discovered distribution of Indians, who were nominally that the cruelties of the Spaniards, and particu- free, among the colonists, as laborers either in the larly the burden of slavery, rendered their in- cultivation of the land or in the working mines, structions almost totally unavailing. The Do- assumed the name of repartimientos; and became minicans took the lead in remonstrating against intolerably oppressive. What portion of time the prevailing system of slavery, as contrary to these Indians were required, under the adminisnatural justice, and to the principles of chris- tration of Columbus, to labour for the Spaniards, tianity, as well as sound policy. But the habits is not clearly explained. When Bobadilla asand sentiments of the people at large were op- sumed the government of the island, he caused an posed to the doctrines thus offered to their ac- enumeration of the natives to be made, reduced ceptance. Some ecclesiastics, particularly of them into classes, and distributed them among the Franciscan order, showed an inclination to the colonists, according to his favour or caprice. favour the opinions of the laity. They, how- From the account of this matter given by the ever, did not undertake to meet the question on early historians, I infer that under, the governchristian grounds. The sophistry of later times, ment of Columbus, the Caziques were required which, in the hands of some professed ministers to furnish a stated number of labourers, whom of the gospel, has attempted to enlist the sacred they might select from among their subjects acwritings in the service of slavery, does not ap- cording to their discretion; but that under Bopear to have belonged to those Franciscans. badilla, all the natives capable of labour were They defended, or attempted to defend, the sla- compelled to serve the colonists during a part very of the Indians, on the principles of ex- of their time. This service was exacted with pediency. They alleged that it was impossible rigour, and rendered exceedingly grievous. to carry on any improvements in the colony, The accounts of Bobadilla's oppression, which unless the Spaniards had the power of compel- reached the Spanish sovereigns, roused the inling the natives to labour. The Dominicans, dignation of Isabella ; and when Ovando was disregarding these interested considerations, re- sent to supersede him, the Indians were declarfused to admit to the usual privileges of church ed free,-their labours not to be compulsive exmembership, such of their countrymen as held cept in the royal service; and for these they the natives in servitude.
were to be punctually paid. At length both parties sent delegates to Spain, Ovando, in 1503, represented to the soveto submit their respective opinions to the deci- reigns that the entire freedom granted to the sion of the king; and Ferdinand empowered a natives was attended with consequences ruinous committee of his privy counsel, assisted by some to the colony; that they were lazy and improof the most eminent civilians in Spain, to hear vident, and kept aloof from the Spainards and and examine the case. After a long discussion, from religious instruction. The representation the opinion of the Dominicans prevailed, and that without compulsion those people could not the Indians were declared free, and entitled to be converted to christianity, had its influence all the natural rights of man.t But this was with Isabella'; and orders were given to Ovando merely a theoretical triumph, for the practice to spare no pains to attach the Indians to the in the island continued unchanged.
Spanish nation, and to the Catholic religion ; to The slavery then existing in Hispaniola, ap- make them labour moderately, if essential for pears to have been of two kinds. Prisoners of their own good, but to temper authority with war, among whom were some natives of the persuasion and kindness, and to pay them fairly Carribee islands, and the few negroes who had for their services. been imported, were held as absolute slaves. Under the profession of obedience to this in-. But the system of repartimientos was probably junction, the system of repartimientos was renmore extensive, destructive and oppressive than dered more rigid than before. The services exundisguised slavery.
acted were intolerably severe; the term of serThe insurrection of Roldan in 1499, and the vitude extended to six or eight months in the reluctant assent of Columbus to his demands are year; the wages allowed were scarcely of any noticed in a former chapter. One of the ar-value ; the food with which they were supplied rangements then made with Roldan and his was totally inadequate to their support ; and as followers, required the Caziques in their vici- the labourers were often separated several days' nity, instead of paying tribute to the admiral, to journey from their families, numbers of them furnish a number of Indians to cultivate the perished, when their term of service was exlands of the colonists. This was a species of pired, in their attempt to reach their homes.*
Such was the oppression under the adminis* Irving, Vol. 2, p. 320. | Roberston.