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them. The article of their agreement was dated , estimated at three millions of pounds; which, in May 27, 1793.
1800, was reported at thirty-five millions ; in The means adopted to give notoriety to this 1810, at eighty-five millions; in 1820, at one invention, produced their natural effect, and hundred and sixty millions; in 1830, at three multitudes soon came from all parts of the State hundred and fifty millions, and, in 1840, at to see the machine ; but it was not judged pru- 790,479,257 pounds. dent to gratify their curiosity till the patent was The importance of the invention, and the secured. Yet so determined were some of the facilities which it offered to the acquisition of populace, that, during the night, they broke open wealth, might be supposed likely to unite the the building which contained the machine, and planters of the cotton-growing States in a simulcarried it away. This piece of larceny, though tanevus effort to reward the inventor by a liberal attributed to the populace, was probably coun- share of the profits which they were deriving tenanced by some persons of property; for, we from his ingenuity. The fact, however, was are informed, that, before Whitney could com- directly the reverse. Several gins, as already plete his model and obtain a patent, a number of mentioned, were surreptitiously introduced, bemachines were in successful operation, construct-fore Miller and Whitney had obtained their ed with some slight deviations from the original, patent; and the impossibility of meeting the dewith a hope of evading the penalty for violating mand, by machines constructed under tħe directhe patent right.
tion of the inventor, naturally led the planters to Immediately after the formation of the part- resort to indirect and unlawful means of availing nership, Eli Whitney repaired to Connecticut, themselves of the invention. Besides, it was with a view of completing his machine, and readily perceived that if the patentees were allowcommencing the manufacture of a supply to be ed to monopolize the entire business of cleaning shipped to Georgia. It is probable that work the cotton raised in the United States, an enormen of the requisite skill could not be obtained mous profit must be the result. The condition in the slaveholding State of Georgia.
of Whitney forcibly recalls the case of Columbus. The plan upon which Miller and Whitney In both instances, the magnitude and importance agreed was evidently injudicious. They pro- of the discovery, made the share of the profits posed to erect cotton gins in all parts of the which they claimed, though the fruit of their State, and monopolize the entire business of own skill and perseverance, appear unreasonable cleaning the cotton of its seed. Their demand and extravagant. In the case of the cotton gin, was one-third of the cotton which passed through an extensive interest was combined in the effort their machine ; and, as the price of the article to defeat the claims of the patentees; and the was then from 25 to 33 cents a pound, a heavy numbers thus interested, served not only to give profit was anticipated. But after it was known efficiency to the attempt, but to add the appearthat, by means of a machine, fifty pounds could ance of respectability to a measure, disgraceful be daily cleaned of the seed by a single labourer, in itself, and which, if undertaken by a few, it was not to be expected that the planters would would probably have brought upon its authors consent to have their cotton picked by hand. the obloquy it deserved. Hence the demand for gins became excessively The invention of the cotton gin suggests urgent, and the construction of an adequate sup- another parallel to the discoveries of Columbus. ply required both time and an amount of capital The African slave trade, though it had a feeble which the proprietors could not command. existence prior to the voyages of the Genoese Money could be borrowed only at an exorbitant navigator, received a new and powerful impetus interest—their first loan of $2,000 being taken from those momentous discoveries. So negro at a premium of five per cent., beyond the legal slavery existed in the United States long before interest. But, at a subsequent period, they paid the cotton gin was brought into use, yet, at the five or six per cent. a month.
time of its invention, the market was glutted It has been stated above, that fifty pounds of with all those articles which were suited to the cotton were cleaned in a day, by a single la- soil and climate of Georgia, and it was difficult bourer, with Whitney's gin. This, however, to find profitable employment for the slaves. was the performance when the machine was Under these circumstances, slavery must have impelled by muscular force ; for, a few years languished, and the pecuniary value of slaves afterwards, we find it asserted, that the gin, when have been low. And experience sufficiently adapted to water power, enabled one man to ac- proves, that, when the price of slaves is low, complish the work of a thousand.
emancipations become frequent. But the inThe introduction of this remarkable machine vention of the cotton gin, by opening a new gave an impetus to the cultivation of cotton, source of profit from the labour of slaves, enwhich quickly changed, to a considerable ex- hanced their value, and gave an impulse to the tent, the agriculture of Georgia, and several of traffic in their persons from the exhausted slave the neighbouring States. To form some esti- States of the north, to those further south and mate of this change, it may be noted that, in west, which continues to the present day. 1792, the cotton raised in the United States was Happily for the cause of humanity, the States
north of Mason and Dixon's line had advanced | bers are concerned. It may, however, be well to too far in the work of emancipation to be arrest- reflect that a new generation is constantly rising to ed by the opening of a southern market. There occupy the place of the one which is going off the is, however, reason to apprehend, that the in- stage, and that our young people are surrounded vention of Whitney has postponed for a century, by influences which have a powerful tendency to the abolition of slavery in the United States. nourish the spirit of war. Hence, we can hardly Still, we have the consolation to know that cotton can be cultivated, and gins can be managed
be too vigilant in guarding them against these deby freemen as well as by slaves. Considerable lusive influences, and in presenting to their view quantities are now brought into the market the excellence and loveliness of the true Christian without the aid of slave labour; and, with pro- spirit, which breathes glory to God in the highest, per encouragement, the quantity might unques on earth peace, and good will to man. tionably be greatly increased.
In this reasoning age, it is also desirable that the This unhappy result from the invention of enquiring minds of the rising generation should be Whitney ought not to be imputed to him. His presented with the unanswerable arguments, which ingenuity was employed in the construction of are readily adduced in support of the pacific an important machine. The pernicious consequences arose from a vicious system previously Prince of Peace is recommended to our acceptance,
course. Thus it may be seen that the reign of the established.
not only by its intrinsic excellence, but also by its (To be continued.)
entire consistency with the most profound ration
ality. The advocates of war, indeed, never meet Consider how few things are worthy of anger, the question fairly, even on the ground of arguand thou wilt wonder that any but fools should be wroth.
ment. Instead of supporting their conclusions by a reference to well known facts or established
principles, we are usually plied with suppositions FRIENDS' REVIEW: of their own assuming. We are told of the con
sequences which they suppose would arise in case PHILADELPHIA, SECOND MONTH 12, 1848.
a policy wholly pacific was invariably pursued.
Though as professors of christianity, we acknow. The brief notice which we insert in our present ledge, as a general proposition, that the injunctions number, respecting the proceedings in the Legisla- of our Divine Master are of universal obligation; ture of Kentucky, furnishes a melancholy illustra- and that the promises of the gospel are yea and tion of the unrighteous and illiberal prejudice which amen forever ; we are urged to trust for our safety is indulged in regard to the coloured race. That a to the arm of flesh and the policy of man, rather man, the bona fide proprietor of real estate, which it than to the protection which we may humbly but
presumable he had bought and paid for, should reasonably hope, from a steady adherence to the be excluded from the state, and that by the de principles and doctrines in which we profess to cision of a legislative assembly, merely because he
believe. was guilty of a skin not coloured like our own, exposes, in a striking light, the propensity of the The memoir of E. Whitney, which we have human mind to hate those whom we have injured. abridged chiefly from the 21st volume of Silliman's Numerous as these people now are, policy no less Journal, furnishes a remarkable instance of the than humanity admonishes to conciliate their momentous result arising from the ingenuity of friendship: but it may be acknowledged with one man. Yet in this, as in most other cases of shame and regret, that in the North as well as the singular discoveries, it was a link in the chain of South, they are often treated as if we desired to events which arose out of the circumstances of the convert them into enemies.
time and place. The agriculture of the South re
quired a machine of the kind. The necessity of An Address on the lawfulness of war under the the case called ingenuity into action, and the gospel dispensation, was issued by our brethren of cotton gin was brought into existence. If Eli New York, at their Meeting for Sufferings, in the Whitney had died in his childhood, we can hardly early part of last month; a copy of which has been doubt but the same thing, or something similar, recently received at this office, and will be trans- would a little later have been accomplished by ferred, at an early period, to the columns of the others. When science or art, attains a point which Review. The well known and long established requires or prepares the way for an important acdoctrines, of Friends in relation to this subject, may cession, some active genius springs forward and be supposed to obviate the necessity of any further seizes the prize, which would soon have been illustration of it; so far at least as our own mem- | reached by the regular march of ordinary intellect.
MARRIED, -At Friends' Meeting House, Elm wasps. They have the peaceful occupation of Grove, on Fifth day the 30th of 12th month last, scavengering the streets : they sweep the floors CHARLES GORDON TO ANNA H. Macy.
of the terraces and avenues, and diligently carry at Friends' Meeting House, Clear Spring off every particle of rubbish. They also underon Fourth day the 26th ult., Owen Evans to Maro take the funerals of any deceased companions, Tha Ann, daughter of Rice Price.
and speedily cast the dead bodies out of the on the same day, at Friends' Meeting vespiary. On the whole, they are useful memHouse, Spiceland, Jesse Bond to DELANA STANLEY. bers of the community; and they probably owe
All three of the above marriages were in Henry their permission to live, to their diligence. The County, Indiana.
• workers' are the most interesting class: they at Friends' Meeting House, West Union, Morgan County, Indiana, on Fifth day the 23d of are smaller in size than either male or female 12th month last, John CARTER to ELEANOR, daugh- wasps, but are wonderfully energetic, and indeter of Ira Hadley, all of West Union.
fatigably laborious. Some are builders and reat Friends' Meeting, Cross Creek, near pairers of the breach ; they receive a commisRichmond, Jefferson County, Ohio, on Fifth day sion to make excursions for building materials ; the 30th of 12th month last, JosEPH PLUMMER to and returning home with their bundles of lint, MARY S. FARQUHAR.
set theinselves to the repairs and extension of the city.
Others are the commissariats : the Died,–At his residence in Greenwich, Cumber- issues of life at home, are intimately connected land County, New Jersey, on the 26th of last with their expeditions. They roam over fields month, in the 46th year of his age, Moses Shep- and meadows, frequently catching flies and PARD, a valuable member, and overseer of Green- weaker insects, and carrying the game home, often wich Monthly Meeting.
with no inconsiderable difficulty: Dr. Darwin at her residence in this city, on Second
says he once beheld a curious act of a wasp : it few days, Hannah Ann, daughter of David Whitall
, the air, the breeze caught its wings, and nearly day afternoon, the 7th inst., after an illness of a had caught a large fly, and in rising with it into of Woodbury, N. J., in the 25th year of her age.
May the short but useful life of this estimable wrenched it from the wasp's clutches. The inyoung woman, incite survivors to a faithful per- sect immediately alighted, and deliberately sawed formance of all their duties:—to work while it is off the wings of its victim, when it was able to called to-day, for truly no man knoweth when the carry it in safety away. There was a something night may close upon him. Verily, no man hath nobler than instinct in this action ; nor is it by power in the day of death; nor is there
discharge in that war.
any means an isolated example of insect sa
gacity. Others seek our orchards, select the at his residence near Spiceland, Indiana, ripest, sweetest fruits, suck their juices, and conon the 1st of the 11th month last, Aaron Hodson, vey home the luscious treasure, of which but a in the 55th
small portion is for themselves. These foragers
even enter and rob beehives. twenty-ninth year of her age, LYDIA :the 2d of last month, in the 24th year of her age, tarry at home, in every instance share the spoil. Anna, both daughters of the above named Aaron Our grocery stores, pastrycooks, and butchers'
stalls, are equally attractive to the forager-wasps.
Surely it is some palliation of the robbery, to reFrom Chambers's Edinburgh Journal.
member the claims of hungry kinsfolk, friends,
and acquaintances, and little ones at home! THE WASP FAMILY.
There is no squabbling at their orderly meal(Concluded from page 314.)
times ; no fighting for the • lion's share;' each Such is the birth and development of this in- expectant insect receives its due portion, and is sect colony—a lesson to states, and nations, and content therewith. •I have seen,' writes the individuals, of the certain results of indomitable fascinating observer Reaumur, • a worker, after perseverance. Let us trace out its government returning home with spoil, on entering the nest, and destinies. The empress—the protoplast of quietly perch at the top and protrude a clear drop this interesting microcosm, the foundress of this of Auid from its mouth. Several wasps drank bustling republic—is an exaggerated type of the together from this crystal drop until it was all duties of its female members. These are pro- swallowed; then the worker would cause a duced in comparatively small numbers; they second, and sometimes a third drop to exude, the perform the proper
duties of wives and mothers ; contents of which were distributed in peace to they stay at home, feed the children, and attend other wasps. If we have any young readers of to the nurseries ; they mostly perish before these entomological sketches, here is a lesson for winter; but a few, more hardy than their fellows, them! endure its cold, and become the perpetuators of The mode of government is republican: there the race in the ensuing spring. The males, ac- is no recognized head, as with the bees; yet an cording to the younger Huber, are far more in- amount of even military discipline, and the utdustrious than the male bees, or drones, but are most order, are to be found among the subjects. less active by far than the neuters, or working. The good of the commonwealth seems to be the
of his age.
prevailing object of each insect. If the workers to burrow to a considerable depth in its subare building, each has its own spot, about an It has the peculiarity of storing up ten inch square, assigned to it, as the amount of or twelve green larvæ, as food for its own, and work it is expected to execute. It was an in- resorts to a curious contrivance to prevent them teresting discovery of Mr. Knight, that wasps from moving out of its reach. The hornet, also have sentinels. These are placed at the Vespa crabo, selects for its habitation commonly entrance of the vespiary ; they run gently in and some decayed, hollow trunk, where, building its out of it, and give immediate notice of the ap- nest, it forms a tortuous gallery of entrance. The proach of danger. To their communications American farmers are said to make use of these alone, does the community give heed; and on their nests to destroy domestic flies, hanging them up giving the alarm, will issue in angry hosts to in their rooms, where they do not molest the avenge the injury, and defend their home to the family, but fall entirely upon the flies. Another death. Sometimes, however, but rarely, intestine species, the Vespa Britannica, forms a curious combats take place; and there are terrific duels oval nest, sometimes to be seen hanging from the between the workers, or between a worker and branches of trees. Others form elegant nests, a male. This is a bad affair for the latter, as he like half-open flowers, with a platform of cells has no sting : his fate is generally to die. at the bottom. A foreign species constructs a
One of the most striking facts in the natural beautiful nest, of a substance identical with the history of the Vespidæ is the occurrence of an very finest card-board, suspending it, like a annual massacre in October. Then the vespiary waich from a guard-chain, by a ring at the exis indeed a scene of horrible atrocities and pro- tremity of the bough, out of the reach of monfuse carnage. The wasps, whose affection for keys. Sometimes these nests grow to an enortheir young is generally reinarkably strong, mous size. . Mr. Westwood "states that the seem then to be possessed with frenzied rage Zoological Society has one six feet long. A South against them. They cease to feed their larvæ : American species of wasp imitates the bee, and • they do worse,' angrily writes Reaumur ; "the is a collector of honey. mothers become implacable murderesses; they Bold as are the Vespidæ, great as is their fedrag the helpless larvæ out of their cells, slay cundity, they are mercifully kept in check. The them, and scatter them outside the nest, strewing ichneumon is their ferocious foe; in the West the very
earth with their dead carcasses. There Indian islands they are the victims of a parasitic is no compunction: the massacre is universal.' plant, which vegetates in their interior; man A wise purpose is fulfilled by this apparent leagues his forces against them; and nature itcruelty. The coming winter would rapidly de- self, in a deluging season or severe winter, destroy, by a far more miserable death, all that are stroys thousands, and prevents the plague bekilled on this occasion; and it is a stroke of coming greater than we are able to bear. mercy to terminate their suffering by a blow. The early frosts destroy the murderers them. selves. The scene is now, in truth, altered ;
DRAINAGE IN HOLLAND. the populous city has become waste, and without inhabitant,' saving some one or two females, Few persons have a correct idea of the magniwhich spend the winter in the depths of the tude and expense of the operations of the Holvespiary. The complicated galleries, cells, and landers, in their attempts to reclaim from the hanging terraces, and the entire framework of the dominion of the sea, the land on which this innest, are for ever vacated when the female leaves dustrious and plodding people have built their them in the spring; and this exquisite specimen homes. Incessant labour and watchfulness are of insect architecture is abandoned to the de-requisite to preserve what they have so successstroying influences of time and accident. These fully accomplished : and it is a natural result of interesting features of the history of the Vespidæ his peculiar situation, that the Dutchman should are full of subject matter for our meditation and be thoroughly at home, in everything connected admiration, indicating, so clearly as they do, that with throwing up dykes, or draining lakes. the • Hand that made them is divine;' yet all Having, with the aid of their windmills and their these marvellous sagacities, contrivances, govern- shovels, so energetically and successfully coming principles, present us with but diin and batted with the billows of the North Sea, it is broken reflections of the far seeing Wisdom that not surprising, that latterly, their undertakings created all things, and for whose pleasure they should be still more gigantic and daring, when they are and were created.'
called to mind the wonderful increase of power A few more particulars will make the history over the elements, which the steam engine has of this family a little more complete. The pre- given them. Accordingly we find them grappling ceding sketch has dealt only with the common in earnest with a powerful arm of the Zuyder wasp, Vespa vulgaris. The mason-wasp is a Zee, and effectually driving old ocean into the solitary insect, and builds its nest in sand and limits they chose to assign him. The lake of brick, being able, by means of its strong mandi- Haerlem, in the course of the sixteenth century, bles, to break off pieces of brick with ease, and I began to assume a very formidable aspect, and
For Friends Reviev.
threatened, if not arrested in its progress, to gests that the lake might be economically and spread itself over to the sea, and completely de profitably drained, and details the methods he tach North Holland from the district south of the would recommend for successfully accomplishRhine. It was at first but of inconsiderable size ; ing this gigantic work. Occupied as the country but the wind swelled its waters and drove them then was with Spanish wars, the pamphlet of from time to time, over the natural bounds, and Leeghwater attracted considerable attention. It united five of the adjoining lakes in one broad went through three editions : but the project expanse. At present the lake covers an area of was one which required time to be digested; and seventy square miles, and the works erected to before it had been adequately discussed, there prevent its surther encroachment on the land, came the peace of 1648. New adjustments, require an annual expenditure of twenty or thirty commercial and political, took place. Many prethousand dollars.
vious calculations were now falsified-many proThe following paragraphs are taken from a jects deferred. Later still, the disastrous wars much more extended article in a late number of 'with Louis XIV. and with England, intervened ; the Edinburgh Review, on the Drainage and and the project of Leeghwater was lost sight of Rural Industry of Holland, and will, it is appre- or forgotten. hended, prove interesting to some who may not
“ But the success of the steam trials on the have had an opportunity of perusing the original Zuid plas, and the discussion to which the works article.
Z. of Simons and Greve gave rise, lately recalled
the idea of draining the Haerlem sea, proposed " It was in the beginning of the seventeenth and recommended two centuries before. If century, when so much was daily occurring to wealth no longer poured into the country so fast animate and inspire the Hollanders, that the as when the scheme was first promulgated, the greatest of their existing drainages were per- work itself, by the progress of art, had now beformed. Without a rival on the seas-possessed come infinitely easier.
They were offered the of twelve hundred large merchant vessels, and agency of a new instrument, before which the seventy thousand seamen-building two thousand powers of their wind-mills quailed ; and the vessels of all sizes in a year, and enriched by most slow. and sceptical began to confess, that the prodigious success of their Indian trade, what Leeghwater had so sanguinely pronounced there was no attempt to which their spirit was to be possible, might now be comprehended unequal—nothing which wealth could accomplish among the reasonable expectations even of cauthat they were unable to achieve. Among the tious and calculating men. remarkable men of this active period was Jan " The arguments at present advanced in favour Adrianszoon Leeghwater. Born in 1575, in De of the work, comprise one element, which Ryp, a village of North Holland, he early dis- Leeghwater himself had been unable to urge tinguished himself as an engineer and mill with equal force. The annual expense of caging maker; and in this capacity was employed from and confining the waters of the lake, was now 1608 to 1612 in draining the Beemster--a large known by long experience. The practical minds polder in North Holland, which alone contains of the Hollanders, therefore, were naturally much 18,000 acres. He worked also at various times influenced by the statement, that both to keep as a mill-wright, and as a carver in stone, wood, dry and to maintain the dykes around this large and ivory; he was a skilful mechanician, and area, when brought into the state of a polder, built clocks and carrioles; he was a professed would not exceed in yearly expense the cost of drainer, a land measurer, and was cunning in the maintaining the existing barrier dykes. construction of dykes and sluices. He possessed “ The drainage of the lake was, accordingly, the art (which he exhibited at different times be resolved upon by the States General. A navigable fore persons of rank, but never revealed) of de ring canal was begun, we believe in 1840 : and scending and remaining for a length of time this, we understand, is now completed. At three befow the surface of the water-eating, writing, distant points on the borders of the lake, as many and playing on musical instruments the while. monster engines are to be erected. These, it is He visited and was employed in various coun- calculated will exhaust the waters, and lay the tries-Denmark, Germany, France, and Eng- bed of the lake dry, by fourteen months of inland—and lived to be nearly eighty years of age, cessant pumping ; at a total cost, for machines though the year of his death is not recorded. and labour, of £140,000. The expense of main
“ The success which had attended the drainage taining the dykes and engines afterwards, will be of the North Holland polders, suggested to nearly five thousand pounds a year. ' The cost Leegh water the bolder idea of applying a similar of maintaining the old barrier dykes, amounted, remedy to the larger sea or lake of Haerlem ;- as we have already stated, to about the same wall in the limits of the lake, pump out its sum. The land to be laid dry is variously estiwaters, and the danger of future encroachment mated at from fifty to seventy thousand acres. will be removed. Accordingly, in 1640, when Taking the lowest of these estimates, the cost of his experience was fully matured, he published reclaiming, amounts to £3 sterling per imperial his · Het Haerlemmer Boek;' in which he sug-Iacre, and that of subsequently maintaining, to two