« ΠροηγούμενηΣυνέχεια »
Ye bright mosaics ! that with storied beauty
Yes! He is a “refuge," -- worn, weak and alone, The floor of Nature's temple tesselate,
As the heart bends in sadness, o’er cares all its own, What numerous emblems of instinctive duty
It feels, still beloved may that fainting one be,
And cared for, and guided, Oh! Father by Thee. 'Neath cloister'd boughs, each floral bell that swingeth, Yes! He is a “refuge,”-through life's chequered day, And tolls its perfume on the passing air,
Thus far, hath one pilgrim still proved him her stay, Makes Sabbath in the fields, and ever ringeth
And oh! when borne over time's billowy sea,
M. Not to the domes, where crumbling arch and column
Attest the feebieness of mortal hand;
SUMMARY OF NEWS.
CONGRESS.—In the Senate, the debate on the To that cathedral, boundless as our wonder,
Ten Regiment Bill has been continued by Hunter, Whose quenchless lamps the sun and moon supply: Its choir the winds and waves, its organ thunder,
of Virginia, Niles, of Connecticut, Miller, of New Its dome the sky.
Jersey, Underwood, of Kentucky, Turney, of Ten
nessee, and Breese, of Illinois. "A bill to establish There, as in solitude and shade I wander,
a Territorial Government in Oregon, has been reThrough the green aisles, or stretch'd upon the sod, ported. Resolutions of the New York Legislature, Awed by the silence, reverently ponder
instructing their Senators to vote in favour of the The ways of God :
Wilmot Proviso, have been presented. Your voiceless lips, O flowers! are living preachers with the thanks of Congress, to Generals Scott
In the House, resolutions presenting gold medals. Each cup a pulpit, every leaf a book, Supplying to my fancy numerous teachers
Taylor, have been passed, yeas about 180–J. R. From loneliest nook.
Giddings alone voting in the negative. A large
number of members appear to have been absent Floral apostles ! that in dewy splendor
at the time. J. R. Giddings subsequently offered “Weep without love and blush without a crime,” resolutions thanking Albert Gallatin for his efforts Oh! may I deeply learn and ne'er surrender
against the war. They were laid on the table, Your love sublime !
132 to 45. The Loan Bill is under discussion in
Committee of the Whole. The sum now called for «« Thou wert not, Solomon, in all thy glory,
by the Secretary of the Treasury, is $16,000,000; Arrayed,” the lilies cry, “in robes like ours; and to this the bill will probably be conformed. How vain thy grandeur ! ah, how transitory Are human flowers!”
PENNSYLVANIA LEGISLATURE.-A resolution pro
posing an amendment to the Constitution, so that In the sweet-scented pictures, heavenly Artist!
Judges shall be elected by the people, has passed With which thou paintest Nature's wide spread hall, the Senate by a vote of 19 to 11. The bill for the What a delightful lesson thou impartest
abolition of capital punishment has been defeated Of love to all!
by a vote of 11 to 16.
We learn that a bill for the further protection of Not useless are ye, flowers! though made for pleasure; personal liberty, has passed the Legislature of
Blooming o'er field and wave, by day and night, Rhode Island, by a vote of 39 to 16 in the House, From every source your sanction bids me treasure Harmless delight.
and by an unanimous vote in the Senate. The
bill is said to be a literal copy of the MassachuEphemeral sages ! what instructions hoary
setts act, and very similar to our own. For sach a world of thought could furnish scope !
Mexico.--President Anaya's term of office has Each fading calyx a memento mori,
expired, and it is reported that Pena y Pena has Yet fount of hope !
again become President, by right of his office of
Chief Justice. A projected insurrection in the Posthumous glories ! angel-like collection!
City of Mexico had been discovered and preventUpraised from seed or bulb, interr'd in earth, ed. To mt ye are a type of resurrection And second birth.
EUROPE.-By the arrival of the Sarah Sands at
New York on the 10th inst., Liverpool dates to the Were I, O God! in churchless lands remaining, 22nd ult, have been received. But little change Far from all voice of teachers and divines,
had taken place since the sailing of the Acadia. My soul would find in flowers of thy ordaining Both the Corn and Cotion markets were flat, with Priests, sermons, shrines !
a downward tendency. The influx of the precious
metals continued, and the money market had be. GOD IS OUR REFUGE.
come comparatively easy, but there was still a great want of confidence, and operations were
conducted on a very limited scale, and with great Yes! He is a “refuge,”—when sadness o’ercasts caution. The state of monetary affairs on the conThe spirit, while rocked in this world's wintry blast, tinent was rather unfavourable. The surrender of Still, still to one home, can the sorrowful nee
Abdel Kader (noticed in our 207h number,) was And lean in its weakness, Great Guardian on Thee.
made on the pledge of the Duke d’Aumale, foYes! He is a “refuge,” — the tempests may roll
vernor general of Algiers, that he should be alIn darkness and cloud o'er the wave-beaten soul; lowed to go to St. Jean d'Acre, or to Egypt. The Still turning on high, through the gloom it can see French Government had broken faith with him, A calm, peaceful dwelling, Creator in Thee.
and p'aced him in continement.
Psalm xlvi. 6.
Ꭱ Ꮃ .
A RELIGIOUS, LITERARY AND MISCELLANEOUS JOURNAL.
PHILADELPHIA, SECOND MONTH 26, 1848.
* Shall the sword devour forever?"-2 SAM. ii. 26.
EDITED BY ENOCH LEWIS.
quarrel or a war.”—“Whatever the quarrels of
the Pennsylvania Indians were with others, they Pablished Weekly by Josiah Tatum,
uniformly respected, and held sacred, as it were, No. 50 North Fourth Street, corner of Appletree Alley, the territories of William Penn." PHILADELPHIA.
The settlers of Pennsylvania, relying upon Price two dollars per annum, payable in advance, or six Divine protection, placed themselves in the midst copies for ten dollars.
of savages, without the means of resisting agThis paper is subject to newspaper postage only.
gression ;-_and even savage magnanimity felt the
appeal-suppressed the war-cry--and permitted CONSIDERATIONS ON THE LAWFULNESS OF them to possess the land in undisturbed repose. WAR UNDER THE GOSPEL DISPENSATION.
What a lesson, may we not ask, to Christian
nations ! (Concluded from page 339.)
How painfully, how instructively, does the It may be said, indeed it often is said, that situation of other American colonies contrast
with this! war, though an evil, is an evil that cannot be avoid
We will not attempt to portray it; ed in the present state of the world, and this but refer to the blood-stained pages of colonial conclusion may serve to quiet the consciences of history. many, whose feelings revolt at the fearful re
Will it be said that the same confiding spirit, alities of war. Let us examine the correctness and peaceable deportment, if practiced in sinof the conclusion, that war is unavoidable-has cerity and truth, towards nations professing the the trial been made, and found to be impractica- benign religion of the Gospel, would be more
dangerous, or less successful?
We trust notIt is indeed to be regretted, that no instance of such a conclusion would be a libel
upon mankind a strictly national character has yet occurred, to ,-a denial of the efficacy of the Christian retest the practicability of the principles for which ligion-and an inexcusable distrust of the Proviwe plead,--an unreasoning reliance upon the dence and moral government of God. Omnipotent Arm for protection and defence.
It is not unusual to attempt a justification of There is, however, a case to which we may re- war under the Gospel dispensation, by referring fer, of a strong character, and sufficiently national to the wars of the Jews, under the dispensation for all the purposes of our argument. Pennsyl- of the Law. It is conceded that
of these vania, it is known, was settled by men who wars were authorized by the Supreme Ruler of believed that Christianity forbade war under
the universe, for purposes of his own inscrutable
every pretext. They acted in strict accord- wisdom; but this high authority cannot be ance with this belief. They planted themselves claimed by Christian nations ; and it has been in the midst of savages. They were surrounded shown that the two dispensations are essentially by inen who knew nothing of written treaties, or
different—that holy men daring the continuance the obligations of revealed religion ; by men who of the legal dispensation, predicted, under the inwere addicted to war in its most sanguinary and fluence of the spirit o prophecy, that the time revolting forms ;-and yet "for inore than seventy
would come when nations should cease to lift up years, "* and up to the time that the government sword against nation, or to learn war any more.
We have seen that the Divine Author and of the Colony passed into other hands, they enjoyed uninterrupted peace.
Founder of the existing dispensation, called the " The Pennsylvanians,” says Clarkson, “ be- attention of his followers to those violent and came armed, though without arms; they be vindictive passions, the indulgence of which came strong, though without strength ;' they were allowed under the Law, for the express became safe without the ordinary means of purpose of excluding them from the code of safety. For the greater part of a century, and morals which it was His purpose to establish; never, during the administration of William Penn, and that His immediate followers, and their sucor that of his proper successors, was there a
cessors for nearly two centuries, firmly believed
that war was forbidden by their Divine Master.. *Proud.
We have shown that the conviction was so
solemnly sealed upon their consciences, that of Princes,—when this happy period shall arwhen called by the rulers of that day to serve as rive, war will cease throughout the whole Chrissoldiers, no earthly consideration or suffering tian world.”' could induce them to swerve from this article of Now, if it be true that—The dispositions primitive Christian faith.
which lead to war are absolutely forbidden by And the early writers, Ireneus, Justin Martyr, the Gospel;"_if they " are quite abhorrent to and Tertullian, affirm as their belief, that the the benignity of Christianity ;"—if war “ introprophecy which declares that men should turn duces and propagates opinions and practices as their swords into ploughshares, and their spears much against Heaven as against earth;"—if it into pruning-hooks, was then fulfilled.
“ lays our nature and our manners as waste as With the hope of enforcing our views upon our gardens and habitations,” and renders it as this subject, and for the purpose of showing that difficult to preserve the beauty of the one, as they are neither wild nor visionary, we here offer the integrity of the other :"the sentiments of persons respecting it, who If there is not a virtue of Gospel goodness, lived at different periods of time, and were emi- but has its death-blow from war;" —if it is pronent for their piety or learning.
ductive of “profligacy, libertinism, and infi
• “ War,” says Èrasmus, “ does more harm to delity ;"--if all this be true, should not every the morals of men than even to their property wise and good man--should not all who are and persons :"--and again, “ They who defend seeking to promote the present and eternal welwar, must defend the dispositions which lead to fare of their fellow-men, unite in one great and war ; and these dispositions are absolutely for- untiring effort to abolish,mto banish from the bidden by the Gospel.”
earth this cruel, demoralizing and destructive Richard Watson, Bishop of Llandaff, asserts scourge ? that “ War has practices and principles peculiar A state of universal and enduring peace-even to itself, which but ill quadrate with the rules of if, as some suppose, it is to be accomplished by moral rectitude, and are quite abhorrent to the a special interposition of Divine Providence, at benignity of Christianity.
some remote period of time-is a delightful Edward Hyde, Earl of Clarendon and Lord theme to contemplate. high Chancellor of England, says, that “ War. We, also, believe, in accordance with prophecy, introduces and propagates opinions and practices that it will arrive ; but, we believe that it will be as much against Heaven as against earth; it lays a result of individual faithfulness. We fully our nature and our manners as waste as our gar- unite in opinion with the Bishop of Llandaff
, dens and habitations; and we can as easily pre- that peace will become universal, “ whenever serve the beauty of the one, as the integrity of the spirit of Christianity shall exert its proper the other, under the cursed jurisdiction of drums influence;" —and we have shown that Christiand trumpets."
anity did produce it, in an earlier and purer state William Law, a pious minister of the church of the Church--so far, at least, as Christianity of England, and well known as the author of prevailed. A Practical Treatise on Christianity,” avers If, then, peace on earth be looked to as an end that « There is not a virtue of Gospel goodness, and an aim of our holy religion-is not each but has its death-blow from war,"
individual believer called upon to cultivate in The eminent Dr. V. Knox, after remarking himself, and endeavour to promote in others, that almost all the professions have some cha- those feelings, and that course of conduct which racteristic manner, observes, “It happens, un- are calculated to produce this blessed effect? fortunately, that profligacy, libertinism, and in- We have ventured especially to request the fidelity, are thought by weaker minds, almost as attention of those who have assumed the responnecessary a part of a soldier's uniform, as his sible station of ministers and teachers of the shoulder-knot. To hesitate at an oath, to decline Christian religion, to this subject, because, whatintoxication, to prosess a regard for religion, ever affects the character of this religion, or opwould be almost as ignominious as to refuse a poses its progress in the world, seems peculiarly challenge."
io claim their notice. And we would suggest, The British poet, Southey, notwithstanding he that the fact of our country being at the present had eulogized the heroes of his native land, was time engaged in war, furnishes a strong reason constrained to speak in terms of high commenda- for entering into a careful examination of the tion of those who refuse to fight; and he declares evidence respecting the lawfulness of war under that “ The prohibition of war by our Divine the Gospel dispensation. Master, is plain, literal, and undeniable.”
May we venture to ask whether those pacific The Bishop of Llandaff, already quoted, principles by which the Church in the apostolic says, “I am persuaded that when the spirit of age--and, indeed, during the first and greater Christianity shall exert its proper influence over part of the second centuries, was so remarkably the minds of individuals, and especially over the distinguished, are inculcated by the Christian minds of public men in their public capacities, teachers of the present day, with that clearness over the minds of men constituting the councils ! and fulness, to which they are justly entitled ?
For Friends' Review.
Even those who do not fully unite with us in the belief, that “ war is unreservedly prohibited MEMOIRS OF THE LIFE OF ELI WHITNEY. by the Christian religion," must admit that, be
(Concluded from page 328.) sides the misery and suffering it produces--it is highly demoralizing--and that it eminently tends As the facility with which cotton was cleaned to retard the progress of vital religion among of its seed by Whitney's gin caused a sudden men :-and if so, the glorious theme of “ peace increase in the culture of cotton, so, that
augmenon earth” should not fail to find devoted advo- tation created a pressing demand for the gin, and cates in all who are sincerely seeking to promote soon called into existence one or two rival mathe present and eternal welfare of their fellow- chines. One of these was the roller gin, which men.
crushed the seeds between heavy rollers, but We are aware that when the public mind is the fragments were still apt to adhere to the cotstrongly excited, it may require great moral ton, and thus render it inferior to that cleaned courage, and a deep and abiding sense of duty, by the former instrument. Another rival mato enable a pastor to stand firmly at his post, and chine was constructed on Whitney's plan, with advocate the noble cause of peace. But these teeth cut in the manner of a saw, on a circular are occasions when, by reason of the position rim of iron, instead of being composed of prohe occupies, his constant intercourse with the jecting wires. While these efforts to supplant people, and the influence he exerts upon their his machines were going on in Georgia, he had feelings, he may-by restraining, or by giving a the misfortune to have his shop in New Haven right direction to the popular impulse—become consumed by fire, with all his papers and mainstrumental in hastening the day when righteous- chinery. By this event he was reduced to ness shall cover the earth, as the waters cover bankruptcy ; but neither Miller nor Whitney the sea.
was of desponding temperament, and they were In conclusion, we would ask attention to one aroused by this untoward accident to more vigorview of the subject of war, which commends ous exertions. Yet, as the former had but little itself with awful solemnity to the consideration money at his command, and the latter had neiof all, and with peculiar force to those we are ther money nor any thing to offer as security, now addressing. We refer to the ultimate-to except the uncertain proceeds of his future inthe unseen consequences of war-to the final dustry, they were willing to receive as a favour state of the myriads of spirits, disembodied, it is the loan of money at twelve per cent. per greatly to be feared, while under the influence of annum. the most ferocious passions, and sent uncalled,
While these difficulties were pressing upon into the world of righteous retribution.
them, a rumor was put in circulation, that the The reflection is awful indeed—and must, we staple of the cotton, which was cleaned by this would fain hope, command the most serious at. gin, was greatly injured by the operation. This tention ;-and by producing a firm conviction of was a blow for which they were not prepared, the utter incompatibility of war with the meek, and the consequence appeared for a time likely forgiving, and peaceable spirit of the Gospel, lead to be a total failure of their hopes. "The merto increased and earnest efforts to eradicate from chants would purchase the cotton only at a rethe earth this scourge to the family of man.
duced price, and those who were trespassing on If, then, the fruits of war be anguish unspeaka- their patent rights, held them in derision. ble, and bitterness in the latter end-how strong the same time, the roller gin appeared to be -how powerful is the claim upon our efforts to taking the place of Whitney's, and was by inany oppose it, and restore the Church to the state of persons preferred to it. purity in which it stood in the primitive period As this rumor was ostensibly founded chiefly of its existence !
on the experience of the English manufacturers, May the Lord in his mercy hasten the day it became an important object with Miller and when this shall be effected ;—when nation shall Whitney to ascertain the truth or falsehood of no longer lift up sword against nation, and the the report; and it was concluded that the latter people shall learn war no more; but the king- should repair to England, to challenge a rigid doms of this world shall become the kingdoms comparison of the cotton cleaned by his gin, of the Lord, and of his Christ.
with that which was extricated from its seed by Signed on behalf and by direction of a Meeting other means. He was entirely confident, that of the Representatives of the Religious So- the prejudice which was raised, and industriousciety of Friends, of the Yearly Meeting ly fomented in the South, would be removed by of New York, held in the City of New York, the proper experiments ; and this confidence the 4th of First month, 1848.
was eventually discovered to be well founded. RICHARD CARPENTER, Clerk. At this time (1796) Miller and Whitney had
thirty gins in various parts of Georgia, some of It is thy duty to be a friend to mankind, as it which were impelled by horses or oxen, and is thy interest that man should be friendly to others by water. Of these, a number were thee.
standing idle. They had also invested about
$10,000 in real estate, which was suited only to from Miller and Whitney were laid before the the purposes of ginning cotton. It was, of Legislature of South Carolina, in which, after course, essential to their success, that the cha- representing the importance of their machine, racter of their machine should be cleared of the and stating that the people of that State were defect imputed to it; and E. Whitney, during gaining many millions of dollars by its use, they nearly the whole year, deemed himself on the offered to transfer their patent right, as far as point of departure for Europe. But the funds South Carolina was concerned, to the Legislarequisite to defray the unavoidable expense, could ture, for the sum of one hundred thousand dolnot be procured, and the plan was finally aban- lars, one half to be paid on the transfer of the doned.
right, and the other by subsequent instalments. It was not long before the reputation of Whit- After some discussion, the legislature voted the ney's gin was restored. Respectable manufac- sum of fifty thousand dollars, to purchase the turers at home and abroad, gave certificates in right in question, of which twenty thousand were its favour, and the cotton cleaned by it was soon to be paid in cash, and the rest in yearly instal. preferred to any other in the market. But another ments of ten thousand dollars each ; and in a difficulty was presented, by the want of integri- few hours afterwards closed the session. Thus ty in the cotton planters or dealers in the article. E. Whitney was left to choose whether he would The encroachment on their patent rights had accept the terms proposed, or try what could be become so exiensive, as nearly to annihilate the obtained by other means. He supposed that, value of the patent; and the issue of the first from the extensive use of the machine then trial which they were able to procure was, in made in the State, he was entitled to four or five the highest degree, discouraging.
times the sum offered. The value of the land A person being prosecuted for using Whitney's was raised to nearly double its former amount gin without a license from the patentees, the by the introduction of the gin; yet he judged it judge gave a charge so decidedly in favour of safest to accept the offer of the legislature, and the plaintiffs, that the defendant told an ac- make the transfer required. quaintance, he would give two thousand dollars Near the end of 1802, a sale of the patent to be free from the verdict of the jury, and yet, right was negotiated with the legislature of North after about an hour's consultation, that jury gave Carolina. A tax was laid upon the cotton gins a verdict against the patentees; and this verdict used in the State, to be collected with other seems to have been founded on the quibble of taxes during five years, and, after defraying the law—that the legal offence consisted in making, expense of collection, the balance was punctualdevising and using, or selling the machine ; ly paid to the patentee. Application being whereas the defendant was only charged with made to the legislature of Tennessee, that body, using it. This occurred in the spring of 1797. in 1803, passed an act laying a tax for four years, Great efforts were made to bring the validity of of thirty seven and a half cents per annum upon their patent right again before the court at Sa- every saw contained in the gins used in the State. vannah in the spring of the following year, but | What suin was thus raised, we are not informin this case they failed even of obtaining a trial. ed; but as some of the gins contained forty saws, The result of the first trial, and the failure to it is probable the amount was considerable. procure a second, induced the patentees to re- But while the prospect was thus brightening linquish the design of monopolizing the ginning in these states, a storm was gathering in another. of cotton themselves ; and they would willingly Strenuous efforts were used in Georgia to prohave sold the right of using their gin to the cot- duce an impression that Whitney was not the ton planters ; but very few would buy a right original inventor of the cotton gin ; and the which they could use without purchasing; and, governor in his message to the Legislature in of the few who did, a small number only paid | 1803, called their attention to the subject. A the cash. They generally gave their notes, and committee of that body to whom the case was afterwards evaded, by various subterfuges, the referred, at length produced a report, which, payment of these obligations; so that an agent, even at this distance of time, is not easily read who was employed to make a tour of collection with entire equanimity. After complaining of through the State of Georgia, could not recover the odiousness of monopolies, and the wound money enough to pay his expenses. Thus, after which the exclusive power of the patentees to five or six years of assiduous attention, and the tax the cultivators of cotton at pleasure, must inexpenditure of nearly all the money they could flict on the culture and cleaning of that precious earn or borrow, the patentees had ihe mortifica- commodity, it is asserted that a witness had tion to find the mass of the population in their been examined, who stated that a certain indivi. adopted State, apparent'y united in a league to dual was in possession of a cotton gin, in miniadeprive the inventor of the cotton gin of all the ture, similar to Whitney's, twelve months benefits of his labour and ingenuity. This case, before the latter was brought into view ; and if it stood alone, might probably be considered another witness had deposed that a machine, of as a specimen of slaveholding morality. similar cons!ruction, was used in Switzerland
Near the close of the year 1801, proposals forty years ago, for picking rags into lint.