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sent an army into England, under the command | land states ; and yet he had suffered in the cause of the Duke of Hamilton, the protection of the of Charles the 1st, not only by being thrust from kingdom was committed to three individuals : the all his posts on that account, but by having his Earl of Lanark, who was Hamilton's brother, estates seized for several years. It was even the Laird of Garthland, and Colonel David Bar- suspected, there was a design that he should forclay. This trust was executed on the part of feit both estate and life, had it not been for the the latter, with vigour and fidelity. But after strong interposition of the General, and then Duke Hamilton's overthrow at Preston, the op- Earl of Middleton, under whom he had served posite party, being assisted by Cromwell, pro- in the late civil wars; and by whose interest, as cured the engagement to relieve the king to be the King's Commissioner to the Parliament, he declared unlawful; in consequence of which, all was liberated, without any thing being laid to the officers were turned out of their posts. his charge, or reason given for his commitment. Among these, Colonel David Barclay was one ;
(To be continued.) nor does it appear that ever after he was concerned in military affairs."
The above account of his conduct, is said to SIR. J. C. ROSS’ ANTARCTIC VOYAGE OF DIShave been given, in a manuscript preserved in
COVERY. the family, all written with his own hand; he
Abridged for Friends' Review from the North British Review. also takes notice, that being, for the reason just mentioned, rendered incapable of further service
(Concluded from page 382.) to his Prince, he retired to Gordonstoun for A curious anomaly in the variation of the several years. During this time, the Earl Maris- needle was here observed. The dip had diminchall, being taken prisoner at Eliot, in Angus, by ished to 86° 23'; and although the compass had the English under General Monk, and his estate on that account again begun to point with greater forfeited, they seized it, together with the lands precision, yet an unaccountable decrease in the of Ury, which the Colonel had purchased from variation had taken place from 96° to 77° E., him; on the pretext, that the rights (or perhaps and this was followed by an increase of 16°. writings) of the latter were not fully completed. From the number and accuracy of the observaUpon this, by the advice of the Earl and his tions, Sir J. C. Ross had no doubt that they had other friends, he availed himself of the interest passed among those extraordinary magnetic he had by his wife's cousin-german, the Earl of points which Šir E. Parry first observed in the Sutherland, and other relations, and became Arctic seas, near the entrance of the Hecla and elected member of Parliament for that shire ; and Fury Straits. in the next Parliament, by his own interest, for
On the 13th February, 1841, they bore away the shires of Angus and Kinkardine or the for the purpose of making another attempt to Mearns. This was looked upon as the only reach the Magnetic Pole, and of seeking a harmethod left, to get possession of his own estate bour in its vicinity, in which they might pass of Ury, as well as to do service to his country the winter. On the 14th, in lat. 76° 22' and and friends, particularly the family of Marischali, long. 178° 16' E., the dip had increased to towards whom he bore a great respect. With 870 as they approached the Pole, then about 360 regard to these objects, he was so successful, that miles distant; and as the variation was 91°, he got access to his own lands, and obtained they concluded that they were very nearly in large concessions in favour of the Earl Maris- its latitude. On the 16th of February, when a chall's family, so that there was little made by little to the west of the middle point between that forfeiture to the party then in power. This, Franklin and Beaufort Islands, when the variawith his strenuous endeavours on behalf of the tion was 107° 18' E., they were becalmed in other forfeited nobility and gentry, made him so the afternoon, and witnessed some magnificent popular, that he was again, in the year 1656, eruptions of Mount Erebus. The flame and elected member of Parliament for those two smoke were projected to a great height, but they shires; where he vigorously opposed and voted could not, as formerly, discover any lava issuing against Cromwell's being made King.
from the crater, although the exhibitions were After this, he disentangled himself from all now upon a much grander scale.
A solid mass public affairs, living in much privacy, sometimes of land ice, 15 miles broad, prevented them from at Edinburgh, and sometimes at Gordonstoun, approaching a low point of land, with a small with his mother-in-law; until the month called islet, which they had hoped might afford them March, 1663, when he lost his excellent wife, a place of refuge during the winter; and thereCatharine, aged forty-three years. About the fore thinking it impossible to get any nearer the same time, in addition to this source of affliction, Pole at so late a period of the season, they rehe was, by order of the government, after the solved to abandon the attempt. They were Restoration, committed close prisoner to Edin- now in lat. 76° 12', and long. 164° E., the dip burgh Castle. This treatment was said to be being 88° 40', and the variation 109° 24' E., occasioned by his having been “a trustee under and the distance of the Pole 160 miles; and the Usurper,” as Mackenzie's History of Scot- having completed the necessary observations,
they retraced their way through the pack of ice close the world, and all its hopes, and joys, and to the eastward..
sorrows upon us for ever. In this our deep On the evening of the 28th February, they distress, we called upon the Lord. He heard were indulged for the first time with a sight of our voices out of His temple, and our cry came the Aurora Australis, which appeared in the before Him.' magnetic west. It had the form of two segments “A gentle air of wind filled our sails ; hope of a broken arch, at, an altitude of 15°, from again revived, and the greatest activity prevailed which bright coruscations shot upwards to the to make the best use of the feeble breeze; as it height of about 60°. Sir J. C. Ross remarks, gradually freshened, our heavy ships began to that the upper points of these radiations were feel its influence, slowly at first, but more rapidly more beautifully attenuated than any of those he afterwards ; and before dark, we found ourselves ever remembered to have seen in the Aurora far removed from every danger." Borealis. The vertical beams had much lateral The circumstance of Sir J. C. Ross having motion, and frequently disappeared and reap- sailed over the region which is laid down as land peared in a few seconds ; but they could not in Lieutenant Wilkes' tracing of the icy barrier, perceive any of those remarkable colours which has given rise to a very unpleasant controversy. give such a peculiar character to the Northern Lieutenant Wilkes had, probably, been led into Lights.
the mistake, by some of his officers, of supposOn the 6th of March the ships in their west- ing that he saw mountainous land in latitude 66°, ward course were very nearly in the centre of and east longitude 1630–166°,—the very spot the mountainous patch of land which Lieutenant over which Sir J. C. Ross actually sailed. Wilkes has laid down in his chart as a part of As the easterly variation of the compass was the Antarctic continent; but though they steered now rapidly diminishing, it became interesting W. and N. W., they could not discover the sup- to determine the exact position of the line of no posed land. On the morning of the 7th of March variation. On the 23d of March, they crossed they found themselves embayed in a deep bight this line in latitude 62° 6', and longitude 135° of the pack, in which they counted from the 50'; and on the 31st, they again crossed it in mast-head 84 large icebergs, and some hundreds latitude 541°, and longitude 1333°. In pursuof smaller ones. In this situation, says Sir J. ing their voyage northward, the Expedition was C. Ross, “We found we were fast closing this fortunate in observing the case of the Aurora, chain of bergs, so closely packed together that which we have already described, and after conwe could distinguish.no opening through which tinuing their observations on the temperature and the ships could pass, the waves breaking vio- specific gravity of the sea at various depths, and lently against them, dashing huge masses of obtaining very satisfactory measures of the magpack-ice against the precipitous faces of the netic intensity, they reached Hobart Town on bergs; now lifting them nearly to their summit, the 6th of April, 1841, after a most successful then forcing them again far beneath their water- termination of their first season's navigation of line, and sometimes rending them into a multi-the Antarctic Seas. tude of brilliant fragments against their project- Having refitted their ships, and embarked proing points.
visions and stores for three years, the Expedition “Sublime and magnificent as such a scene left Hobart Town on the 7th of July, 1841, in must have appeared under different circum- order to make another attempt to penetrate to stances, to us it was awful, if not appalling. the southward, and to visit Sydney in New For eight hours we had been gradually drifting South Wales, and the Bay of Íslands in New towards what to human eyes appeared inevitable Zealand, in order to obtain comparative magnetidestruction; the high waves and deep rolling of cal observations. On the 14th they anchored in our ships rendered towing with the boats impos- Port Jackson, and erected their observatories. sible, and our situation was the more painful and During their stay of twenty-one days, there were embarrassing, from our inability to make any only four without rain, and on two or three oceffort to avoid the dreadful calamity that seemed to casions it fell in “perfect sheets of water,” more await us.
than three inches of rain falling in two and a half “ In moments like these, comfort and peace of hours, and nearly five inches in five hours. On mind could only be obtained by casting our a preceding occasion, twenty-three inches fell in cares upon that Almighty Power which had one day, the same quantity that in some parts of already so often interposed to save us, when Scotland falls in a whole year. The droughts human skill was wholly unavailing.
in New South Wales are sometimes as extreme. Ve were now within half a mile of the In the drought of 1838, a gentleman rode his range of bergs. The roar of the surf, which ex- horse furty miles without being able to give him tended each way as far as we could see, and the a drink, and had eventually to pay half-a-crown crashing of the ice, fell upon the ear with fearful at an inn on the road for less than a quart of distinctness, whilst the frequently-averted eye as water. immediately returned to contemplate the awful Quitting Port Jackson on the 5th of August, the destruction that threatened, in one short hour, to Expedition landed on the 17th in the Bay of Islands, where the magnetic observatories were they had passed through could not be less than erected, and hourly observations immediately 800 miles. commenced. a
On the 13th of March, while the people of the Pursuing their southerly course towards the Erebus were close reefing their topsails for the eastern part of the great icy barrier, they crossed night, a large iceberg was seen ahead, and quite the antarctic circle on the first of January, 1842, close to the ships. During the attempt to and on the 19th encountered a tremendous gale weather it, the Terror was observed running while surrounded with icebergs.
down upon us under topsail and foresail, and as During twenty-eight hours, the ships were in she could not clear both the Erebus and the iceimminent danger. About nine o'clock in the berg, a collision was inevitable. The people of evening, the sea quickly rose to a fearful height, the Erebus instantly hove all aback in order to and breaking over the loftiest bergs, drove the diminish the violence of the shock, but the colliships into the heavy pack. After midnight they sion was such as to throw every one off his feet were involved in "an ocean of rolling fragments to carry away their bowsprit, foretopmast, and of ice, hard as floating rocks of granite, which other smaller spars. Entangled by their rigging, were dashed against them by the waves with so the ships were now hanging together-dashing much violence that their masts quivered as if against each other with fearful violence, and fallthey would fall after each blow, and the destruc- ing down upon the weather-face of the lofty icetion of the ships seemed inevitable.” The rud- berg, against which the waves were breaking and der of the Erebus was disabled, and that of the foaming to near the summits of its perpendicular Terror completely destroyed and torn away cliffs. Providentially the vessels separated before from the stern-post. Hour after hour passed drifting upon the breakers, and they escaped away amid the loud crashing noise of the strain- through a small opening, which appeared the only ing and creaking of the timber and decks, passage into clear water. " which was sufficient to fill the stoutest heart While the Erebus lay rolling amidst the foam with dismay, that was not supported by trust in and spray to windward of the berg, a bright Him who controls all events.'
auroral light, of a singular kind, presented itself “ The storm gained its height at 2 h. P. M. to view. It formed a range of vertical beams Although we had been forced many miles deeper along the top of the icy cliffs, marking and parinto the pack, we could not perceive that the taking of all the irregularities of its figure. Our swell had at all subsided, our ships still rolling author considers it as connected with the vaporand groaning amidst the heavy fragments of ous mist thrown upwards by the dashing of the crushing bergs, over which the ocean rolled its waves against the berg, and supposes that it may mountainous waves, throwing huge masses one have been in some degree produced by an elecupon another, and then again burying them deep trical action between it and the colder atmosphere beneath its foaming waters, dashing and grind- around the berg. ing them together with fearful violence. The During the prosperous course of the Expediawful grandeur of such a scene can neither be tion towards Cape Horn, which they reached on imagined nor described. Each of us secured the 4th of April, the quarter-master fell from the our hold, waiting the issue with resignation to mainyard overboard, and perished, notwithstandthe will of Him who alone could preserve us : ing every exertion to save him. The Expediwatching with breathless anxiety ihe effect of tion reached Port Louis in the Falkland Islands each succeeding collision and the operations of on the 6th, and the observatories for the magnetic the tottering masts, and expecting every mo- and pendulum experiments were soon after ment to see them give way without our having erected. the power to make an effort to save them. After completing their magnetical observations About four o'clock the squalls laid the ship over on on the Falkland Islands, the Expedition set out her broadside, and threatened to blow the storm- from Port Louis on their third visit to the Antsails to pieces. The 'Terror was then so close arctic Zone. On the 28th of December they saw to us, that when she rose to the top of one wave, land, which was believed to be the “ Point des the Erebus was on the top of that next to lee- Français,” the north cape of “ Joinville Land.” ward of her—the deep chasm to leeward of them Passing numerous icebergs and rocky islets, being filled with heavy rolling masses, and as they fell in with a great number of the very the ships descended into the hollow between the largest black whales, so tame that they somewaves, the maintopsail-yard of each could be times allowed the ship almost to touch them seen just level with the crest of the intervening before they would get out of the way. Sir J. wave, from the deck of the other."
C. Ross remarks, that any number of ships This appalling scene began to change about might procure a cargo of oil in a short time ; and midnight; the falling snow cleared away, and that “ within ten days after leaving Port Louis, the swell gradually subsided. On the 28th they they had discovered not only new land, but a found themselves about 450 miles from the valuable whale-fishery." place where they entered the pack, and they as- On the 22d of February, 1843, they crossed certained that the breadth of the belt of ice which the line of no variation in latitude 61° 35' south,
and longitude 22} west, where the magnetic diplows :- I tell you what, Mr. M. and gentlewas 57° 40'. *
men ; I have been knocking about this here town On the 4th of April the Expedition reached all my life, and have lodged in a great many the Cape of Good Hope, where the ships were houses, and I must say this here is the best booth refitted, and their magnetical observations con- in the fair.' He then went on to tell how kindly tinued. On the 30th of April they set sail for he had been treated when ill, and of the instrucEngland, reached St. Helena on the 13th May, tion he had received from the other inmates, and the Island of Ascension on the 25th, Rio on the concluded by amusing the company in giving 7th of June; and on the 3d of September, 1843, Sir imitations of the cries of various animals, the J. C. Ross landed at Folkstone, the Erebus and starting of the steam-engine on the railroad, &c., Terror having, when paid off, been in commis- &c., which he did almost to perfection. Another sion four years and five months.
said in the house he had been taught habits of These noble vessels, in spite of the rough economy, which he had never before adopted ; treatment which they experienced, returned to when he first came he was surprised and delightEngland as sound, and ready for further service, ed with the intelligence he found among the inas on the day they left it. They were accor- mates-- it was a school in which a man could dingly commissioned in 1845 for a voyage of obtain the best instruction without evil. Another
, discovery to the Arctic Seas, under the com- in the course of his speech, declared he had not mand of Sir John Franklin and Captain Crozier; met a drunken man in the house, and appealed and from this important Expedition we are now to the others whether so much as four quarts of anxiously looking for their return.
beer had been consumed there during the last
five weeks. The rest fully confirmed this, and LODGING HOUSES.
said they would not tolerate a drunkard among them. Another,
was formerly a mathe(Concluded from page 376.)
atical teacher; his health failing, he became a “ The Society has omitted no legitimate al commercial traveller ; the same cause compelled lurements to attract company-t has taken coun- him to give that up. He now obtains his living sel from the enemy; It is,' said a witness by, selling an ingenious mathematical work of his before the Constabulary Commission, “a very own composition ; he is a man of superior mind. usual thing with the lodging-house keepers to He spoke highly of the management and the give all their customers a dinner on Christinas- character of the inmates, comparing them to a day.' The Society has done the same; and here happy, united family. Others gave utterance to is the report of their agent, who affords us some similar sentiments, and the evening was spent in curious peeps into private history:
the greatest harmony." “On Christmas-day the lodgers, to the number The benefit of these arrangements is not of seventy-seven, were treated to a substantial merely direct in the use of the superior houses dinner of roast-beef and plum-pudding. I pre-themselves. Every establishment so conducted, sided at table, and was not a little amused at the becomes the centre of a healthy infection ; a enormous quantity of food some of the poor higher standard is raised, and people expect a fellows devoured. Throughout the afternoon and better entertainment as the fruit of their “ money's evening their conduct and conversation were of worth.” Not long ago the keeper of one large the most exemplary character, their general ap- and thoroughly abominable tenement assailed the pearance respectable in many cases the appear- Inspector with a volley of imprecations. “ You ance of having seen better days. After dinner have ruined me,” he said, 's with your vile I addressed them, and requested them to state building there ; since you opened that house of freely the advantages (if any) they derived in the yours, I have been obliged to spend more than King Street House, as compared with others of four hundred pounds on painting and cleaning." a similar description. The first who spoke was But the society, in their second effort, at
; he has received a college education, tempted greater things, and determined to raise and informed me he was intended for the church. a new house from the foundation, constructed on He partially entered into his personal history, the best plan, as a model for future establishments. stating what were the causes which had brought They selected a site in George Street, Blooms. him under the necessity of living in such a bury, in the neighbourhood of Church Lane, and neighbourhood. He stated that from the time other streets and alleys of the same Elysian he came to London, he wandered from lodging- description. Here they have erected a spacious, house to lodging-house, but has never met a home airy building, calculated to hold one hundred men until he came here. The next was a youth and boys—firebrands, we hope, plucked from about seventeen ; his speech was nearly as fol- the fire of the general corruption.
• Sir J. C. Ross places the southern magnetic pole most a transcript of those laid down for the in latitude 75° 5', and longitude 1540 8' east. phenomena, however, are such as to suggest a belief management of the original houses. The main that there are two magnetic poles in the southern he difference lies in the superior accommodation. misphere.
It consists of five stories besides the kitchen
floor; the staircases are wide, well lighted, and missionaries describe as "great splendour" in
hope to be this once listened to! For we are It need hardly be observed that if the Society not unacquainted with the worse vexation that can afford, and with an adequate profit, to pro- awaits the investigator and publisher of social vide all this accommodation for the price de-evils,-who sees the mischief growing rapidly manded at the most infamous receptacles, the under his eyes, yet his statements, his warnings, gains of their proprietors must be really enor- his entreaties, fall still-born to the earth, and earn mous. By way of specimen, we were informed nothing for him but the title of humanity-monger! by a most respectable missionary, that he knew Meanwhile, ignorance or carelessness, or both an individual who rented a small house at 11l. together, heap one wrong upon another ; every 148. a year. The man put into it eighteen improvement in streets, squares, or approaches ; double beds, which brought in 21. 88. a week, or every architectural clearance, prompted by taste 1241. 168. per annum. If 131. 2s. be allowed or convenience, brings trouble to the impoverished for necessary expenses, a yearly profit of 1001. multitude. “ This may be sport to us, but it is would remain on this paltry tenement. Another death to them.” They are driven, at a very missionary reported: “One of the lodging-house short notice, from their humble abodes, to search keepers in my district told me that he came to in vain for other dwellings, which, in common London a journeyman carpenter, with only five justice, should be prepared for them at an equal shillings in his pocket
, and now he could lay his charge ;-we have seen them in agonies of doubt, hands any day on ten thousand pounds." In fact, worn by fatigue, and anticipating a much inwe are assured that many of the proprietors, creased rent for a still more miserable accomhiring out such houses by the dozen, are men of modation. They press, of course, into the notorious wealth, and live in what the worthy densely crowded lodging-house, which, though
as of Such is the baline of the domiciled condition