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vered Pallas, and in 1803, Harding, of Lilien- , have been of so much importance to astronomy, thel, detected a third, which received the name did not fail to notice, that the distances of the of Juno; and in 1807, Dr. Olbers added Vesta planets from each other are nearly in a doubling to the catalogue. After a lapse of about forty ratio from the sun outward to the planet Mars. years, Astrea, Iris, Hebe, and Flora, have been It was not marked with that mathematical exunited to the group. The second discovery of actness which would entitle it to the rank of a Dr. Olbers was aided by a conjecture that these planetary law, yet it seemed too remarkable for planets were the fragments of a broken one; and, a merely fortuitous position; moreover, if a in view of this, his search was directed to a planet were supposed to occupy the gap bepoint in the heavens, in which, agreeably to his tween Mars and Jupiter, this regular gradation reasoning, the planet had been rent asunder ; and would extend to the confines of the system. it was in this region that his efforts were success. This interval was nearly six times as great as ful. This triumph strengthened the conjecture the next preceding one, and Kepler surmised of Olbers, and the Olbersian hypothesis, as it has that a planet might circulate unseen between the since been called, has been ably defended by orbit of Mars and Jupiter. The discovery of Dr. Brewster and others, while those who deal the planet Uranus, at a distance from Saturn, in more largely in mathematical deduction, or have strict conformity to the rule, gave an additional a more lively faith in the stability of worlds, test to the seeming law of distances,* and led have treated it with indifference, or denounced Prof. Bode, of Berlin, then a most active astroit as a sort of magnificent dream. Sir John nomer, to investigate more clearly a subject Herschell has called it one of those visionary which seemed to involve so much consequence speculations in which astronomers occasionally to science. The result of this inquiry was the and harmlessly indulge. The recent discovery, conviction that a planet must exist between however, of four additional members of this Mars and Jupiter, and Baron de Zack calculated group, and the actual dismemberment of a celes- the orbit of the unknown body, sixteen years betial body while traversing the heavens within fore the discovery of the Asteroids, and his disthe grasp of telescopic vision, have given to this tance and period correspond in an admirable hypothesis a grave character, and what appeared manner, with the mean distances and periods of to be merely a visionary speculation, has as- these small bodies. sumed, at least, the semblance of demonstration ; That these four planets should thus circulate and the time may not be distant when the rival at nearly equal distances from the sun, oecupy. geometers of the age will not only establish the ing the position which analogy had assigned to a fact, but determine the period and the place of single planet, presented a new anomaly, of no this appalling event—an attempt, which, though it ordinary importance, and the recent discovery of may be somewhat bolder than that of Adams as many more, certainly will justify the conjecand Le Verrier, can scarcely be less successful. ture that these eight bodies of comparatively
From a conviction of the great probability that diminutive size, are parts of a single planet, these eight planets are the larger fragments of a which some force has burst asunder. But this, dismembered body, that the phenomena of of itself, would be conjecture only. meteorites, shooting stars, and fire-balls, are but If these bodies are the fragments of a broken the smaller fragments of this rupture, that comets world, they should revolve about the sun at nearly even, numerous as we must suppose them to be, equal distances, because the external forces, though are merely detached and extremely dilated por- somewhat affected, are not materially changed. tions of the atmosphere of the same body, I pro- This is found to be true, as the following results, pose to review some of the principal arguments relative to the first four, sufficiently indicate. on which the theory rests; and, though it may The distance of the earth being one, the distance weaken our faith in the stability of worlds, of Pallas will be
2.791. cannot diminish our confidence in the wisdom Ceres
2.765. of that being whose ways are inscrutable to Juno
2.657. finite minds.
2.373. The sagacious Kepler, whose planetary laws* Again, if the theory be good, the effect of an
explosion from a force within itself, would maniThe laws here alluded to are 1, That the primary festly be to change the angle of the paths of the planets revolve round the sun in elliptical orbits, having the sun in one of the foci. 2. That the vector radius, or the line from the centre sophy, usually styled the Principia, from the first word
work-the mathematical principles of natural philoof the sun to that of the planet, always describes of the Latin title.-Ed. equal areas in equal times, in whatever part of the orbit the planet may be.
* This passage may be rendered clearer, by stating 3. That the squares of the times in which any two that, if we divide the distance between the sun and planets perform their revolutions round the sun, bear earth into ten equal parts, the distances of the planets to each other the same ratio as the cubes of their mean will be nearly thus: Mercury 4- Verus 4+3=7. distances from that body.
Earth 4+3X2l=10. Mars 4+3x2=16. Ceres 4 These laws are among the primary propositions, de +3X23=28. Jupiter 4+3X24352. Saturn 4+3x duced from physical principles, of Newton's celebrated | 25==100. Uranus 4+3x26=196.
fragments from the plane of the path of the ori- | not find in this the constituents of comets ? Are
family of shooting stars and comets belong to Pallas,
this wonderful event an event which we are Ceres,
compelled to acknowledge may occur again. Vesta,
Our own planet unquestionably contains within In obedience to the same law, we should itself the means of its own destruction, manireason that the smaller fragments would describe fested by earthquakes, and mitigated by volcaorbits of greater eccentricity than the larger ones. This is also confirmed by observation. Origi- It certainly is not easy for language to describe mting in one point, their nodes should nearly an event of such magnitude. Indeed, the imagicoincide. This is found to be true.
nation fails in contemplating a scene of such If a perfect sphere of solid matter be suddenly unspeakable sublimity and grandeur; and equally rent asunder, it would not follow that the frag- feeble are all our attempts to comprehend the ments would also be spheres; it would be much purpose of Omnipotence. It becontes us, how. more conformable with what we daily witness ever, in all humility, to ascribe to the Creator of about us, to suppose that they would be masses worlds the power to sustain them; and while of irregular shape. Of this there are strong “ a breath may make them as a breath has indications in the changeable character of the made," to remember that events, inscrutable to light of the asteroids, which is observed to us, may yet belong to the harmony of creation. increase and diminish alternately.
W. M. Collecting all these circumstances, it is diffi- Nantucket, 12th mo., 1847. cult to resist the evidence that, at some period, a planet of the larger class revolved about the
CAPITAL PUNISHMENT. sun, at the distance of about two hundred and fifty millions of miles—that this planet, by a
The most serious and intense reflection has force within itself, has been broken to pieces- brought my mind to the conclusion, not only that the larger fragments, eight of which only that capital punishment fails in any repressive have been seen, continue to describe orbits but effect, but that it promotes the crime. The little dissimilar to that of the original mass and cause is not very easy to discover, and still more to each other—that an inconceivable quantity of difficult to explain; but I argue from effects ;atoms are still revolving and far more widely and when I see them general in their occurrence, divergent, in accordance with the obvious effect after the same event, I must believe that event to of the explosive force and its manifest action, as be the efficient cause which produces them, exhibited by the larger fragments. These atoms although I may not be able to trace exactly their then, various in size, and infinite in number, by connection. This difficulty is particularly felt their great eccentricity, coming occasionally in deducing moral effects from physical causes, within the sphere of the earth's attraction, have or arguing from the eration of moral causes their projectile force gradually diminished, and on human actions. The reciprocal operations they are finally precipitated upon the earth's sur- of the mind and body must always be a mystery face. This conclusion is not a little strengthened to us, although we are daily witnesses of their by the fact, that the constituents of those bodies, effects. In nothing is this more apparent, or which from time to time have fallen upon the the cause more deeply hidden, than in that proearth, are no where found upon the earth in the pensity which is produced on the mind 10 imisame combination ; thus indicating a foreign tate that which has been strongly impressed on origin. Their sameness, also, the little variety the senses, and that frequently in cases where of materiel which has always marked the cha- the first impression must be that of painful apracter of these bodies, indicate a common origin. prehension. It is one of the earliest develop
Following out the law of divergency and ments of the understanding in childhood. Aided eccentricity, as manifested in the smaller portion by other impulses, it conquers the sense of pain, of the solid parts of the planet, how widely and the natural dread of death. The tortures diffused and scattered must be its atmosphere! inflicted on themselves by the fakirs of India, Two of the asteroids appear to be surrounded the privations and strict penance of some mowith an atmosphere ; two others appear to be nastic orders of Christians, and the self-immolaentirely destitute of that appendage. May we tion of the Hindoo widows, may be attributed,
in part, to religion,-in part to the love of dis- they have assumed the shape of civil war, actinction and fear of shame; but no one, nor all companied by all its horrors, those who do not of these united, except in the rare cases of a hero fall in the field are subjected to something like a or a saint, could produce such extraordinary trial before their lives are sacrificed. Murder, effects, without that spirit of imitation to which on those occasions, arrays itself in the spotless I have alluded. The lawgiver, therefore, should ermine of justice, covers itself with her robes, mark this, as well as every other propensity of mounts her sacred seat, borrows her holy lanhuman nature; and beware how he repeats, in guage, adopts her forms, calls its iniquitous his punishments, the very acts he wishes to sentence the judgment of the law; and even repress, and makes them examples to follow when it stretches forth its bloody hand for exerather than to avoid.
cution, it wields her own weapon, and inflicts Another reason is drawn from the uncertainty on the innocent victim no other punishment than of its infliction,-an uncertainty which reduces that which previous laws had provided for guilt. the chances of the risk to less than that which Livingston. is, in many instances, voluntarily incurred in many pursuits of life. There is no point in the argument, on which
TREATMENT OF THE INSANE. stronger reasoning and more persuasive authority The various branches of the mathematics and could be produced, than on this, which has more natural science, furnish the most useful class of than once been necessarily introduced; for it subjects on which to employ the minds of the connects itself with every other. From the insane; and they should, as much as possible, operation of the earliest written laws, of which be induced to pursue one subject steadily. Any history gives us any account, down to the pre- branch of knowledge with which the patient has sent day, it has been invariably observed, by been previously acquainted, may be resumed all who take the trouble to think, that the inexe- with greater ease; and his disposition to pursue cution of penal laws was in exact proportion to it will be encouraged by the competency which their severity. Those of Draco have become he is able to exhibit. proverbial for this last quality; and their cruelty I met with a striking instance of the advanhas been generally supposed a sufficient reason tage of attention to this point, some years ago. for their abolition by Solon. But the fact is, It was related to me by a person of great rethat they were abolished, not so much by Solon, spectability, who was himself the subject of the as by the impossibility of carrying them into case. He stated that, a few years before that execution. When the stealing of an apple in- time, his mind had been greatly depressed withcurred the punishment of death, what citizen out any apparent cause. The most dismal would accuse-what witness would testify, thoughts continually haunted his mind, and he what assembly of the people would convict, - found the greatest difficulty in confining his nay, what executioner would be found to present attention, for the shortest time, to one subject. the poisoned cup ? We are accordingly told He felt entirely indifferent to his business and expressly, that these laws were abolished, not his family, and, of course, he neglected them. by a formal decree, but by the tacit and un- It was with great difficulty he was induced to recorded consent of the Athenians. I make no take sufficient food to support life. His body quotations from modern writers on penal law to became emaciated, and his mind more and more this point, for there is not one who has not given enfeebled. his testimony in favour of the position I have In this state, as he was one day musing upon taken; and yet, by a most singular incongruity, his miserable condition, he perceived by the each of them has a favourite crime to which he faint glimmerings of remaining reason, the still thinks it applicable.
worse state to which he must be reduced, if he All nations, even those the best organized, are continued to indulge his gloomy reflections and subject to political disorders, during which the habi:s. Alarmed with the prospeci of the future, violent passions that are excited avail themselves he resolved to exert the power which he still of every pretext for their indulgence; and par possessed, to control his unhappy dispositions, ties, animated with the rage of civil discord, and to regain the habit of attention. For this mutually charge each other with the worst in- purpose, he determined immediately to apply tentions and blackest crimes; but even in the himself to mathematics, with which he had been hottest warfare of party rage, the destruction of well acquainted in his youth, and also to adopt a riial faction or a dangerous leader is seldom a more liberal regimen. attempted, but by the imputation of some new The first attempt to go through the easiest crime : new laws are not made on such occa- problem, cost him indescribable labour and pain. sions, but the existing laws are perverted and But he persisted in the endeavour; the difficulty misapplied ; new punishments are not in ented, of fixing his attention gradually lessened; he but those already known are rigorously enforced 0. ercame his tendency to abstinence, and very against the innocent. This is the usual sale of shortly recovered the use of his faculties and things in all intestine commotions, and even after his former temper of mind.
Perhaps few persons in the situation which I to be his bride, and his wife. And likewise, have described, would have had the courage to the saide Margarett did solemnly declare that, form such resolutions, and still fewer the fortitude in the everlastinge power of the mighty God, to perform them. The case, however, certainly and in the unalterable word, and in the presence points out what may possibly be done, and how of God, His Angells and his holy assembly, she important it is, in a curative point of view, to tooke the saide George Fox to be her husband, encourage the patient in steady mental pursuit.-unto which marriage, many livinge testimonies Tuke.
were borne in the sence of the power, and pre
sence of the livinge God, manifested in the said From the British Friend,
assembly; of which we whose names are here
subscribed are witnesses. A COPY OF GEORGE fox's MARRIAGE CERTIFICATE. These are to signify unto all whom this may
John Rowe, William Yeamans, Thomas concern, that on the eighteenth day of the eighth Lower, George Roberts, George Whitehead, month, in the year one thousand, six hundred Charles Lloyd, Thomas Gouldney, Dennis Holsixty-nine, George Fox and Margarett ffell, pro- lister, John Moone, John Wilkinson, Morgan pounded their intentions of joininge together in Wilkins, Fre. Rogers, Thomas North, Amos the honourable marriage, in the covenant of God Stoddart, Thomas Briggs, Thomas Salthouse, in Mens meetinge, at Broadmead, within the Robb. Widder, Leonard Fell
, Charles Jones, Citty of Bristoll, (having before made mention John Hone, Nathaniel Day, William Fayland, of such their intentions to several ffriends,) on Thomas Callowhill, Erazmus Dole, John Wear, the behalf of which there were several testimo
Nicho. Jordan, Charles Haword, David Simnies given, both by the children and relations of monds, Jeremiah Hignell, George Gough, John the said Margarett
, then present, and several Higgins, John Dendo, Charles Marshall, Miles others, in the power of the Lord, both of Men Dickson, William Rogers, John Baker, John and Women, declaring their satisfaction, and Watts, Thomas Bourne, John Dowell, George approbation of their declared intention of mar- Phipps, Thomas Gordon, John Hardiman, Marriage. And likewise at another meetinge both garet Rone, Issabel Yeamans, Mary Lower, of Men and Women, at the place aforesaide, on
Sarah ffell, Susan Fell, Rachel Fell, Bridgett the twenty-first day of the month and year Hollister, Mary Gouldney, Mary Prince, Hester aforesaide, the said "George Fox and Margarett Wickens, Margarett Risse, Martha Fisher, Eliza ffell
, did againe publish their intention of join- Rogers, Susanna Pearson, Barbara Bladgen, inge together in the honourable marriage in the Mary Morgan, Elizabeth Pyott, Joane Hyley, covenant of God, unto which, there were againe Ann Jones, Hannah Salter, Jane Rogers, Elizamany livinge testimonies borne by the relations beth Milner, Elizabeth Shewar, Mary Warband ffriends then present, both of Men and Wo- field, Margarett Thomas, Joyce Warren, Ann
And the same intentions of Marriage be- Speed, Sarah Moone, Mary North, Magdainge againe published by Dennis Hollister at len Love, Ann Jordan, Joane Dickson, Mary our public Meetinge-placé aforesaide, on the two Foarde, Ann Callowhill
, Liddia Jordan, Ann and twentyeth day of the month and year afore- Gancliffe, Jane Bathe, Elizabeth Dowell, Susan said, and then againe, a public testimony was Freeman, Rebecca Jennings, Susanna Pearson, given to the same, that it was of God who had jun., Katherine Evans, Mary Baldwin, Sarah brought it to passe.
Godly, Elinor Maide, Rebecka Howell, DeboAnd for the full accomplishment of the afore- rah Wither, Sarah Cann, Francis Maynard, saide proposal, and approved intention, at a pub- Ruth Marsh. . licke meetinge both of men and women ffriends appointed on purpose for the same thinge, at the place aforesaide, and on the twenty-seventh
FREE PRODUCE STORE IN NEW YORK. day of the month and year aforesaide, according It gives us great satisfaction to be able to anto the law and ordinance of God, and the exam- nounce that our friends Lindley M. Hoag and ple and good order of His people, mentioned in George Wood, have associated, in partnership, the Scriptures of Truth, who tooke each other to keep a store in the city of New York, for before witnesses, and the Elders of the people, the sale of the productions of free labour, exas Laban appointed a meetinge, at the marriage clusively; and that having rented a commodious of Jacob, and as a meetinge was appointed on house, No. 377 Pearl Street, they are now purpurpose when Boaz and Ruth tooke each other, chasing their stock, and can already meet a conand also as it was in Canaan, where Christ and siderable demand. To the members of New his disciples went to a marriage, &c. The saide York Yearly Meeting, this will be pleasing and George Fox did solemnly, in the presence of important information, and not to this class God, and us his people, declare, that he tooke alone. We rejoice in knowing there are others the saide Margarett ffell in the everlasting power who will gladly avail themselves of the facilities and covenant of God which is from everlasting thus afforded, to avoid supporting slavery. But to everlasting, and in the honourable marriage, that Yearly Meeting having "fully approved”
and “ transmitted to the subordinate meetings” has been much suffering among the poor, many for careful examination and serious considera- of whom were driven from their homes by the tion, an official document clearly recognising rising waters, glad to escape with their lives ; the correctness of the position, that “the market and some idea may be formed of the general for slave produce makes slavery," and that it distress, when it is known that, at Cincinnati, is a serious matter to be the customers in this the river was fifty-four feet and a half above lowmarket,” the obligation seems really incumbent water mark. The occasion gave rise to a numupon Friends, to see to it that their lives in this ber of instances of noble generosity, which are respect are in accordance with the principles noted in the Cincinnati papers : they have acknowledged. We would tenderly, T. & J. W. Gaff, millers, of Aurora, had seyet earnestly, press this view of the subject veral hundred barrels of flour on hand, for which upon their attention.
they were offered $5 per barrel, by a man who, in We are unwilling to admit a doubt into our view of the prospective want of provisions, inminds, that the efforts made by the Managers of tended to speculate in the article. T. & J. W. the Free Produce Association of Friends in Gaff refused the offer, and turning to their clerk, New York, to aid in opening the Store, will be ordered him to give a barrel to any poor man who practically appreciated by their brethren, or that needed it. And in this way dozens of barrels the highly esteemed individuals, who are willing were given to the necessitous without charge. to engage in the business, will receive kind en- At Lawrenceburgh, William E. Craft, Esq., couragement and liberal support.-Non-Slave caused it to be proclaimed to the houseless and holder.
needy, “ Here are my warehouse and store
here are flour and meat-come and take what From the Pennsylvania Inquirer.
you need.” And his clerks dealt out to them
as they came. Lewis & Eichelberger caused REVIEW OF THE WEATHER FOR THE YEAR 1847. the same thing to be made known concerning
The average temperature of the whole year flour at their mill, and gave away to the destiwas 53 deg., viz: at sunrise 48 deg., at 2 P. M. tute and unfortunate more than 100 barrels. 59 deg., and 52 deg. at 10 P. M. The average Barr & Febiger had a number of their hogs temperature of the last 50 years has been about slaughtered, cut up, and given to all who needed 51 deg., the highest being 54 deg., and the lowest and wished.-Presb. 49 deg. So that the past year has been above the average. The highest temperature has been 94 deg., and the lowest 111; the former on the
A mild answer to an angry man, like water 28th of the 6th month, and the latter was on the cast upon the fire, abateth his heat, and from an 13th of the 1st month-variation 814 deg. The enemy he will become thy friend. - Economy of
Human Life. greatest variation in the course of one month in temperature, was 51 deg., in the 11th month, (Nov.,) and the least do. was 32 deg., in the 8th month, (Aug.) The maximum monthly average
THOUGHTS ON THE DEATH OF A FRIEND. was 75 deg., in the 7th month, (July) and the least do., was 33} deg., in the 1st month (Janu- What painful sorrow clothed the day,
When the dear loved one past away ary.)
To Christ, her rest; The general direction of the wind was as
To join the choir in praise to Him, follows:
With cherubim and seraphim,
And angels biest.
There to cast down each royal gem,
With every crown and diadem-
Fit offerings There were 203 days clear, and 162 were To him whose robe is dyed in blood, cloudy. There was rain on 135 days, and snow Whose “ Name is called the word of God,”
“ The King of Kings.”
How gently she resigned her breath,
How calmly met approaching death,
He had no sting!
The grave had lost its victory,
Borne on faith's wing.
Chastened and taught by sovereign grace,
She early sought her Saviour's face river, at almost every point, from Pittsburgh to
With all her heart: its mouth, aud at various places on its tributaries,
Her life to wisdom's race was given, have been very great, and the aggregate loss is And from a treasury in heaven immense. As might have been expected, there
She would not part.
For Friends' Review.