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is not the imperative duty of ours, to reduce the , and whose colour greatly increases the difficulties mass of custom-house oaths now authorized by and sufferings incident to their destitute condilaw, and substitute a process more consistent tion. with the character of an enlightened and Chris- Far humbler indeed than the magnificent palace tian people. The decisive experiment before which rises so majestically on the hill a couple of us, has clearly established the safety and practi- miles beyond it, is the simple but comfortable cability of the measure.
But need we stop where the British govern- building on Thirteenth street, which has been ment appears to have stopped? After all that erected for a Shelter to the class above menhas been said in defence of judicial oaths, it may tioned, but certainly not less nobly and purely be fairly questioned whether the amount of testi- charitable in its design, nor less indicative of the mony, designedly false, given in the halls of true spirit of Christian benevolence. justice, is not quite as great as it would be, if Twenty-four boys and twenty girls, whose genewitnesses were permitted to give their evidence ral deportment is said to be satisfactory, and whose without oath. If oaths were altogether excluded improvement in their various studies is creditable from our judicial proceedings, and adequate
to their teachers, are not only comfortably lodged penalties annexed to prevarications and falsehood, the tendency of the measure would be to
and fed, but they daily listen to the reading of the fix the attention of witnesses upon the moral Holy Scriptures; and, while they are instructed in obligation of speaking the truth.
the elementary branches of learning, care is taken would be left for any of those wretched expedi- to elevate the moral character by training them in ents, such as kissing the thumb instead of the the way they should go, and directing them to book, to which perverted ingenuity may be ex- Him who loves little children, and will not have pected occasionally to resort, as long as the sanc- them forbidden to come unto him. tity of the oath, instead of the moral obligation, continues to be the prominent stimulus to veraci- suitable families, and in a majority of instances
At proper ages the children are apprenticed in ty. The infamy 'now attached to wilful and the subsequent account of their conduct is satiscorrupt perjury, would naturally fix upon intentional falsehood. The exclusion of oaths
very moving case is noticed in this from the halls of justice, would, most proably, report
. A little boy was discovered about midnight not sink the simple assertion of witnesses to the asleep in a cellar window, where he had crept in level of loose unguarded conversation, but raise the evening to shield himself from the cold. He it to the level of the most solemn asseveration. had neither parents nor home; but found in the The experiment has been partially tried, by al- Shelter an asylum where, we trust, he will have lowing the solemn Affirmation to be used, not by cause to implore a blessing on him who hath a the members of one or two religious persuasions bountiful eye and gives his bread to the poor. only, but by persons of any, or of no religious
The expenses of the Institution were something profession. Does not the success of the experi- more than $2000 last year. To meet them, $500 ment, as far as it has been tried, warrant its of the principal of the funds of the Association further extension ?
were used, rather than submit to the humiliation
of begging assistance from the public. The friends FRIENDS' REVIEW. of the Shelter are appealed to, and they are invited
to visit it, and judge for themselves if these things PHILADELPHIA, SECOND MONTH 5, 1848.
be not so.—There is that scattereth, and yet in
creaseth. We find upon our table the Twelfth Annual Report of the Association for the care of Coloured The article on Entomology, which we have exOrphans.*
tracted from Chambers' Journal, may possible sug. Far less pretending in the extent of its aims gest to some of our juvenile readers, the reflection than the Girard College for white male orphans, that creatures endued with such curious instincts, and thoroughly unostentatious in all its movements, as the wasp family are shown to possess, must be this Association, composed of something less than intended to occupy a useful place in the economy forty benevolent females of this city, with Eliza- of nature. Hence they may perhaps be induced beth Peirson for its Secretary, and Lydia Starr, to moderate the aversion with which these insects Treasurer, is quietly labouring to promote the wel. are commonly regarded. fare of those who, in the dispensation of Provi. dence, have been left without parents or guardians, Vassalboro, Maine, on the 22d ult., says:
A letter from a highly valued friend, dated at An account of the origin and early progress of this
“We had a fall of snow on the 5th inst., that Institution was published in the African Observer, made good sleighing till last 7th day, when we had p. 336, &c.
a rain that carried it off, and the grouud is now
bare. On the 11th inst. the thermometer fell in separation between soul and body. - With these this town to 25° below zero; in other places still words on his lips, he quietly departed, without a lower, as appears by the following from the Ken- struggle, we humbly hope to receive his inheritance nebec Journal of yesterday:
in one of the many mansions reserved for those Cold Weather.--Fryeburg, in Maine, runs an
who have endeavoured to serve the Lord in their opposition to Franconia in New Hampshire, as to day and generation. which shall furnish the coldest weather. On the His remains were interred in Friends' burying11th inst. the Fryeburg thermometers ranged, in ground at Penketh, on First day, the 19th, when their different locations, from 36 to 39 degrees a large company was collected, some of them below zero. On removing pure mercury, in a from a considerable distance, to show their respect saucer, to a little hollow in the village, it froze, so
for his worth. The occasion was remarkably that it could be turned over in the vessel and cut quiet and silent; excepting that a woman Friend like lead.'
spoke in hopeful testimony at the grave side, and “Such weather," says our correspondent, “makes a man Friend in the station of minister was briefly
engaged in similar service, and in supplication in people active, yet, to tell the truth, it is not de- the meeting. “Blessed are the dead who die in sirable.”
the Lord." It was believed that the dear departed Many of our readers are probably aware that had diligently sought the mind of Truth in the
secret of his own heart, from day to day; and had mercury does not freeze until it is reduced to a been enabled, through obedience to the manifestatemperature 40 degrees, Fahrenheit, below zero. tions of Divine grace, to do the will of his heavenly This is a degree of cold to which the inhabitants Father, in the performance of those duties which of Philadelphia are totally unaccustomed; and it his life so conspicuously portrayed. May we who
are still in mutability and probation, be strengthis not likely that any of us will envy our Eastern ened to follow him as he endeavoured to follow friends this incentive to activity,
By a rather remarkable coincidence, the grave
was made at the foot of that in which Samuel MARRIED, On Fourth day, the 26th ult.,, at Fothergill was enterred more than 70 years ago ; Friends' Meeting House, Twelfth street, Philadel- and thus this noted minister and his biographer phia, Thomas RUDOLPH, of Delaware county, Penn-are laid close together in death, as they both, when sylvania, to Sarah Ann, daughter of Samuel Fogg, living, had at heart the same cause.—British of Philadelphia.
DIED, — Twelfth month 15th, 1847, at his resi
From Chambers's Edinburgh Journal. dence, near Liverpool, in his 62d year, GEORGE CROSFIELD, an elder upwards of 32 years.
THE WASP FAMILY. This dear and well known Friend had an attack Poets and essayists are in the habit of likening of influenza about ten days before his decease, but the wasp to fops of another genus, and vice versa. his complaint was not thought of a serious nature This questionable sort of reputation these insects for the first two or three days, when bronchitis must ascribe to their splendid caparison, and to ensued, accompanied with much difficulty of their apparently useless position in the world. breathing, and though he survived about a week, yet there was from that time little hope of his The simile is more true in a more curious rerecovery.
spect; for there are annual reunions of these During this period, it was instructive to witness glittering creatures, just as in the fashionable the quiet and peaceful state of mind in which he world—a fashionable season of a few months, was preserved. Though he had been actively and then all disperse again. The economy of engaged in benevolent pursuits, in assisting in the the wasp family possesses considerable interest, management of some of the local charities, and in and deserves far more attention than in our hosaiding his poorer neighbours in various ways, so that he had many objects in hand at the time of tile state of feelings towards the race, we are his being taken ill, yet after giving directions as to readily disposed to believe. It is only necessary what he wished to be done respecting them, he that the real character of the tribe should be was enabled to lay aside all thought or concern for known, to remove at least the blot of laziness the things of this world, and to fix his attention on from it. That they are a set of bold, insolent, the world to come. He was strengthened to impart much tender their due, and we shall admit that there is much
daring robbers, no one can deny; yet give them counsel to his family and relatives; and the support in their habits deserving our admiration, and that with which he was favoured during the last closing scenes of life, gave evidence that he had not de- even their audacious thefis have their redeeming ferred to a sick bed the important work of pre- points. paration. At the same time, his remarks clearly The general aspect of the Vespidæ, or wasps, showed, that he did not trust to any works of his is sufficiently familiar to obviate the necessity of own, but solely to the mercy of God, in Christ description.' Their black and gold-painted boJesus our Lord; to whom he was frequently dies, their powerful mandibles, formidable stings, engaged in supplication.
He was granted perfect clearness and the full and their surface destitute of hairs, are present use of his faculties to the close, his last words to the eye at the very mention of the word. being an unfinished prayer, that the Almighty The society consists of males, females, and neuwould be with him in the last awful moment of the ters, each having their appropriate functions; but the males, on the whole, leading the quietest or plastered over, and not with one coat alone; and least arduous lives. The females are the generally the insect lays down fifteen or sixteen, hardworking foundresses of the colony, and the leaving spaces between each layer for the advanneuters are wasps of all-work--robbing, fighting, tages of inward lightness and strength to her ceildefending, nursing, and building indifferently, ing. Her labours do not end here. She has and by turns. Their history commences most built the walls of the city, it remains for her to conveniently for our purpose in the spring. At commence the edifices, and supply the populathe conclusion of the preceding summer, the tion. She builds a terrace of hexagonal cells, males, after pairing, all died, and there remained of marvellous exactness, and suspends it by pabut a few females behind of all the busy ranks per pillars from the roof of her texture. These which crowded the vespiary. These are awa-terraces emulate in elegance and artistic skill
, kened by the return of spring. The solitary and far surpass in utility, the famous hanging wasp finds herself immediately summoned to gardens and terraces of the renowned city of active duties. She has to construct the carcase, old. A few hundred cells are thus constructed, and to excavate the earthwork, for her future and at length an interval of comparative repose people and city. Serious as is the task, she has awaits the labourer, while she proceeds to fulfil to effect it all alone; not a single companion to her more proper duties as a parent. Singlecheer her hours of incessant toil, or to lighten handed, she has laid the foundation of the vesp. her labour by a single load! Her energies are polis, and has marked out the general design of equal to the undertaking: she is to be seen its future buildings; but she must have further buzzing about in the sunny inornings, looking assistance before the city will be complete. out for a site. It is soon found: it is some dry, 'The walls, at present bare and desolate, the pawarm bank; and here she sets to her work, lace empty and still, are soon to resound with She perforates it, and forms a long circuitous the hum of life, and with the busy labours of a tunnel, at the extremity of which she digs out a new generation. In the cells the insect deposits vault of considerable dimensions. This task is her ova, gluing them to the walls by an adhesive performed in no careless or slovenly manner; substance. These are soon hatched, they bealthough every particle of rubbish which the come larvæ, and are for some time entirely delittle excavator tears from the walls of her cavern pendent upon their parent's exertions for their must be carried in her jaws, she does not leave supply of food. She has to forage for this nuit at the entrance, but voluntarily entails upon merous and voracious progeny, and runs about herself the vast additional labour of casting it from cell to cell with the utmost solicitude, while away to some distance. Her design in so doing the grubs put forth their mouths, and are fed by appears to be principally to avoid the risk of her her just as the “callow brood” of a bird is fed. cell being discovered byʻa heap of rubbish at the Most pleasing is to observe the anxious mofoot of the bank. After the labour of excavation ther keeping watch over her offspring, and ap; is ended, the walls are to be plastered, and to parently many a needless time popping her head this fresh duty she at once addresses herself
. into their snug cots, as if to see how they do, Surely every person has seen the nest of the and to give a mouthful of food now and then to wasp, and wondered at its exquisite and delicate some tender young larva not yet big enough to architecture of celled paper? Behold the archi- put its head out to be fed! A few weeks slip tect! The nest is really made of paper: it was by—a great change has come over the vespiary; for some time a puzzle to our philosophers. it is replete with life; hundreds of workers have Reaumur appears first to have detected the wasp been born in the interim, and are now labouring in the very act of this manufacture. He beheld might and main, with the empress at their head, her alight on a deal window-frame; and watch to extend the buildings, and enlarge the city, ing, saw her tear a bundle of delicate hair-like when complete, a vespiary has been calculated fibres, about an inch in length, from it, bruising to contain about fifteen or sixteen thousand cells, the woody fibre with her mandibles until it be- each of which is thrice a cradle; and therefore, came like a fine lint. This is the material from in a single season, each nest will probably be which the papyraceous plaster is to be prepared. the birthplace of full thirty thousand wasps. Flying away with it to her abode, it is there
(To be continued.) made into a proper consistence by the addition of her tenacious saliva; and when this part of the process is complete, it forms a fine, smooth,
PINS. adhesive paste, precisely analogous to the pro- A dozen years since, all the pins used in Quct of our cumbrous and costly mechanism this country were imported. Now, none are papier maché. Rolling it into a sort of pellet, imported, except a few German pins for the she conveys it to the summit of the dome, plas- supply of the German population of Pennsylvaters it on the wall
, and spreads it out, by means nia. This wonderful change has been produced of her legs and jaws, into a very thin lamina, by a concurrence of circumstances,—the most which is veritable paper. Leaf after leaf must prominent of which was the invention, by be added, until the whole cavity is thus papered Mr. Samuel Slocum, now of Providence, of a pin-making machine far superior to any then in A part of the pins of the Am. Pin Company use in England. This led to the establish- are made of American copper, obtained on the ment of a pin-manufactory at Poughkeepsie by borders of Lake Superior. Messrs. Slocum, Jillson & Co., which, contrary The triumphant success of American pinto general expectation, was entirely successful, making without the aid of protection, or rather and soon distanced foreign competition. Thus in spite of it, shows that when skill and industry things went on, until the passage of the Tariff are combined, “ some things can be done as well of 1842, which, by increasing the duty on as others.”—Mercury. foreign pins, encouraged other parties in this country to engage in the business. Foreseeing this, the above mentioned Company,—which Some Remarks of James Backhouse relative to was succeeded by the Am. Pin Company, -at
his aged friend, Mary Capper, when writing once reduced their prices 20 per cent., and have
to one of his Connexions. since reduced them 10 per cent. more.
Of all I do not recollect that, in my last, I menthe Pin Companies which have been established tioned your aged relative, Mary Capper, who or attempted in the United States, only three are appeared to me much enfeebled. She spoke of known to exist at present, viz. the Am. Pin the approach of her end, as feeling an earnest Company, (which has works both at Pough- desire to depart and be with her Saviour, but keepsie and at Waterbury, Conn.) the Howe said that she could nevertheless say, “ Not my Company at Derby, Conn., and Messrs. Pelton, will, but Thine be done,” and that she had many Fairchild & Co., of Poughkeepsie.
comforts to be thankful for, of the least of which The quantity of pins turned out by these she was unworthy. She feelingly expressed establishments, especially the two first, is enor- her sense of helplessness, and of dependance on mous. The statistics of one of them, we have Divine support; and her heart seemed overascertained, are about as follows: Per week, flowing with love to her friends. She is an en70 cases, averaging 170 packs each, each pack conraging example of the power of religion in containing 12 papers, and each paper 280 pins: old age; and while her heart expands in Chrismaking an aggregate of 39,984,000 pins per tian love towards all, she retains a clear and week, or 2,079,168,000 per annum. If the pro- strong attachment to those views, or rather, I ducts of the other two establishments, and the might more properly say, to those experiences small amount imported, are together equal to of Christianity to which true Friends, through the above, we should have a grand total of faith, have attained. I thought this little notice 4,158,336,000 pins for consumption in the of your honourable relative was due to you, and United States, equal to 200 on an average, for to her memory. every man, woman and child in the country. On a subsequent occasion J. B., in writing of A pretty liberal allowance, we are thinking. a call made on her soon after his return from his The number of pin-making machines employed labours abroad, makes the following observaby said Company is about 30, and of work- tion—“In the course of conversation, she inpeople about 60. It would be difficult to de- formed me, that she had adopted the principles scribe these machines so as to make their ope- of total abstinence as regards intoxicating liquors; ration intelligible to those who have not seen that, though on the first mention of the subject, them in motion. We will only say that the she had doubted its propriety, yet on reflecting wire which is to be wrought into pins, runs upon it, and considering the numbers led away from a reel like yarn, into one end of the ma- into inebriety—that all these began their course chine, and comes out at the other, not wire, but of drunkenness by taking intoxicating liquors, pins, cut, pointed and headed, in the most per- in what had been thought to be moderation, she fect manner, at the rate of 150 a minute. This came to the resolution, that no one should be is about the usual speed, but the machinery is able to plead her example for taking them at all. capable of being so adjusted as to produce 300 At the time she left them off, she was upwards a minute. Being now of a yellowish colour, of eighty years of age, and in the practice of they are thrown, by the bushel, into kettles con- taking a single glass of wine daily with her dintaining a certain liquid, by which they are ner: and having been for many years unable to whitened, and prepared for sticking ; i. e. for take animal food, this glass of wine had been being stuck into papers, in rows, as they are thought almost essential to her existence, espebought at the stores. This process of sticking cially as she had been accustomed to it from an is also performed by a machine invented by early period of her life. She told me that she Mr. Slocum. The narrow paper in which the expected to have something to suffer, in making pins are stuck, is wound from a reel, of any this change, and that she might probably have imaginable length, and then cut off at uniform to endure a greater sense of feebleness during intervals. One sticking-machine will stick as the remainder of her days; but the welfare of many pins as three pin-machines can make; / those by whom she was surrounded, and on and three of the former can be attended by one whom her example might have some influence, girl.
she considered to be of much greater importance.
On making the trial, she was however agree proceeded. We rushed into the broad day, ably disappointed; for though she felt some lan- having traversed a space of 14,988 feet in the guor for a few days, she soon became sensible interior of the mountain, and having been an of an increase of strength, and was more vigo- hour and a half buried in its intricate windings. rous without the wine than she had been with This mine is supposed to have been worked it; so that she had cause to commemorate the even before the Romans were in Germany. It Goodness by which she had been enabled to belongs to Austria, but runs under earth into the make the little sacrifice. And I believe that her kingdom of Bavaria. It is said that fourteen example in this respect, as well as her Christian days would be required to explore it thoroughly. practice exhibited in a great variety of other it is always supplied with fresh air and water, points, had a beneficial influence on many. the latter being necessary for the extraction of
the salt from the ore. This brine is conveyed
by pipes to Hallein, and there converted, by GERMAN SALT MINES.
means of evaporation, into pure salt. The fresh A correspondent of the Providence Journal, water springs found in this mountain run so cuin a letter dated Constance, June 3d, thus de- riously and providentially, that, though traversscribes a visit which he made to the celebrated ing entire sali strata, they do not even mingle or salt mines near Salzburg:
become tinged by the contact. The miners are “From Salzburg, where I arrived the next healthy, and live to an old age. They work day, I made a visit to the celebrated salt mines individually, but six hours a day. Salzburg is of Hallein. They are situated upon a mountain an ancient ecclesiastical city, built upon
the site half an hour's walk from the town. Beneath a of a Roman colony. No city in Europe can handsome brick house on the summit of the boast a prouder situation. Its acropolis, crownmountain is the entrance to the mine. Another ed by the haughty palace of the Archbishop, gentleman and myself made the descent together. towers above it, so that one from the battlements We were obliged to clothe ourselves in large of the castle looks directly down upon the roofs linen jackets and trousers, with a black leather and steeples of the town. The rapid Salza pours apron tied on behind, and thus picturesquely through its centre. Grandly shaped mountains accoutred, with a light in hand, we commenced rise on all sides of it, excepting in that quarter the subterranean excursion. We first traversed which looks towards the great plain of Bavaria
, a long, narrow, and gently descending passage, and the snowy peaks of the Tyrolean Alps cut in the solid rock, until we came to a steep bound its horizon." and novel railway, going down into a darkness which our light could not penetrate. The railway consisted of two smooth and round beams, about half a foot apart, and a rope upon the right side, which served as a balustrade. We sat The subsequent anecdote of this worthy and across the beams, our right legs under the rope, Friend, which shows the influence of the Chriswhich we grasped in our hands, the guide being tian spirit on savage ferocity, was related in my ahead, and as every thing was slippery, away we hearing many years ago, upon what I suppose went, at the rate of twenty knots an hour, down competent authority. into the abyss. Arrived at the bottom, we tra- While on a religious visit to the South, a short versed another long passage, cut, not in the rock, time before his decease, he was informed of a but in the salt ore itself, the crystallized saline man living near where he then was, whose anearth, from which, by the operation of fresh tipathy against Friends was so highly excited, water, the clear salt, in the form of brine, is pre- in consequence of their efforts for the extinction cipitated. These salt galleries are bordered on of slavery, that he threatened to shoot any the sides, floor, and roof. Soon we came to Quaker who should come to his house. But another railroad, which we shot down in the this Friend felt a concern to pay the man a visit; same extraordinary manner, reaching a second and reposing on Divine protection, he proceeded level, of which levels there are eight. Thus alone to the place. Upon meeting the man who proceeding, we reached at last a salt lake, illu- was the object of his visit, the latter inquired what minated for the occasion, and over which we business had brought him there, when Joshua sailed. We then passed through chambers con- replied, that he was going about on a visit to his taining portraits of Austrian Emperors, of Salz- friends, and among the rest had called to od burg Archbishops, and collections of minerals, him. "Are you a preacher!" said the until we arrived at a wooden car, upon which He answered that he did sometimes spo one rides out of the mountain. Seated upon people. “Will you preach to my this we were swiftly drawn by miners along the was the return. Joshua told him if narrow rock gallery, a work in itself of some call his family together, he would do half a century, until at last we discerned the day- them, and perhaps he might have light at the end of the passage, resembling at say to them. They were not first an intense star, but becoming paler as we and he preached so affection
For Friends' Revies,