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right to compensate the slaves, by whose labour he his departure, said he felt a peaceful and quiet was accommodated; and when he was laid on the state of mind, or words to that import. bed from which he was never to rise, his soli
On the 23rd of last month, at Stanford, N. citude on this subject was not forgotten: but he Y. Sarah, wife of Abner Duell, and daughter of made it a condition with his physician, that the
the late Samuel and Comfort Upton, in the 56th
year of her age. She was a valuable Elder of medicine administered should be such as did not Stanford Monthly Meeting, and in her family, as a come through polluted channels or oppressive hands. wife and mother, her loss will be severely felt. And afterwards, finding the disease" affect his As she endeavoured to live the life of the righteous,
she left an evidence that her latter end was like head, so that he could think little, and but as a
his. child," he requested that if his understanding should be more disordered, nothing might be given the 19th of 12ih month last, of typhus fever, MILLY,
In Royalton, Niagara county, N. York, on him which his attendants knew he had a testimony wife of Seth D. Wolf, a member of Hartland Monthagainst. Though this allusion was probably in ly Meeting, aged 32 years. tended to apply to other things besides the products -, On the 20th ult., at the residence of his of slavery, it can hardly be questioned that these father, near Mount Holly, New Jersey, Benjamin, were principally in view.
son of Benjamin and Sarah M. Taylor, in the 17th The course which J. Woolman thus thought him
year of his age. self called to pursue, though he was probably alone
CIRCULAR. in that particular, has within the last few years been taken by thousands. If the conduct of John tion of Friends, of New York Yearly Meeting,
The Managers of the Free Produce AssociaWoolman, in that respect, was the fruit of pure and have the satisfaction of stating, that a store has enlightened christianity, (and who will assert that been opened for the sale of articles exclusively it was not ?) it is well worthy of close and impar- the result of free labour, at No. 377, Pearl street, tial examination, whether the same regard to the New York City, by Lindley Murray Hoag, and openings and leadings of this divine teacher and George Wood, both of them members of our guide, would not conduct others into a similar path. Religious Society. If those who endeavour to follow the example of They offer for sale, at fair prices, a general this remarkable man, in regard to slavery and its assortment of Groceries, consisting of sugars, products, should be wise enough to conduct their molasses, teas, spices, dried fruits, etc. etc. movements under the influence of the spirit by They have also an assortment of Free Cotton which he was evidently actuated, there can be no
Goods. doubt that the result would be a happy one to them
The upright character of the parties engaged selves and to the world. A righteous cause is most in the sources of supply being scrupulously in
in the business, will, we hope, give confidence effectually promoted by means which christianity vestigated ; and we have, therefore, no hesitation approves and suggests.
in recommending the store to the patronage of
Friends and others. Our friends Benjamin Seebohm and Robert Lind
When we reflect on the position taken by our sey, having, since the Yearly Meeting of Ohio, Yearly Meeting, in the adoption of the Minute which was held in the 9th month last, attended given below, we cannot doubt that the opportuthose of Baltimore and North Carolina, and visited nity now afforded for families to provide themnearly all the meetings within their limits, arrived selves with goods the result of compensated lain this city last week, and attended the evening bour, and not the gain of oppression, will be exmeeting in Mulberry street, on the 27th ult., the tensively embraced. last for the season, where B. S. was largely en- “ At the sitting of the Yearly Meeting, on the gaged in gospel labour.
24th of 5th month, 1845 :
“ The Essay contained in the Records of the MARRIED, -At Friends' Meeting house, Down- Meeting for Sufferings, on the subject of traffickingtown, Pa., on 4th day, the 23d of last month, ing in, and the free use of articles produced by NATHAN J. Sharples and RUTHANNA EDGE. the labour of slaves, was fully approved by this
On 3rd day, the 29th ult., at Friends' Meeting, and directed to be transmitted to the Meeting House in this city, on 6th street, Edward subordinate meetings, with the extracts. Tatum to Anna C. daughter of Dr. Moses B. Smith, The following is taken from the Address to all of Philadelphia.
the members of our Yearly Meeting above al
luded to, commencing with a short extract from Died,-At the residence of Joel G. Hutchin, of John Woolman. Elk Monthly Meeting, Preble county, Ohio, on the 28th of 1st month last, Exocu S. Dicks, a member frequent use of any produce known to be raised
«• The trading in,' says John Woolman, or of that meeting, in the 21st year of his age. was confined to his bed about six weeks before his by those who are under such lamentable oppresdecease, and manifested much patience and resig- sion, hath appeared to me to be a subject, which nation throughout his illness; and a little before may yet require the more serious consideration
of the humble followers of Christ, the Prince of Salaries of officers $4,265. Wages of serPeace.'
vants $1,426. “ If we examine the connection existing be- In an appeal to Friends, issued by order of tween the slave-holder and the consumer of the the “General Meeting," for the purpose of raisproduce of slave labour, must we not admit, that ing the sum of twenty thousand dollars, to be it is of a very intimate nature, and that its ten- employed in extending the accommodations, the dency is to support the system of slavery? committee say :
" In our review of the state of " To hire a slave, and pay the wages of his the boys' school, our attention has been particulabour to his master, would be deemed nearly larly called to the subject of discipline. It is equivalent to slave-holding.
well known that the old and severe methods of “If this slave toils for his master, and we pur- securing order and prompt obedience, have been chase freely the produce of his labour, do we materially relaxed ; and that, though not formally not contribute as effectually to the gain of the abolished, corporal punishment may be said to slave-holder as in the preceding case? If ano- be disused. We believe, that to govern youth ther person purchases this produce for the pur-efficienily by the influence of the teacher's mind pose of traffic, and we buy of him for the pur- upon that of his charge, the number of scholars pose of consuming it, is not another link added under each master must be smaller than it now to the chain; and is not the connection with the is at Ackworth. For many years past, the boys, slave-holder, as coinplete as in the first instance? 170 in number, have been arranged in four It is true, that we are further removed from the nearly equal divisions, each of which is under scene of oppression-and it may be that this in the care of one master with the assistance of an creased distance has tended to pacify the con- apprentice. This proportion of pupils to teachscience, in a course that is not consistent with ers is greater than is found in any of our boardsound reasoning: and thus may we not have ing schools, public or private ; and, we believe, contributed too long, to encourage, by our con- it is decidedly greater than is compatible with duct, a system of oppression, the existence of the maintenance of a sufficient amount of indiviwhich, we have so sincerely lamented." dual attention to each of the scholars, and the
On behalf of the Managers of the Free Pro- exercise of a right influence over their minds." duce Association,
They propose the formation of a fifth class for BENJAMIN Tatham, Secretary.
more advanced pupils, an arrangement which, New York, 2d month 7th, 1848.
we believe, has since been carried into effect. Hoag and Wood will promptly and faithfully Croydon, under the care of London and Midexecute orders for families, or merchants out of
dlesex Quarterly Meeting, aided by six other Quarterly Meetings.
Average number: 78 boys, 61 girls ; total 139. Cost of each pupil, including the items
enumerated above, $101 28. Salaries and wages, STATISTICS OF FRIENDS' SCHOOLS IN
Officers.-Superintendent, mistress of the faA friend having kindly placed in my hands mily, three assistants, and seven apprentices, all the recent reports of several schools under the employed in education. care of Friends in Great Britain, I have thought
The report of the results of the half yearly that the following statistics of those Institutions examinations, is more than ordinarily minute, might be acceptable to some of your readers, and, in this respect, presents an example which A careful comparison of such details may sug- might advantageously be copied by some of our gest modifications in the economy of similar in- schools, whose general and vague statements stitutions in this country; while it is obvious leave on the minds of their readers, very little imthat the results must be influenced by a variety pression of the state of instruction. It is remarked of causes not included in the statements here in reference to the upper class of boys, “ That presented. The reports, except where it is other the introduction of written answers to questions wise stated, are for 1846.
on general history, and some scientific subjects,
prepared by the boys, without recourse to books, Ackworth, for the year 1845. formed a new feature in the examination, and we Average number of pupils : 152 boys and 125 were gratified with the proofs of attainment thus girls ; aggregate 277. Cost of each child : for exhibited.” “Sketches in linear drawing on the provisions, $48 50 ; clothing, $14 10; salaries black-board, which continues to be regularly and wages, $20 54 ; stationary, taxes, furniture, taught in the schools, were well executed.” and repairs, $10 28 ; total, $93 42.
" In Scripture history their knowledge was satisOfficers.-Superintendent, nine teachers, and factory and pleasing ; whilst in their acquainteleven apprentices, book keeper, boys' matron, ance with the great and leading truths of Chrisnurse and house-keeper, mantua maker and ap- tianity as set forth in the New Testament, toprentice.
gether with the application of passages from the
For Friends' Review.
Old Testament, and the repetition of others, appro- | Penketh appears to be supported by contributions priately illustrating the principles of our religious from Friends and receipts from the parents society, we see reason to feel that they are well of pupils; the prices of admission varying grounded in this important and interesting branch from $29 to $76 50 per annum. of their education.” In regard to one of the Average number of pupils : 34 boys and 18 classes, a defect is noticed which must strike girls. Cost per pupil, including clothing, &c., almost every one in nearly all our schools-in $98 60. reading “ more regard 10 punctuation, with less
The object of the institution is stated to be “ to monotony, is desirable.” The report is appro- give efficient instruction in reading, writing, and priately closed with the expression of sympathy arithmetic, and the accurate use of language ; with the teachers in their important services, and to the girls a practical acquaintance with and of encouragement for them, with the craving the use of the needle; adding to this foundation of the Divine blessing upon their labour. as much higher instruction in geography, history Wigton School, under the care of Cumberland and general knowledge, as circumstances would Wigton School, under the care of Cumberland admit ; but especially was it deemed important
and Northumberland Quarterly Meetings to train up the children to habits of industry and
Average number of pupils 411, of whom the right employment of their time, endeavourabout one-third are not members of our So- ing to imbue their tender minds with a sense of ciety.
the necessity of a close attention to their reliThe average cost of each pupil during the last gious and moral duties—the alone safe ground on three years, has been, per annum $100 80. which they can place their hopes of a happy and
Salaries of officers, including a master, house- prosperous career in this life, and, through the keeper, school mistress, two apprentices, and an one offering of our Lord and Saviour, of bliss assistant teacher for boys (three months in the eternal in the world to come.” year) $905. Servants wages $128.
Officers.--Master and one apprentice, houseSibford School, under the care of Associated
keeper and female teacher.
Salaries and servants' wages $864 20. Quarterly Meetings. Average number of pupils 57, of whom about North of England Agricultural School, under one-third are members. Average cost of each
care of Durham Quarterly Meeting. pupil $78.
The prices of admission vary from $38 50 The boys are employed in various ways in to $72, most of the pupils are admitted at the the family, in addition to the time occupied in lowest rate. the cultivation of the land and garden. The The division of time is as follows: average of girls are daily engaged in domestic concerns, and boys' labour 21 hours per day, average time in in knitting and needlework for the use of the school 63 hours, meals and recreation 4hours. establishment.
Girls' work 43 hours per day, school and sewing Salaries and wages $765.
5} hours per day, meals and recreation 4 hours Rawdon School, near Leeds, for persons con- the instruction, and of the time devoted to labour,
per day. The report, speaking of the results of nected with the Society, but not members. remarks: “ We continue to have much ground Average number of pupils 52 ; average cost to be satisfied in each respect, and with the of each, exclusive of clothing, $80.
effects upon the character of the children, alike The committee believe that the frequent em- during their continuance at school, and after ployment of the boys in the farm and garden, has their leaving it." had a beneficial effect. There has been a con- Number of pupils 36 boys and 24 girls, total siderable increase in the time devoted to these 60. Average cost of each pupil $81 56—less pursuits, also to house work and mechanical the value of his labour $4 71-$76 85, clothing, labour, the latter consisting chiefly of book bind- &c., included. ing and carpentering.
Officers.-Superintendent, school mistress and Teachers' salaries $743 ; housekeepers' and housekeeper. servants' wages $217.
Salaries and wages $936; children's labour in
the house valued at $148. Sidcot, under the care of Associated Quarterly
LOVE. 61. Cost of each pupil, including clothing, &c., “Oh how sweet is love ! how pleasant is its $120 62.
nature ! how takingly doth it behave itself to Officers.-Master and mistress, one teacher, every condition-upon every occasion—to every one governess, and three apprentices.
person-and about every thing! How tenderly, Salaries of officers $1350. Servants' wages how readily, doth it help and serve the meanest ! $205.
How patiently, how meekly, doth it bear all
things from God or man; how unexpectedly so On the 20th of July, the Expedition quitted ever they come, or how hard soever they seem ! this dreary and disagreeable harbour, and arrived How doih it believe !-how doth it hope !-how in Van Diemen's Land on the 16th of August. doth it excuse !-how doth it cover even Here they were kindly received at the Governthat which seemeth not to be excusable and not ment House by Sir John Franklin, and they profit to be covered! How kind is it, even in its ceeded without delay to refit the ships, and to interpretations and charges concerning miscar-erect the permanent magnetic observatory-the riages! It never over chargeth, it never grates materials for which had been prepared some upon the spirit of him whom it reprehends. It months before. In this sequestered spot a series never hardens, it never provokes ; but carrieth of valuable observations was made, and are now a meltingness and power of conviction with it. in course of publication at the expense of the This is the nature of God. This, in the vessels Government. capacitated to receive and bring it forth in its The French Government had fitted out an glory, the power of enmity, is not able to stand Expedition to the Southern Seas, consisting of against, but falls before it, and is overcome by it.” the Astrolabe and Zélée, under the command of -Penington.
Captain Dumont d'Urville. The United States had likewise fitted out an Expedition to the
same region, under Lieutenant Charles Wilkes, SIR. J. C. ROSS' ANTARCTIC VOYAGE OF DIS- in the frigate Vincennes, which sailed from COVERY.
Hampton Roads on the 18th August, 1838. A
general notice of the discoveries made by d'Urville Abridged for Friends' Review from the North British Review,
and Wilkes was received by Sir James Ross on (Continued from page 366.)
his arrival in Van Diemen's Land, Captain This interesting island, discovered in 1772 by d'Urville having published an account of his Lieut. Kerguelen, and on which the Expedition labours in the local newspapers, and Lieutenant remained upwards of two months, is on its north- Wilkes having, in the kindest manner, in a letter ern extremity entirely of volcanic origin. The from New Zealand, dated 5th April, 1840, made steep shores rise in a succession of terraces to a communication to Sir James Ross, of his exthe height of 1000 feet. The highest hill, called perience among the ice, which he considered as the Table Mount, on the north side of the harbour, of a quite different character from the ice of the is about 1350 feet high.
Arctic regions. Captain d'Urville had sailed Among the 150 plants found by Dr. Hooker from Hobart Town on the 1st January, 1840. in Kerguelen Island, the cabbage plant, or Prin- On the evening of the 19th, he discovered land, glæa Antiscorbutica, deserves particular notice. and on the 21st, some of the officers landed on a • It is,” says Dr. Hooker, “ an important vege- small islet, a short distance from the mainland, table to a crew long confined to salt provisions, and obtained specimens of its granitic rock. In or indeed to human beings under any circum- the latitude nearly of the Antarctic circle or about stances, for it possesses all the essentially good 67} degrees, he traced the land in a continuous qualities of its English namesake, while from line for 150 miles, between the longitude of 136° its containing a great abundance of essential oil, and 142° East. It was covered with snow, exit never produces heariburn or any of those dis-hibited no traces of vegetable life, and rose to agreeable sensations which our pot-herbs are apt the average height of about 1300 feet. To this to do.
For 130 days our crews land he gave the name of Terre Adélie. Ad. required no fresh vegetable but this, which was vancing westward, he discovered, and sailed for nine weeks regularly served out, with the along a solid wall of ice, about 60 miles long, salt beef or pork, during which time there was and 150 feet higħ, which he named Cote no sickness on board."
Clairée, believing it to be the covering of a more The climate of this island is singularly rade solid base. The weakly state of his crew, how. and boisterous. Although the anchors and ca- ever, compelled him to discontinue his explora. bles were of a weight and size usually supplied tion, and io return to Hobart Town. to ships of double the tonnage of the Erebus and Along with his letter to Sir James Ross, Terror, yet they were unable to withstand the Lieutenant Wilkes transmitted “a tracing of the almost hurricane violence of the gales which icy barrier, attached to the Antarctic Continent, prevail at this season of the year, and which discovered by the United States Exploring Exsometimes laid the ships over nearly on their pedition.” In this he expressed a hope that Sir beam-ends. Sir James Ross was frequently James Ross would circumnavigate the Antarctic obliged to throw himself down on the beach, to circle. prevent himself from being carried into the water On the 18th November, 1840, the Expedition by the sudden gusts of wind; and he states, that left Hobart Town on their voyage towards the during 45 of the 68 days that he remained in Magnetic Pole, and on the 20th reached AuckChristmas Harbour it blew a gale of wind, and land Islands, and established their observatories. there were only three days on which neither rain On the 18th of the following month they arrivnor snow fell!
ed at Campbell Islands, where they were actively
engaged in procuring wood and water, and in densely covering the whole surface of the island, preparations for their Southern voyage, which along the ledges of the precipices, and even to they considered to have commenced on leaving the summit of the hills—attacking us vigorously this harbour. Leaving Campbell Island on the as we waded through their ranks, and pecking at 17th, almost the mid-summer day of the Southern us with their sharp beaks, which, together with hemisphere, they found the temperature at no their loud, coarse notes, and the unsupportable time more than 40°. On the 27th they encoun- stench from the deep bed of guano which had tered a chain of icebergs, from 120 to 150 feet been forming for ages, and which may at some in height. On the 4th of the following month period be valuable to our Australasian colonists, they passed through numerous icebergs of curi- made us glad to get away again, after loading our ous forms, reflecting the rays of the sun in every boats with penguins and geological specimens.” variety of colour, and forming, as the ships pur- On the 14th, they encountered a great number sued their devious way among them, a scene of of large whales, thirty being counted at one time. much interest and grandeur. After forcing vari- On the morning of the 15th, the weather being ous icy barriers, and sustaining violent shocks, beautifully clear, they saw to great advantage the which nothing but ships so strengthened could magnificent range of mountains, which, for some have withstood, they were baffled in all their days before, they had imperfectly seen stretching attempts to penetrate further, and obliged to wait away to the south ; and they “gazed with feeluntil the ice opened. On the 9th a breeze from ings of indescribable delight upon a scene of the northward opening a passage, they found grandeur far beyond any thing they had seen or themselves again in a clear sea. Shaping their had conceired. By rough measurement their course directly for the Magnetic Pole, on the height varied from 12 to 14,000 feet. 11th of January, 1841, land was reported to be As the Expedition steered southward, new seen directly ahead of the ship. It rose majes- portions of land opened to their view. The tically in lofty peaks, covered with eternal snow, sun shone on the icy landscape, and, thrown and must have been at least 100 nıiles distant back in every variety of “tone and modification," from the ship. The highest mountain of the the light which fell upon its snows and its gladistant range was named Sabine, in honor of the ciers, delighted the eye and elevated the minds of Secretary of the British Association, one of the the spectators. most active promoters of the Expedition. They Passing rapidly south, on the 21st, they deswere now in lat. 71° 15'. As they advanced, cried in the west a high-peaked mountain, which new mountains were discovered, which they as- they named after Lord Monteagle-and one of certained to be 10,000 feet high, and 30 miles great elevation, bearing a striking resemblance to from the coast.
Mount Ætna, which they named Melbourne, " It was a beautiful clear evening, and we had On the 25th May, they had advanced so near a most enchanting view of the two magnificent the Magnetic Pole, that the dip had increased to ranges of mountains, whose lofty peaks, per- 87° 10'. fectly covered with eternal snow, rose to eleva- An important discovery now awaited Sir tions varying from seven to ten thousand feet James Ross, At midnight of the 27th, the Exabove the level of the ocean. The glaciers that pedition had been tantalized with the appearance filled their intervening valleys, and which de- of eight separate islands, which turned out to be scended from near the mountains' summits, pro- summits of mountains at a great distance. On jected in many places several miles into the sea, the 28th they approached the High Island, which and terminated in lofty perpendicular cliffs. In proved to be a volcano 12,367 feet high, emitting a few places, the rocks broke through their icy flame and smoke in profusion. To this intercovering, by which alone we could be assured esting mountain they gave the name of Mount that land formed the nucleus of this, to appear- Erebus, and to an extinct volcano to the east of ance, enormous iceberg."
it, 10,884 feet high, they gave the name of Favoured by fine weather during the night, Mount Terror. At 4 o'clock in the afternoon, the ships succeeded in approaching within two Mount Erebus was observed to emit smoke and or three miles of the small islands, near the main flame in unusual quantities. A volume of dense land, and Sir James Ross, with several officers, smoke was projected at each successive jet, with effected a landing ; but the heavy surf, and the great force, and in a vertical column, to the height icy margin of the coast prevented them from of about 1500 or 2000 feet above the crater. attempting to reach the main land, and they con- When the upper portion of it began to be contented themselves with the occupation of the densed by the cold, it descended in mist or snow, largest of the Islands. On this barren spot they and gradually dispersed itself. In about half an planted the British flag, and the newly discovered hour a similar column of smoke was ejected, and lands were taken possession of in the name of the same effect took place at intervals, by no Queen Victoria. The Island on which they means regular. The diameter of these columns landed, was named Possession Island.
was estimated at between 200 and 300 feet. * We saw,” says Sir James Ross, “incon- Whenever the smoke cleared away, the mouth ceivable myriads of penguins, completely and of the crater was seen filled with a bright red