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the means of promoting education, or improving , serve a spirit of improvement manifesting itself in some other way, the condition of the lower in various directions. Thus, roads are being classes of the community. To do good, and formed through districts, which, for want of to increase the virtue and happiness of our race, access, were placed beyond the protection of evidently constituted the business and pleasure the laws; bogs are being drained; cultivated of his life.

fields are creeping up the sides of the mountains, About this time we find a notice of the receipt which were before almost unproductive of food of cotton from Africa, the seed of which had for man; benevolent individuals and societies been sent from England. This cotton appears are actively engaged in promoting instruction to have been raised at the colonies of Sierra and encouraging industry; commerce is rapidly Leone and Gambia. It had long been an object increasing ; light and knowledge are spreading; with the opponents of slavery, to encourage the and, in proportion as they prevail

, we may connatives of Africa to trade in the natural produc-fidently expect that superstition and ignorance tions of the soil, as one method of withdrawing will cease to exist. While, however, the large them from the traffic in the persons of their proprietors of the soil are adding to their revecountrymen;, and on this point, W. Allen in- nues, through the improvement of their estates, forms us, he had been labouring for upwards of the persons and cabins of the great mass of the thirty years. Some opposition to the trade with people, still exhibit a specimen of dirt, rags, and Africa was early made by the agents of the wretchedness, not to be equalled in any other North Carolina slaveholders, who were desirous country in Europe ; but we are consoled in obof monopolizing the traffic in such articles them- serving, that public attention is powerfully excited selves. As a measure favourable to the encou- in the consideration of what can be done to ameragement of free labour in preference to that liorate the condition of the peasantry of Ireland.” of slaves, our friend felt himself bound to use his The miseries of this country are complicated. influence with the members of the government " They may, with justice, be, in some degree, to facilitate the admission of African products. referred to the want of suitable education, and In one of his letters he expressed a belief that the consequent gross ignorance—to the want of a system of slavery in the United States could not fair opportunity for the exercise of honest inbe supported if they had no vent for their cotton.dustry—to ecclesiastical oppression of one sort Hence he was anxious to procure a supply of that or other—to a blind subserviency to the priests

, article through the instrumentality of freemen. and, above all,—to the immoderate use of whis

In the summer of 1835, William Allen was key. This occasions the jails to be filled, and again subjected to a trial, the depth of which is the most frequent cause of the murders and can scarcely be appreciated by any but those catalogue of crimes, which have so long disgraced who have had similar experience. His wife, many parts of that unhappy land.” who had been for some time in a delicate state In the 2d month, 1840, William Allen left of health, became suddenly very ill

, and soon home on a visit to the continent of Europe. In appeared to lose all consciousness of what was his progress from Ostend to Ghent, he had the passing around her. In this condition she con- satisfaction to observe a great number of cottages tinued two or three days, and then passed quietly scattered along the road, each of them having a away. To her worth and religious dedication, small portion of land attached, upon a plan very her bereaved husband bears an emphatic testi- similar to the one which he had been labouring mony; and while his memoirs furnish ample to encourage and promote, in his own and other evidence of the keenness with which this stroke countries. These farms contained from five to was felt, they also prove the depth of his resigna- twelve acres, and on them the occupants, by tion, and the strength of his dependence upon industry and frugality, were obtaining a comfort

. the never failing Supporter of his children and able support. It may be recollected that he had people.

published, and extensively circulated, a tract, In the summer of 1836, W. Allen paid a visit under the title of “ Colonies at home,” in which to several parts of Ireland, particularly the a plan of this kind for preventing or relieving the south and west. The principal object in view, distresses of the agricultural labourers, was rewas to obtain an insight into the moral and social commended; but we are not informed whether condition of the peasantry, and the agricultural these improvements were owing to his exertions resources of the country.

or not. In Belgium he visited the prisons and After spending about a month in this journey, manufactories, held several religious meetings, he observes: "I was renewedly thankful in and laboured with his accustomed assiduity to having been preserved through this journey, promote the physical and spiritual improvement with nothing to regret on looking back, and of the people among whom he was travelling. having very fully accomplished every object that in the prison at Ghent he found one old man I had in view. The lamentable effects of igno- who had been there sixty years. He had once rance, idleness and vice, consequent upon a de- been liberated, but afterwards returned, saying moralizing system, have been long deplored by that all whom he had known were dead, and he every humane traveller; but it is cheering to ob- I was left alone in the world.




In this journey, W. Allen had the company of | engaged a superintendent to take the oversight, Elizabeth Fry and her brother, Samuel Gurney, purchased potatoes for seed, and gave allotments who heartily joined in his concern for the relief to upwards of one hundred poor families, upon and elevation of the poor, and the improvement certain conditions, in which the observance of of prisons. They visited the little companies of moral conduct, &c., was included. Friends at Minden and Pyrmont; attended their The success of this plan has been, every year, meetings, and laboured to promote their temporal more and more encouraging. The crops of poand spiritual interests. The indications of re- tatoes have usually been very abundant, and of ligious sensibility with which these labours of excellent quality, partly in consequence of the love were received, might furnish a salutary inti- care taken to provide good seed, and partly from mation to some others, who being more fre- good spade cultivation, the superintendent seeing quently favoured with the visits of gospel mes- that the plans laid down were attended to. Imsengers, are liable to regard them with too little provement has been perceptible in the health respect.

and moral conduct of the families, and being reAt Berlin a large company was convened at lieved from the pressure of abject poverty, the their hotel, among whom were many of the no- tone of their minds is raised, and they are more bility, to whom our friends explained the leading fitted to fulfil the duties of life.” objects which had claimed the attention of the Near Dusseldorf W. Allen visited an interestphilanthropists in England, and solicited their ing institution under the care of Count von der co-operation in similar labours. Among these Recke, of which the subsequent account is given: were the improvement of prison discipline, and “ The Count is descended from a noble family, the influence which the Prussians might exercise which was possessed of many large estates prior in the extinction of slavery. W. Allen observes, to the wars of Napoleon Bonaparte: most of “ It was obvious, in the course of the evening, these estates fell a prey to the conqueror. Soon that the truths delivered frequently found en- after the peace, many fatherless and destitute trance into many hearts, and, in closing the children were found upon the roads, begging meeting, I felt that we had great reason to be or stealing: these poor out-casts strongly exthankful for the opportunity. Thus we have to cited the compassion of this generous youth ; set up another Ebenezer."

and to some of them he afforded an asylum in At Berlin they met with another exemplifica- his own house, and boarded and educated them tion of the advantages resulting from a plan simi- himself. The comfort and pleasure resulting lar to W. Allen's colonies at home, of which from these deeds of mercy, and the increasing the following account was given by its principal number of these pitiable objects, induced him to promoter :

found a little establishment for their education, “ There are at Berlin, as in other populous near his paternal castle at Overdyk, not far from towns, poor widows, whose resources are in- Elberfeld, about the year 1817; and this is sufficient to supply their daily necessities; there thought to have been the first asylum for destiare also many poor artisans, similarly circum- tute children on the Continent. Some years stanced, whose earnings are much reduced, in afterwards, these philanthopic feelings continuconsequence of the changes of fashion in the ally increasing, he adopted the resolution of articles they manufacture. The number of these making it the chief object of his life to relieve has latterly much increased, and their sufferings the distressed and instruct the ignorant; and the in winter, when the price of provisions is high, whole of his noble family, who had themselves and wages are low, are often very great: indeed felt the distress of the war, encouraged him in they are rarely able, by their utmost exertions, to it. He instituted a society which he called procure even sufficient potatoes for their families, • Menschenfreunde,' or • Friend of Man,' and and are thus compelled, by the claims of hunger, purchased the large estate, called Dusselthal to become paupers.

Abbey, in the year 1822. Here he took in a “ The miserable circumstances of these poor number of poor, destitute, and even some crimipeople much affected some benevolent individuals nal children. It

appears, from the information at Berlin, who considered in what manner relief we have received, that for several years this could be most effectually afforded. The idea establishment proceeded on a very extensive at length arose, that the most effectual means of scale: in its fourth year two hundred and thirtyimproving their condition, would be to furnish six persons were boarded there every day, and them with a small quantity of land, to cultivate the buildings were increased. Although very potatoes for themselves; a little employment in considerable gifts were received, the out-goings the open air being very conducive to the health exceeded the income, and debts were incurred. of those much confined to close rooms; and it A concern of this magnitude appears almost too might also be the means of employing the differ- much to rest upon an individual, unassisted by ent members of the family. In order to carry any committee. His excellent wife, however, these views into effect, a society was formed at the mother of eight children, is a powerful supBerlin, and a small sum of money collected; port, and his unmarried sister and brother, and these true friends of the poor hired some land, la few female christian friends, who, from the

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attraction of the conduct, character, and object charity. The compassion of Hoffman was of the Count and Countess, reside with them, awakened by the exposed situation of children, cheerfully aid their plans, and, in great measure, who at so early an age were trained to gain a supply the place of a committee. A remarkable subsistence by begging, considering that they spirit of christian philanthropy seems to pervade would probably, by little and little, become idlers the whole family. The devotedness and sell and thieves : and he thought, if he were rich denial of the dear Count and his estimable wife, enough, he would build a house for destitute are very remarkable. Though brought up in children, where they should be lodged and affluence in their younger years, they submit to boarded, receive school instruction, and be trained live, with their own eight children, and a few up in industry ; but this was not in his power. faithful friends, under the same roof with one. The company conversed for some time upon the hundred and twelve destitute children,* subject subject, and, on rising from table, one of the to be called upon almost every hour of the day guests went up to him and gave him a twentyto attend to some details of the establishment, or four kreutzer piece, * saying, . Do not abandon io inquiries connected with it. The children the idea of building a house for destitute children.' receive sufficient school instruction, and, above The same year Hoffman had a notice printed, in all, have much religious care extended to them, which he first showed the blessing that had algreat pains being taken to lead them to a know- tended the establishment of Count Von der ledge of their God and Saviour. The pleasing Recke's Institution, and then expressed the proofs of a grateful affection, evinced by many wishes of himself and his friends, that a similar of those who have been brought up in this esta- one should be formed in the neighbourhood of blishment, have cheered the Count and Countess Kornthal ; in which poor, destitute, and orphan in their arduous labours. In one of his reports, children, or children of worthless parents, might he says, • Great are

our wants : sometimes be boarded, clothed, and educated, either gratuigreater than our faith ; therefore, I hold up one tously, or for a very small sum. The parties exof my hands to the Father in Heaven, without pressed their desire to know the will of God in whose notice not a sparrow falls to the ground, this matter, and wished to ascertain whether and I stretch out my other to you, dear christian the needlul support would be obtained from befriends, who may have received much of the nevolent individuals, who were friendly to the goods of this life-a taleột to be employed in cause. They soon received very encouraging the cause of the kingdom of God, for your as- letters, with assurances of support, and the insistance in feeding the hungry, clothing the stitution at Beuggen was mentioned as a cheering naked, and instructing those who are ignorant of example of success. their duties to God and to inan.''

• Towards the middle of the year 1823, In the 5th month, the company arrived in Hoffnan announced that the proposed building England, after an absence of ten or eleven weeks. was about to be commenced, and solicited funds

Though William Allen had now reached what in aid of the underiaking. Contributions acwas formerly deemed the usual limit of human cordingly flowed in from all quarters, both far lise, his concern for the improvement of the poorer and near, and stones, wood, and labour were classes did not permit him to remain long at freely offered. The King subscribed liberally, home ; for we find him in the summer of the and in a few months, half the house was opened same year travelling through some parts of Ire- for the reception of the children, ten of whom land, with a view of promoting agricultural plans were first admitted, but the number was soon infor the labouring poor. With his labours in their creased, and in the summer of 1825, when the cause, he appears to have felt satisfied.

second half was completed, it amounted to fiftyShortly after his return from Ireland, W. The following year the report bears a Allen lefi kome on a visit to the continent, which mest satisfactory testimony to the improvement proved his final one. But of this journey our of the children, in many of whom, it is stated, limits will not admit of any particular account. • a joyful change had taken place.' During the There is one circumstance, however, which last fourteen years, the average number at Korncame under his notice, which appears too inter-thal has been about seienty : the plan of emesung to be passed over in silence. In the ployirg them in manual labour answers well; neiglibourhood of Siutgard he visited an es- and the healthiness of their occupation, as well talli: hment, under the care of a man named as of their situation and manner of living, Iloffman, of which the subsequent account is is proved from the fact, that, during this period, giien.

notwithstanding many, when they first came, “One first-day afternoon, in the year 1822, were, through neglect, weakly or diseased, there seve. al guests were dining with Hoffman, when have only been two deaths in the institution." a lit le boy, between five and six years of age, Al the close of the year 1840, he remaiks :came from a neighbouring district to ask for “ This year I have spent five months on the

continent, and travelled atout five thousand miles, * 1 he number is now increased to one hundred and ixty.

*Valued at twenty-two cents.



For Friends' Review.

by sea and land, and I have gratefully to acknow-some medicine. It will taste badly, and make ledge the goodness of our Almighty Preserver, you feel badly for a little while, and then I exwho supported me and kept my spirits from ut- pect it will make you feel better." The doctor terly sinking in low seasons. Though sometimes prepared the medicine, and the boy took it like I am afraid to call myself the Lord's servant, a man, without any sistance ;

and he would take and am almost ready to wonder that I should from his mother anything that the physician had feel peace in attempting publicly to advocate His prescribed, but would take nothing else from her. blessed cause, yet I may acknowledge that she had so often deceived him, and told him through the influence of His Holy Spirit, He “ it was good,when she gave medicines, that has, at some favoured seasons, enabled me to he would not trust to anything she said. But preach His everlasting gospel to my own humbling he saw at once that Dr. B. was telling him the admiration.

truth, and he trusted him. He knew when he "O, I have very distinctly felt that the power took the bitter draught just what to expect. and ability were solely from Him, and that no This simple incident contains instruction of deep merit attaches to my poor self. To Him be all and solemn importance, deserving the careful the praise of his own work !"

consideration of every parent.--London SaturThe remaining portion of his life was spent, day Journal. as most of the preceding had been, in active exertions to increase the happiness of his fellowmen, and fulfil his allotted duties in the militant MEMOIRS OF ELI WHITNEY, INVENTOR OF church. On the 30th of 12th month, 1843, after

THE COTTON GIN. an illness of no great duration, he was quietly released from the conflicts of time.

He was born at Westborough, Massachusetts, It is very possible that some of our readers, near the end of 1765. His father was a farmer, who have had the opportunity, either through in the middle class of society. Indications of a the medium of this Review, or the much more mechanical genius were developed at an early extended narrative of his biography, to observe age.

His father had a workshop with a variety the ardour with which, during great part of his of tools, including a turning lathe, where young life, he pursued the acquisition of knowledge; Whitney used to employ himself in the constructhe facility with which he appeared to unite in tion of various pieces of mechanism, to the frethe multiplied schemes that presented for re- quent astonishment of beholders. lieving the wants of the poor; and the intimate The structure of a watch greatly excited his intercourse which he maintained with men in the curiosity, but as he was 'not permitted to exypper ranks of society, may be ready to suppose amine the interior of this admirable machine, he that he had in his composition too much of the seized the opportunity which was afforded by courtier and man of the world, to be a humble his father going to meeting on a First day mornand devoted follower of a meek and crucified ing, and leaving him and his watch at home, not Saviour. Yet the writer of this notice can only to inspect its motions, but to take it entirely bear his testimony to the belief, that a careful in- to pieces; and so dexterous was he, that he put spection of his writings, with a just regard to the whole together so completely as to elude their general import, must lead to the convic- discovery, until he disclosed the circumstance tion, that his attainments in science, rectified and himself several years afterwards. When fifteen subdued as they were, only increased the depth or sixteen years of age, he used to employ a of his reverence for the incomprehensible Author portion of the time which he could abstract from of nature ; that his intercourse with the great the labours of the farm, in the construction of ones of the earth was employed solely to enlist knife blades and other articles, which exceeded their influence and power in the cause of re- the skill of the country artisans. ligion and humanity; and that in his movements As he approached the period of manhood, he through life he was eminently careful to set his became anxious to procure a collegiate education, Divine Master at his right hand that he might but was unable to accomplish it until he was in not sin against him.

his twenty-fourth year. The cost was chiefly, if not wholly, defrayed by himself; partly by the profits of his mechanical skill, and a village

school which he taught for a time previous to SPEAK THE TRUTH TO YOUR CHILDREN.

entering the college, and partly by the products Dr. B. was called to visit a sick boy, twelve of his industry after leaving it. years of

age. As he entered the house, the During his residence at Yale College, one of mother took him aside, and told him she could the tutors mentioned in his hearing, an interestnot get her boy to take any medicine except she ing philosophical experiment which he would deceived him. “Well then," said Dr. B. “ I gladly exhibit to his class, but that the apparatus shall not give him any." He went to the boy, was out of order, and must be sent abroad to be and, after an examination, said to him, My repaired; when he offered to undertake the little man, you are very sick, and must take task himself, and actually performed it, to the




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entire satisfaction of the Faculty of the College. While the men were conversing on the subAt the end of about three years, E. Whitney ject, the widow Greene remarked, “ Apply to obtained his diploma, and soon afterwards made my friend, Mr. Whitney, he can make any an engagement as a private tutor in a family in thing." She then conducted them to the room Georgia. On his voyage to the South he had where her tambour frame and some other specithe company of the widow of General Greene, mens of his ingenuity were to be seen; and who was returning to her residence near Savan- subsequently introduced them to Whitney himnal. As he had recently passed through the self, and recommended him to their notice and small pox, and was not entirely recovered, she friendship. He modestly disclaimed all preinvited him to take up his residence with her, tensions to mechanical genius; and when they till his health was restored. As a requital for explained their object, he replied that he had this hospitality, he procured the virus, inoculated never seen either cotton or cotton seed in his all the servants of the liousehold, more than fifty life. But his attention was arrested to the subin number, and had the satisfaction to see them ject; and as the season was past when cotton in pass safely through the disease.*

the seed was readily found, he went to Savannah Upon his arrival in Georgia, he was informed and searched among the boats and warehouses that the man in whose service he was engaged, till he found a small parcel, which he carried had employed another tutor, and he was conse- home. quently left without resources, in a strange land, The widow Greene, either previous to this and with no other friends than those whom he time or not long afterwards, became the wife found in the family of the widow Greene. She, of Phineas Miller, a native of Connecticut, however, encouraged him to undertake the study and . a graduate of Yale College. To this of law, and to make her house his home. This man Whitney disclosed his intentions, and a offer was accepted, and his legal studies com- work-shop was assigned him, to which none menced; but à circumstance, trivial in itself, but his patrons, Miller and his wife, were adsoon brought his mechanical skill into view, and mitted. Employing such rude materials as a gave a new direction to his pursuits.

Georgia farm could supply, he made the requiThe widow was engaged in a piece of em- site tools and drew his own wire, of which the broidery, in which she used a frame, called a teeth of the first gins were composed; an article tambour; but which she found badly constructed, not then to be found in the market of Savannah. and apt to tear the delicate threads of her work. In the course of the winter, he proceeded so far Eli Whitney, hearing her complaint, set to work, in the machine that very little doubt was enterand speedily produced a tambour frame, upon a tained of ultimate success. plan entirely new, which she and her family As nothing but a ready method of clearing regarded as a remarkable proof of ingenuity. the fibre from its seed was wanting to render

Not long after this event, a large party, com- the cultivation of cotton a source of great emoluposed chiefly of officers who had served under ment to the planters of Georgia, a number of General Greene, met at the residence of his men from various parts of the state were invited widow; when the conversation turning upon to see the new machine and witness its performthe state of agriculture among them, some of the We are not clearly inforined what quancompany expressed great regret that there were tity was cleaned in a day by the gin first exhino means of separating the seed from the wool bited; but we find it stated in a letter to President of the green seed cotton. It was observed that Jefferson, written in the autumn of that year, the lands which were unsuitable for rice would that fifty pounds of clean cotton was the stated yield large crops of cotton, but until ingenuity task of a negro for one day. Hence, it appears could devise some machine which would greatly that about fifty times as much green seed cotton facilitate the process of cleaning, it was in vain could be cleaned with the gin, as without it. to think of raising cotton for the market. Sepa- The importance of the invention was quickly rating one pound of the clean staple from the perceived, and the inventor was urged to secure seed, was considered a day's work for a woman, the profits of his ingenuity by a patent; but he and probably a man would do very little if any was aware of the difficulty which was likely to

This business was usually performed in attend an attempt to enforce the patent law, in the evening, after the labours of the field were case the machine should answer their expectaover, when the slaves of all ages, and both sexes, tions; and he therefore inelined to pursue his were collected in circles, under the eye of an legal studies, as a more probable means of pro

We may then readily conceive that a fitable employment. But his friend, P. Miller, company of tired and sleepy negroes would proposing to join in the enterprize, a partnermake dull work of it.

ship was formed, under the firm of Miller and

Whitney, in which it was agreed that the for*Our narrative gives no information respecting the mer should defray the expenses of maturing the condition of these servants. Their number, and the invention till the patent was obtained ; and that facility with which they were intrusted to the charge the profits afterwards derived from the sale and of such a neophite in medical science, suggests an apprehension that most of them were slaves.

use of the gin, should be equally divided between





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