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any more forth—all holy praises be given to the about 14}. Of those discharged, 72 boys and 24 Lord, and to the Lamb forever and ever. girls were indentured-nearly half the boys to

" Finally, dear Friends, and brethren, be strong farmers, and the remainder to mechanical trades. in the Lord, and in the power of his might, and There were 145 boys, and 39 girls remaining in the God of peace be with you all, stablish, the house on the first day of the present year. The strengthen, settle you upon the rock of in full and perfect unity with God, and one with girls are employed in cooking, making and mendanother.”The Friend.

ing the boys clothes, &c., and the boys in bookbinding, making razor-strops, &c. The reforma

tion of the juvenile delinquent is the great object FRIENDS' REVIEW. of the House of Refuge. The salutary influences

which are constantly operating upon the inmates, PHILADELPHIA, FIRST MONTH 29, 1848.

bringing them under wholesome restraint, and

accustoming them to habits of industry, are obviThe narrative, of which a part is published in ously producing much good, and will doubtless the present number, relative to the martyrdom of be the means of reclaiming many from the paths John Huss and Jerome of Prague, beginning rather of ruin, into which their own waywardness or the abruptly, it may be proper to remind our readers bad example of parents had introduced them. The that, at the time to which this narrative applies, expenses of the institution were about $15,000, the professors of Christianity in general, those of during the year 1847, and the value of the boys' the Greek church excepita, acknowledged the labour something inore than $5,200. A lot of

A claim of the Roman pontiff to the character of about eleven acres, in the vicinity of Girard Coluniversal Bishop and Vicar of Christ upon the earth. lege, has been purchased, on which a Refuge for But this claim had been considerably shaken by coloured children is about to be erected ; and will the simultaneous existence of three popes, one in no doubt soon be completed. Italy, another in France, and a third in Spain, whence each of them pronounced the ban of ex- COLOURED ORPHANS' Asylum, New York.—The communication against his opponent and support- eleventh report of the managers of this institution ers. This schism and the glaring disorders which has been recently received at this office. In the had been introduced into the professing church, course of the past winter the asylum was visited occasioned the calling of the celebrated council of by measles, which, acting upon children of scrofuConstance in 1414. It is pronounced the most lous habits, eventually consigned an unusual numnumerous and brilliant assemblage of the kind that ber to the grave. The condition of the Asylum was ever convened. There were present, one of reduced the managers to the necessity of exthe three popes, John 23d, who had convoked the cluding all applicants for admission who were not council, the patriarchs of Contantinople, Grado of good constitution. To close the doors against and Antioch, twenty-two cardinals, twenty arch- these homeless and friendless sufferers, for the bishops, ninety-two bishops, one hundred and very reason that rendered their condition more twenty-four abbots, one thousand eight hundred of worthy of commiseration, was exceedingly painful the inferior clergy, numerous doctors of science to the conductors. It was, therefore, concluded to and masters of arts; as likewise the graduates of undertake the erection of an additional building to the universities of Paris, Cologne, Orleans, Vienna, furnish the means of separating the diseased from and others; about one thousand six hundred the healthy inmates. An appeal is made to the princes, nobles, counts and knights with their public for pecuniary assistance in the accomplishretinues.* Such was the council before which ment of this beneficent work. the Bohemian teacher was summoned, ostensibly As coloured children are not allowed to partake to answer for his doctrines, but actually to be con- of all the assistance furnished to those of our own demned without permission to defend himself or colour, and from the situation in which many of his opinions.

them are obliged to live, the orphans among them

are more frequently subject to scrofulous diseases The twentieth annual report of the Philadelphia than the children of the whites, it is particularly House of Refuge has been recently published, important that provision, adequate to their necessifrom which we learn that the average number of ties, should be made for their reception and supboys in the institution during the past year was port. 149, and that of girls 46; the ages of the boys

Amidst the variety of wretchedness which exwhen admitted averaged about 14 years—the girls ists in such a city as New York, there is probably

none more deplorable than the condition of colourSee Kohlrausch's history of Germany. ed orphans. Consigned to degradation and want,

80 years.

those youthful afflicted outcasts are too often left, instruction, by no means creditable to that printo pine in sickness in some wretched tenement, or cipality. damp and unwholesome cellar, with few or none

In Scotland considerable interest has been exto pity or relieve them.

cited by the question, whether others than mem.

bers of the established church shall be eligible Died, —On the 15th inst.. at his residence, Lon- to professorships in their colleges. It is supdon Grove, Chester county, Pennsylvania, WILLIAM posed that the influence of the « Free Church" Bailey, a valuable member and minister, belong- will be sufficient to remove the restriction. ing to New Garden Monthly Meeting-aged about No little excitement has been occasioned by

a letter from a Roman Catholic archbishop in In Philadelphia, on the 25th inst., SARAH, Ireland, in which he appears to justify the priests the widow of John Cooper, in the 68th year of her in denouncing in their places of worship certain age, a member of the Northern District Monthly obnoxious individuals by name; a course which Meeting

in one instance at least is said to have been fol.

lowed by the assassination of the proscribed LITERARY AND RELIGIOUS INTELLIGENCE party. The practice is defended by the examBY THE CAMBRIA.

ple of certain "early Christian Fathers” in deThe second volume of the Memoir of Eliza- nouncing the vengeance of Heaven against perbeth Fry has been issued from the London press. secuting pagans or heretics. Private letters speak of it as a most interesting volume. A Memoir of that eminent minister of our re

Inp is the North American Review. ligious society, David Sands, is about to appear

JOHN HUSS AND JEROME OF PRAGUE. in England. It is understood that the papers in The meeting of the Council of Constance possession of his descendants in this country drew nigh, and Huss was summoned to appear have been used in the composition of the work. before it.

Great excitement has been occasioned amongst Huss was confined to his bed by sickness the members of the Established Church by the when his summons to the Council was brought nomination of Dr. Hampden to a bishopric, to him. He started up at once, threw on his his appointment being opposed by a majority clothes, seized his papers, and seemed about to of the Episcopal Bench and many others on the prepare for the journey, as if he had forgotten ground of his holding rationalistic views. That ihai November was yet so far off. “Do you fearful German heresy which substitutes the not see, he cried to a bystander, “ that this news weak and fallible conclusions of the human in- has made me well again ?" But he found his tellect upon sacred things for a Divine revela- friends at Prague in a very different frame of tion, may well excite the alarm of all sober mind. They saw slight cause, indeed, for joy thinking men.

Dr. Hampden, however, denies in the exposure of a beloved friend and revered the charge; and his friends allege that his offence instructor to almost certain death. That Huss consists in tracing the phraseology of all creeds himself began by degrees, as the fever of enthuto the Scholastic Divinity-refusing to condemn siasm abated, to comprehend the full extent of any for disliking metaphysical distinctions pro- the danger, is apparent from letters written to vided they believe in Scripture truth expressed in his friends just before his departure. In one of Scripture terms, and discrediting the “Fathers” these, addressed to the Bohemians, he speaks of as expressing themselves in the philosophical his enemies in the Council as being more nulanguage of their age. An important result merous than those of Christ had been, and prays of the controversy, which is conducted with that God will enable him to face them without much warmth, may perhaps be a more thorough fear, temptation, imprisonment, and the pains of a examination of the claims of Episcopacy to be cruel death. His enemies, too, had made their a scriptural institution. An accession to the calculations of chances, and were quite content ranks of the Dissenters, it is supposed, may to leave him, without further molestation at home, grow out of this difficulty.

to the tender mercies of the council. Two of Another question connected with religious the bitterest among them, Stephen Paletz and topics is the proposed repeal of the acts which Michael Causius, were to go to Constance to prevent Jews from sitting as members of Parlia- press his condemnation. The time of his dement.

It is contended that the repeal is incon-parture now approached. In October, 1414, he sistent with the doctrine that Christianity is part took his last leave of the Bethlehem Chapel, the and parcel of the law of Great Britain; while home of his heart, which had indeed been to the removal of the disability is urged on the him his joy and his throne.” As he left the plea that all classes of tax paying subjects are city, he was accompanied by several of his entitled to be represented.

friends. “Dear master," were Jerome's last A commission to investigate the condition of words, “ be firm; should I learn that thou hast education in Wales has made a report exhibiting fallen into any peril, I will fy forthwith to thy a condition of things, both as regards morals and I assistance." 'An humble artisan took leave of

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him with the words,—~Very dear master John, , himself to the woman of Sarepta, that received may God be with you; I can hardly hope that Elijah. The next day the pope was informed you will return safe and sound.” The scene of his arrival, and promised him his protection, reminds us of the parting between Paul and the though he could not be persuaded to give it in elders of the Ephesian church. Huss, too, had writing. For nearly a month Huss seems to reason to fear that bonds and afflictions were have been almost unmolested. He passed his abiding him. He, too, had not shunned to de- time in writing home, and conversing with those clare unto his flock all the counsel of God, who came to his house to hear him, and in comand might now say,—“None of these things posing a treatise or two. He prepared two move me, neither count I my life dear unto my- sermons, which have been preserved, and are self.” His heart-broken friends, as they sell said to be of great excellence, with the intention on his neck and kissed him, like the disciples of of preaching them in public. But it would the Apostle, sorrowed most of all that they should never do to allow so dangerous a man to gain see his face no more.

popularity, and to prove to the world that he He had received from Wenceslaus a safe-con- was no more a heretic than many of the doctors duct through his dominions, and an escort of at the council, who gloried in their untarnished noblemen to accompany him to Constance. One orthodoxy. His enemies from Bohemia imof these, John de Chlum, deserves to be held in proved the interval, and made a compilation of everlasting honour for the heroic and devoted certain articles which they pretended to have faithfulness with which, in the midst of foes, and taken from his works, and shewed busily about through all manner of ill-report, he clung to his to such of the clergy as they happened to meet. persecuted and forsaken teacher. Other friends Huss, as it seems, was not allowed to preach probably went with him; for his train, an im- his sermons, and on the twenty-sixth day after posing procession for a poor priest, consisted of his arrival was summoned to appear before the thirty horses and several carriages. On his way pope and cardinals. He went, attended by his he was met by a safe-conduct from Sigismund, friend John de Chlum. The cardinals, having in which all the subjects of the empire were en- examined him and retired to deliberate on his joined to allow him “ to pass, stop, sojourn, and case, yielded at last to the importunity of his return without hindrance;" a notable document, accusers,* and delivered him into the custody of which has condemned its author to eternal a guard of soldiers, who had been posted at a fame. The journey, which occupied twenty- convenient distance, and by whom he was conthree days, was performed on horseback, and in veyed to the house of an official of the cathedral. the most public manner. Huss, of course, was Here he remained for a week in confinement. not silent, but availed himself of every opportu- In the meantime his friend Chlum, full of indignity to deliver addresses, in Latin or German, in nation at this gross injustice, hurried to the the towns through which he passed. He seems pope for redress; and being repulsed there, to have excited the greatest curiosity and inte informed the Emperor, who had not yet arrived rest everywhere, especially at Nuremberg, where at Constance, of the indignity which had been his reception was of the most gratifying charac- put upon him by this barefaced violation of his ter.

Writing from this place to his congregation, safe-conduct. Sigismund shook with rage when he tells them that he has not met thus far with he heard it, and sent written orders to have Huss an enemy, and has been well received wherever set at liberty on the instant. The orders, were he stopped.

never executed, but on the 5th of December When he came in sight of the towers of Con- Huss was removed to a damp and noisome stance, if we may believe our German biographer, vault in the prison of the Dominican monastery. a sudden thrill of fear came over him, which he Sigismund did not make his entry into Consoon repressed with the trustful exclamation—“If stance until the morning of Christmas day. In God is for us, who can be against us? They may the meantime, the town and its environs had make me suffer, but the doctrine which I preach been filling up with strangers from all parts of is beyond their power.”. A week before, Pope Europe, who had flocked thither for business or John, as he approached the city and looked out of curiosity, to the number, according to one down from a ridge of the Tyrol into the valley estimate, of a hundred thousand. Coronets, red below, had uttered the prophetic words,—“Ah, hats, and mitres, which owe so much of their I see how it is; yonder is the pit where they value to their rarity, and are therefore not given catch the foxes.” The fox was indeed caught, to gregarious habits

, were to be seen there in and the heretic was made to suffer; but the weed most vulgar abundance. As if, too, to show how of heresy survived the fire, and a century later small was the sum of the wisdom of the

the was strong enough to choke the choicest flower scholars of Europe had gathered in mass.

The in the papal garden. Huss and his friends took lodgings in the great square of Constance,

• To one of the cardinals, who wished to leave Huss near the pope's hotel, at the house of a widow

at liberty for the present, Paletz addressed the connamed Fida (Faith, as Fox the Martyrologist vincing argument, —"My lord cardinal, if Huss's docrejoices to call her,) who is compared by Huss trine prevails, you can hardly continue a cardinal.”



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hangers on of a council, like those of a camp- found his accusers in public, he was removed to meeting, are a significant part of a great crowd, the Franciscan prison, where he remained till and we have statistical enumerations of cooks, the pope's escape from Constance. At one time, barbers, and other signs of civilization. The his disorder had assumed so alarming a form, first measures of the council must have ap- that the pope, either out of pity or from relucpeared to the pope very like the preparations tance to lose his victim by a natural death, sent for the fox-hunt he so much dreaded. It his own physician to attend him. was resolved that the delegates should vote by The news of his imprisonment was received nations; a proceeding which palsied the right at Prague with greater indignation than astonisharm of papal patronage. It was also voted that ment; for, as we learn from Huss himself, he the secular dignitaries should have a voice as had been warned by several persons in Bohemia well as the clergy; another blow on pontifical not to rely on the sase-conduct. Nor could the influence. The arrival of Sigismund, instead of letters which came from him, so full of sweet arresting the course of the pope's antagonists, resignation, of abiding affection and heroic firmonly emboldened them the more. They were ness, be read without tears of grief and rage by resolved on pushing John to an abdication. He the multitude of friends he had left behind. endeavoured to elude the danger by fleeing from Letters were despatched by the nobles of Bohethe city, hoping thus to break up the council. mia to Sigismund, remonstrating in the strongest But the firmness of Sigismund, who had deter- terms against his breach of princely faith. But mined to sustain the council, prevented its disso- that monarch, hemmed in by a fence of bristling lution; and the miserable pontiff was finally crosiers, had imbibed, with the ready absorption deposed. These transactions, however, occupied of a bigot, the subtle poison of priestly sophisseveral months. We return to Huss.

try, instilling into his ear the glozing suggestion By the scanty rays of light which found their that he need not keep faith with a heretic; that way into his gloomy dungeon, he was able to he had no right to grant the safe-conduct without write from time to time to his friends in Bohe- the consent of the council; and that the council mia, and to draw up a few practical tracts for could absolve him from his promise. It was a the use of his jailors, who had become much at- rare case of special pleading, by which it ap. tached to their meek and patient prisoner. His pears, first, that the promise was invalid in its health at last gave way; he suffered under the conception; secondly, that he had a right to most horrible attacks of a disease to which he break’ it; thirdly, that the council gave him had never before been subject, and was reduced leave to break it. This triple cord was too by a fever to great extremity. In this deplo- strong to be broken, and Huss's doom was rable state he writes: “If you should see sealed. The pope's officers, after their master's me, you would pity me. I have scarcely any flight, which took place in the latter part of rest from pain. It presses me together like a March, 1415, gave up the custody of Huss; and worm, and rolls me about on my miserable pal- he was transferred to the castle of Gotleben on let. And yet pity me not, for I fear that I may the banks of the Rhine, where he was chained be reserved for much greater sufferings, unless with irons on his feet, and at night fixed to his death first comes to my relief.” In the mean bed by another chain which was riveted to the time, he received a visit from three commis-wall. Rather more than two months afterwards, sioners, sent by the pope to examine him on the deposed pope was brought a prisoner to the certain charges which his indefatigable accusers same castle, for fear that the serpent's fangs had had preferred against him; an act of Christian not been quite drawn. Huss probably never charity, doubtless, for he was “sick and in pri- saw his fellow-captive; but he knew of his fate, son," and did they not “visit” him? Nor was and found in it a triumphant confirmation of his it a mere call of ceremony. They came to own doctrines; for he could now say, as matter cheer his dull sense with fresh proofs of the of fact, that Christendom was without a head on malice of his foes, and when the lonely man, earth, and possessed Jesus Christ alone as a sick with hope deferred and crushed by disease, chief to direct it. applied for the aid of a professional advocate, he The deposal of Pope John was voted at the was told, in language which showed that he twelfth session of the council; the eighth, which had fallen into pious hands, that the canons of was held on the fifth of May, was occupied the church forbade every one to defend the with the reading and condemnation of Wycliffe's cause of a heretic. “I besought the commis- works. This was a fit prelude to the trial of sioners,” he writes, “ to allow me an advocate. Huss, and almost a prejudging of his case, inasThey at first granted ny request, but afterwards much as the most offensive doctrines of the Borefused. I therefore put my trust in the Saviour hemian were to be found in the writings of his Jesus Christ. May he be my advocate and English forerunner. The emperor was present, judge!" After a captivity of two months in this a cardinal presided, and a patriarch celebrated prison, where the pangs of disease were aggra- mass. The passage from the Gospels beginvated to a degree which to his nature must have ning, “ Beware of false prophets," was read by been intolerable, by his inability to face and con- I way of preparation for the day's work. A bishop

preached a sermon from the text, “ The Spirit encouraged on every opportunity of observing or will guide you into all truth,” in the course of calling them forth; while the productions of corwhich he spoke thus of the pope:— Blessed rupt nature, and the exuberances and excesses be the soul of our lord the pope, but cursed be of that which may be comparatively innocent, his flesh; for he is guilty of as great a lie, as should be suppressed, regulated, and controlled. if I should say, God is not one and three." The most religiously concerned parents, as Forty-five articles, purporting to be taken from well as those who desire to prove themselves Wycliffe's writings, which had been scotched, such, may be often dismayed under a sense of but not killed, by a pair of prior condemnations, their insufficiency for such good words and were then read and condemned a third time. works, as the interesting object may require. Two hundred and sixty more were put under But while a principle of religious duty and the same ban, and finally all his books, good, true parental affection, animate their sincere, bad, and indifferent, in general and particular, however feeble endeavours to be found faithful were cast after them. One act of magnanimity to the charge committed to them; let them also yet remained. Thirty years before, the arch-hnmbly confide, that He who gives seed to the heretic had received Christian burial, and his sower and bread to the eater, though it be combones still infested the consecrated resting-place mitted to instrumental cultivation, is able and of the true sons of the church. They must be graciously willing to nourish the seed sown, unearthed. The council accordingly proceeded whether in an immediate or instrumental manto condemn his memory, and ordered his bones ner; and to bless the springing thereof, and to be dug up and thrown on a dunghill.* indeed where ability or human cultivation fails,

As if to supply whatever might be wanting to to supply the want of it so far as shall be essenprecipitate Huss's condemnation, in the month tial to the highest interests of an immortal spirit. of April Jerome had imprudently shown himself Yet if parents and guardians of youth neglect at Constance without a safe conduct. He soon this proper trust in a vain confidence, that the took alarm, however, and set out for Bohemia. work may be accomplished without their meBut he was apprehended on the way and brought diation, or without the exercise of living aspiraback in chains to Constance. On May 23d, tions to the Giver of every good and perfect his examination before a general ecclesiastical gift for His effectual blessing; they will ascongregation took place. He conducted himself suredly fail of that peace which is sooner or with great intrepidity and self-possession, though later the enriching reward of every labour of assailed by the scholastic zeal of Gerson, and love and work of faith; whereas, however they almost stunned by the outcries of infuriated ene- may fail of the apparent success of their best mies. The assembly at length broke up, and endeavours, it may surely be affirmed of only Jerome was consigned to a dungeon, where he consciencious labourers in every department of was most cruelly treated. Fro this prison he the Lord's vineyard, that their " record is on was led, a year later, to the stake.

high and their judgment with their God.” (To be continued.)




WAR. A tender and Christian love in checking every Friends are exhorted faithfully to adhere to our appearance of evil propensity in the disposition ancient testimony against wars and fightings, and conduct of children and youth, is the funda- and in no way to unite with any in warlike mental business of education, and though with-measures, either offensive or defensive, that by out it, religious instruction is much like sowing the inoffensiveness of our conduct we may conamong thorns, yet the latter should keep its due vincingly demonstrate ourselves to be real subplace with the former: the spiritual understand-jects of the Messiah's peaceful reign, and be ing should be fed with food convenient for it, as instrumental in the promotion thereof towards well as the spiritual affections awakened and its designed completion; when, according to

ancient prophecy, the earth shall be full of the • This sentence lay dormant for several years.

knowledge of the Lord as the waters cover the Fuller, in his Church History, has detailed the pro- sea; and its inhabitants learn war no more. ceedings of the zealots who at length disturbed the We desire that all our members may beware bones of the Reformer. :-“They burnt them,” he tells of being induced, either inadvertently or for gain, us, " to ashes, and cast them into Swift, a neighbour in any manner to give countenance to the deing brook running hard by. Thus this brook hath conveyed his ashes into Avon, Avon into Severn, Severn stroying practice of war. into the narrow seas, then into the main ocean. And Many are the ways by which the unwary thus the ashes of Wycliffe are the emblem of bis doc- and the covetous may be caught. But, bre hren, trine, which is now dispersed all the world over.” | look beyond the surface. Behold the depth of The best comment on this fanatical act is that of Fox, misery in:o which war plunges mankind. Then who says, it might have made Democritus weep, or Heraclitus laugh. Wordsworth, in one of his sonnets, putting your trust in Him who gives understandhas versified the passage above quoted from Fuller. ing to the simple, and provides for the sparrows,

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