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of the rural districts was still more intensely mind. The following extract from a letter wretched, and he, in common with Friends in beloved friend, written under feelings of bodily all parts of Ireland, believed they had a serrice indisposition, a few months previous to his deof love to perform towards the sufferers beyond cease, will be read with interest. Alluding to their own localities ;—they living chiefly in the some symptoms of illness, he remarks, "I beprincipal towns. As is well known, large funds lieve it right in any event, to accept this little were contributed in England, Ireland, and addition to many warnings, that it is needful to America, and placed at the disposal of the Central set the house in order, whether it be for life or Committee of Friends in Dublin ; and from the death, whether the stewardship be continued a peculiarly suffering condition of many parts of little longer, or that accusing account be called the counties of Cork and Kerry, it was felt that for, which humblingly teaches us that we have these districts had large claims on the funds thus no foundation on which to build a hope, but the benevolently contributed. An Auxiliary Com- free and unmerited mercy of God in Christ mittee of Friends was formed in Cork, to act in Jesus, our crucified and risen Lord. It is my connection with the central body in Dublin, and desire that my will may be made in this, and in on them devolved an important charge, calling all other respects, conformable to the Divine will; for the exercise of much discretion and decision. and I have been preserved from much anxiety We shall not, we are persuaded, offend any one throughout; yet while the spirit is at times thus of the survivors by saying that the principal ready, how deeply do I feel that the flesh is inweight of this onerous trust devolved on their deed weak. A large portion of life's outside departed and lamented colleague ; and they measure has been already filled up to some of us, would testify, that this service was discharged in and we know not how soon the midnight cry a manner alike satisfactory to his friends, and to may be heard in our streets ; how much then the numerous parties, in various circumstances does it concern us to be increasingly vigilant, in of life, with whom he corresponded, relative to order that when the certain and appointed time the state of the country, and the best means of does come, we may be prepared to meet the applying relief. This correspondence occupied Bridegroom, with our lamps, trimmed, and oil in a large portion of his time and thought, and with our vessels." other cares pressed heavily upon him.

And his surviving friends have abundant with difficuliy he could feel himself liberated to reason to believe, that this last desire was indeed attend the Quarterly Meeting in Clonmel, in 4th mercifully granted, and that he was found with month, last; and here several of his friends were his "lamp trimmed and waiting for the coming sensible of a change in his aspect, and that the of his Lord,” when that awful summons ar. usual liveliness of his manner had given place rived, which he had thus been enabled to conto an earnest seriousness of expression, which template with Christian calmness. His last act shewed how deeply he had selt. "In the meeting of public duty, was the attendance of the relief for discipline he addressed his friends impres- committee, in which he had so assiduously lasively on the subject in which he was so greatly boured. On returning home he felt ill; and the interested ;—he reminded them how mercifully following day continuing poorly, medical aid was the members of our Society, had been preserved called in, and the disorder pronounced to be typhus from suffering by the visitation of famine, under fever. Though fully aware of the nature of the which so many of their afflicted countrymen had disease, and as he himself expressed, that " his sunk into the grave. He referred to the progress life as it were hung in the balance," he was preof disease, (then becoming awfully prevalent) served in calm and patient resignation, and reand remarked, that “ they could not expect ex- | markably free from anxiety, expressing a belief emption from a calamily, which spared no age or that which ever way his illness terminated, all rank ;” adding his belief, “ that it would come would be well, adding, “ I have nothing to trust near to some of us, even to our very doors.' to, but simply to the mercy of our Saviour, the He subsequently attended the Yearly Meeting in mercy provided for all.” In allusion to matters Dublin, of which he had long been a constant of public interest in which he had been engaged, attender and valuable member; entering into its he observed, “he felt the necessity of self being concerns with that Christian interest and unas- kept in subjection, and of not allowing the apsuming zeal, which conspicuously marked his probation of man to have undue influence over character on these occasions.

the mind,” expressing a hope that he had mainDuring these opportunities of intercourse with tained watchfulness in this respeet, and adding his friends, as well as after his return home, he with evident feeling, “ I have been but an unexpressed a belief that it would be right for him profitable servant." At times during his illness, to circumscribe his attention, to some of the ob- his mind wandered, but almost invariably to the jects of public interest, and lessen some of the scene of those philanthropic exertions, in which cares which had much occupied his attention. so much of his time and attention had latterly He was fully sensible that his health had suffered been employed. by the labour in which he had been engaged, and Deep was the interest felt, not only in his native by the anxiety that had lately pressed on his city, but by Friends in the south of Ireland

For Friends' Review.

generally, when it was known that one so much pounds sterling was a full compensation for their beloved, was struggling with this insidious slaves. That the consumption of sugar last year malady; for a time, hopes were entertained of was 300,000 tons, and that the protection claimhis recovery, but it pleased Infinite Wisdom to ed by the West India interest would therefore order otherwise, and his reduced strength sunk cost the people of Great Britain three million under the disease :-he expired on the 22d of pounds sterling per annum for the exclusive 8th month, and his remains were, on the 25th, benefit of the growers of sugar, which he disaccompanied to the grave, by a large and sorrow- tinctly announced that the government would ful company of friends, as well as by many of his not consent to. He went into some statements fellow citizens, anxious to pay the last tribute of to show that the colonial interests would be respect to one so deservedly esteemed.

benefitted by the use of sugar in breweries and In the retrospect of such a course, there is for distillation, and he disclosed the lamentable little to be added ; his end was peace, and some fact, that in consequence of the diminished duty of us sensibly feel in reference to this our much on rum, the consumption of that article during loved friend, that the memory of the Just is the past year in Scotland and Ireland alone, had precious.-Annual Monitor.

increased 636 thousand gallons, or nearly 25 per cent, on the consumption of 1846. The measures which the Government proposed for

the relief of the West India planiers, were the DEBATE ON THE SUGAR DUTIES.

admission of molasses and cane juice for distillaThe Correspondent of the National Intelligen- tion at a proper duty,—a loan for the promocer furnishes an interesting summary of the de- tion of free emigration of laborers,—the removal bate in the British Parliament on the opening of of captured negroes to the West Indies at the the present session, upon the question of a re- cost of government, and a renewal of certain peal of the act of 1846, providing for the equali- loans. These measures, with more energy and zation of the duties on colonial and foreign improved methods in the cultivation of sugar, sugars. Great interest attaches to this question were deemed sufficient. He affirmed that, since from its important bearing upon slavery and the the abolition of slavery, the improvements of slave-trade. - The following brief notice of the other countries had not been introduced into the facts stated on both sides, is intended to put the West Indies. He attributed the present condireader of the Review in possession of the views tion of the West India interest to the baneful taken by the opposing parties, without endorsing want of energy which principally arose out of a any of the statements. Lord George Bentinck, on reliance upon protection. I. Wilson argued that the part of the West India interest, affirmed there were 250,000 tons of sugar raised by free that the Island of Barbadoes was the most densely labour in countries' east of the Cape of Good inhabited country in the world—that the free Hope, and that if slave labour sugar was exnegroes of Jamaica were no great lovers of cluded from Great Britain, the West Indies could labour—that ou a plantation where 150 labourers not compete with the free produce of those were employed, the most industrious person was countries. He stated that the white population a woman, who worked 164 days during the in the British West India Islands was only 7 per year, and the most industrious man worked 154 cent of the whole, and the proprietors, being abdays—the day's work consisting of about seven sentees, did not manage their estates so econohours—that there were in British Guiana 25,000 mically as in Cuba, where the owners resided free black labourers, receiving $3 each for a on their property. Internal improvements had week’s labour of five days, and about six hours also been better attended to in Cuba than in the each day. He estimated the total value of the British Islands—there being eight hundred rniles slaves in the British Islands at forty-five million of railroad in the former, and not more than a pounds sterling, for which they received twenty dozen in the latter. A member showed that the millions pounds. The Chancellor of the Ex- export of printed and dyed cotton goods to the chequer denied that a protective duty was neces- British Islands had fallen off in 1847 considerably sary to save the planters from ruin. He showed more than 25 per cent of the amount exported in that the fall in sugar was not owing to the re- 1846, while the exports to Brazil in the same peal of the discriminating duty, or the abolition period 'had increased more than 25 per cent. of slavery. Indigo, rice and sugar had fallen in Thomas Baring stated that the cost of making nearly the same ratio. He denied that the re- sugar in St. Kitts had increased from 4s 5d duction in the price of sago was owing to the the cost during the last four years of slavery introduction of that grown in foreign countries ; to 21s 7d, the average cost during the last and he attempted to prove this by showing that four years of freedom. It was further stated, on during the past year the proportion of foreign behalf of the West India interest, that out of 653 sugar imported was much greater when sugar sugar estates under cultivation in Jamaica, 140 Was high, than when the price had fallen, That have been abandoned since the emancipation it had been shown from documents furnished by act, and that 465 coffee plantations have been the planters themselves, that fifteen millions of abandoned in the same period—that upon cer

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tain estates in the same island, in the year 1832, / who have been engaged in writing and treating there were employed, say 42,000 labourers- upon every question of social importance. You that on the same estates there were now em- have in every town in Italy men who are not ployed about 14,000—the remainder, 28,000, only taking a deep interest in schools, but in having become independent settlers; a fact which prison discipline, and in every question relating affords a gratifying evidence that the condition to the moral condition of the people. As reof the negro has been greatly improved, what-gards political economy, I was amazed at the ever may be the effect upon the whites. It is number of people I found in Italy who sympaalso affirmed that sugar cannot be produced in thized with our practical efforts and controverJamaica under 27 shillings per cwt., while in sies upon the subject of political economy. Cuba 12 shillings is a remunerating price. The Every lawyer, every councillor in Italy, studies motion for a committee to inquire into the con- political economy as part of his education; and dition and prospects of the sugar interests in the hence arises the great interest that was taken West Indies and Mauritius was adopted, and upon that subject, upon which we have been so the committee consists of eleven advocates of long and so arduously engaged in England. It free trade and four protectionists, which fact, has not been from violent outbreaks in Italy together with the explicit declaration of the that the present state of things is coming round. Chancellor of the Exchequer, seem to forbid the Violence and revolution retarded the present expectation that any discriminating duty in fa- progress; but I trace to institutions kindred to vour of free sugar will be laid. The effect of this, though not the same as this-I trace to this admission of slave-grown sugar into Great those institutions all the progress that has been Britain upon the slave trade which that govern- made in Italy; and I join with the worthy ment has so long been endeavouring to suppress, chairman in saying, that it is by the progress of is not alluded to in the summary of the debale the human mind alone that governments can from which this notice is taken.

make progress, or that good governments can be maintained at all. I join with him in saying,

that at this time public opinion will control goITALY.

vernments. I go further, and I say, from my Richard Cobden, whose name is familiar to experience in Europe, that there is no such many of our readers as the ardent advocate thing as despotism existing, in the old sense of for free trade, has recently returned from a tour the word; public opinion rules more or less on the continent, and has used the occasion of everywhere, the better of course, in proportion a meeting of a Literary Society in Manchester, as it is the wiser; but give me the compound to state the result of his observations upon so- ratio of the intelligence and the morality of any ciety in some of the countries through which he people, and I will give you the character of passed. We take from Chambers' Journal the their government, no matter what its formation

, following remarks in regard to Italy, exhibiting If you ask me, after my long tour on the cona more favourable view of its social condition tinent, what it is that recurs to my memory with than we had been accustomed to take.

the greatest pleasure, I am bound to say it is In Italy, Mr. Cobden went on to say, he had Italy and the Italians. It is not merely their found a new life springing up. “And when I monumental remains ; it is not merely that we inquired how it was that Italy began to make have there the proofs that they have twice given itself heard and felt in the rest of Europe, I civilization to Europe and to mankind; but it came to the conclusion, from all I could observe, is the character of the minds of their most disthat it arose from the quiet progress of thought tinguished men of this day. I like intercourse and of intelligence arising oui of the education with living minds, and I will pass by the aqueof the people. There have been in Italy great ducts, the columns and the ruins, and I say that, efforts made for the education of the people. amongst the Italians, at the present time, you I found, to my astonishment, in almost every will find, not in the mass of the people I would town, several Infant Schools, supported by not pretend to say so—but you will find in voluntary contributions, superintended by Ita- the Italians some of the mosi amiable, accomlian nobles; and I saw a school at Turin, plished and interesting men that are to be found which a marquis attends daily, and rides in Europe ; and it is those men, and the interupon a hobby-horse with the children, and course I had with them whilst in Italy, which, joins with them in their play. It is an to tell you frankly, comes back upon my memohonour to him, and I will mention his ry with greater pleasure than anything I expe. name, for I am sure he would not be ashamed rienced abroad. 'I argue that, in the present efto be known to you all : his name is Dazalio, fort which is being made in Italy, you will see and he is the brother of that Dazalio whose it progress just as the people become more and writings you have lately seen upon the present more enlightened. You have there, as you state of Italy. Then you have in Italy now, as always had, a first-rate quality in the race ; and you have always had, leading minds, great and if they are but left to themselves, if they have powerful individualities in every town; men that privilege which we claim for ourselves, if

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Italians are left to work out their own regenerá- | tyrants, and even of honest men who hold sception, I do not doubt that the people who have tres timorously. But what is gained now will twice given civilization to the world, have the be kept, we trust, until the broad equality of power within themselves again to work out their men is universally acknowledged, and the goown redemption.”

rernment of God through the people every where It may be proper to keep strictly in view that acknowledged. The position of England in all Mr. Cobden chiefly saw men of rank and edų- these discussions is very grand. Great as is the cation in Italy, and that his remarks apply strict- power of hierarchy in her government, her ly to that class. A friend of his and ours, who Cannings and Cowleys, and her representatives has seen much in Italy, deplores that the mass generally, take the side of freedom in religious of the people are of very different character. opinion. - Mercury. How far Mr. Cobden may have overlooked the state of the masses in forming the agreeable

PHYSIC FOR ILL-HUMOR. prospects here presented to view, we are unable

A sensible woman of the Doctor's acquaintto say, but we feel only too sure that, till the ance (the mother of a young family) entered so bulk of the people are improved, all efforts at far into his views on this subject, that she taught political regeneration must be greatly liable to her children, from their earliest childhood, to condisappointment.

sider ill-humor as a disorder to be cured by

physic. Accordingly, she had always small LIBERTY IN TURKEY.

doses ready; and the little patients, whenever it The Sultan of Turkey and his prime minister was thought needful

, took rhubarb for the cross

No punishment was required. Peevishappear to be great and good men. When the

ness or ill-temper and rhubarb were associated in Sultan came to the throne, he issued a declara- their minds always as cause and effects. The tion which would have done honour to any Doctor. Christian statesman; and ever since, he has been labouring with his whole soul in accordance

DAVID'S OFFERING. with that declaration. None but a great man in heart and head, would have reigned as he has. rock to David, into the cave of Adullam; and the host

“Now three of the thirty captains went down to the His treatment of those Armenians who, under of the Philistines encamped in the valley of Rephaim, the instructions of American Missionaries, have And David was then in the hold, and the Philistines' turned away from a Christianity of forms to a garrison was then at Bethlehem. And David longed Christianity of spiritual life, has been most re

and said, Oh that one would give me drink of the water

of the well of Bethlehem, that is at the gate! And the markable. An indolent man, or a fearful man, three brake through the host of the Philistines, and or even a conservative man, would have thought drew water out of the well of Bethlehem, that was by it wise to know nothing about the matter, but to the gate, and took it and brought it to David; but David let the Armenian Patriarch and his church, and would not drink of it, but poured it out to the Lord, the American Missionaries siding with the peo- thing: shall I drink the blood of these men that have

and said, My God, forbid it me, that I should do this ple or with the Patriarch, settle the affair as they put their lives in jeopardy? for with the jeopardy of might. But the Sultan has taken the trouble to their lives they brought it: therefore he would not drink understand the matter, and the responsibility of it.”—1 Chronicles 11: 15—19. 2 Samuel 23: 13—17. delivering his faithful subjects, charged with no In the darkly frowning shadow crime but heresy, from the hands of their pow

Of Adullam's cavern wall,

David and his men had hid them erful and bigoted oppressors. The scene is one

From the wrath of Saul. of great interest, and the eyes of the world will be turned upon it. Bible Missionaries from the

Bethlehem was strongly guarded,

While beyond, in war array, land of the free, with their earnest pupils around

Proud Philistia's gathered legions them, on one side; the official representative of In their white tents lay. an old hierarchy, sustained and urged on by

It was noon: the hot winds blowing another ecclesiastic, also from the land of the Off Arabia's burning sand, free, persecuting the students of the Bible; and Mingling with the harvest sunbeams, the great Turk taking the side of the few and Swept across the land. feeble Bible men, merely because theirs is the Oft the monarch's eye had wandered, side of righteousness!

To the summit of that hill, Tyranny must surely be in a poor way when

Where his native village restedthe Sultan and the Pope abjure it: and freedom

Loved and lovely still. may lift her persecuted head when they take her Thoughts of other days came o'er him, hand. The whole world is earnestly engaged

When, a simple shepherd boy,

He had sported on that hill side, in studying the great questions of individual

Full of childish joy. rights and duties, and freedom is recovering back

He remembered one pure fountain, the rights which the violence of usurpation and

Gushing, as in childhood, row, long ages of superstition have wrested away.

As he wiped the gathering sweat-drops Liberty is slowly recovering from the grasp of! From his heated brow.

« Oh” he said that one would give me

Of that water, clear and cold, In the well by Bethlehem's gateway,

Which I loved of old." Straightway, of his followers faithful,

Three, the mightiest, arose, Warriors were they, stern but loyal,

With its heaven descended motto

Ever present to our view,
“What ye would receive from others,

That to others do ?"
God forbid that we should offer,

In direct obedience now,
Less than David at Adullam
By his gift and vow.

Non-Slaveholder.

SUMMARY OF NEWS. Congress.-In the Senate, Resolutions of the Legislatures of Illinois and New Jersey, in favour of Whitney's Railroad to the Pacific, have been presented; also, resolutions of the New Jersey Legislature, in favour of the improvement of rivers and harbours by the General Government. On the 8th, a petition was presented from inhabitants of Virginia, praying that the proceeds of the sales of public lands might be set apart for the eventual abolition of slavery, by using the sum so obtained for the purchase and manumission of female insant slaves. It was disposed of in the usual manner, by laying the question of reception on the table. The Treaty was under consideration in long Executive sessions of about eight hours average duration, up to the 10th inst., when, after undergoing several important amendments, it was finally.ratified, as is understood, by a vote of 38 to 14. It will be necessary to transmit it to Mexico, for the ratification of that Government.

HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES.- A bill to relieve the Judges of the Supreme Court from attendance on Circuit duties, during one year, was passed. The object of the bill is to allow the Judges to give their whole attention to the appeal calendar, on which cases have greatly accumulated. The bill to supply deficiencies in the appropriations for the current fiscal year, was passed, 137 to 15.

The Government has negotiated a loan of $5,000,000.

PENNSYLVANIA LEGISLATURE.- petition, from sundry inhabitants of Chester and Lancaster counties, was presented to the Legislature, asking for certain changes in the law respecting the Sabbath, proposing that all persons should be left at liberty to observe such days as to them may seem best. This petition being referred to a committee, a report was presented to the House of Representatives, in which the religious obligation of the Sabbath is argued at considerable length, and the following resolution proposed:

Resolved, That it is inexpedient and would be wrong to grant the request of the petitioners; and that the committee be discharged from the further consideration of the subject. This resolution being twice read, was adopted by the house.

The Magnetic Telegraph from New Orleans to Mobile has commenced operations.

YUCATAN.—An extensive rising of the Indian population, having for its object the destruction of the white race, has taken place in this Peninsula. It is reported that they have overrun nearly onethird of the territory of the state, slaughtering the inhabitants, destroying the houses, and completely laying waste the country. The greatest excite. ment and alarm prevailed among the white inhabi. tants, who were procuring arms and ammunition from Cuba, and making great exertions to defend themselves.

Fearless of their foes.

Boldly through the armed hosts breaking,

Soon they reached the fountain's brink, Where their King in happy boyhood

Oft had stooped to drink.
Paused they not, those loyal captains,

Nor the crystal waters quaffed,
But in haste brought back to David

Childhood's healing draught. Steadily the monarch eyed it,

Pleasant looked the cup to him, “ But,” he said, “my men to win it,

Perilled life and limb.

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“God forbid that I should drink it

In this tempting cup I see
Fresh and warm the human life-blood

Jeopardied for me.
“Though athirst and faint, I pour

it Out upon the parching sod, Thus, what most I loved and longed for,

Offering to God.”
Unto us that deed descendieth

Through the ages it hath shone-
By the shepherd king's uprightness

Light for us was sown. Şimple was it, yet how noble,

Brilliant for all after time, Beautiful with self-denial,

Glorious ! sublime!

If, amid red scenes of slaughter,

In that war-benighted day, When Jehovah's law was written

« Blood shall blood repay.David, homeless, worn and weary,

Thirsty, fainting and forlorn, Panting for the pure cold water,

Loved in life's bright morn, Could forego the draught delicious,

Looking only at its cost:
Shall a deed so truly noble,

On our hearts be lost ?
Shall we, with the countless blessings

Poured upon us from on high-
With the face of plenty beaming

On us smilingly-
Do the thing he deemed unholy ?

Shall we careless quench our thirst, ,
When, to fill our pleasant vessels,

Human heart-strings burst ?

Shall we walk in glistering raiment,

Through untold, oppression gained, When by blood and tears and sorrow,

Every thread is stained ?

Does the glorious gospel message

Nothing holier impart,
With its words of love and mercy

Written on the heart ?

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