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FRIENDS REVIEW.

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A RELIGIOUS, LITERARY AND MISCELLANEOUS JOURNAL.

VOL. I.

PHILADELPHIA, THIRD MONTH 25, 1845.

No. 27.

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EDITED BY ENOCH LEWIS.

whatever religious denomination, and particular

ly those of the Roman Catholic body; having Published Weekly by Josiah Tatam,

also strictly examined how far both their princi No. 50 North Fourth Street,

ples and practices were consonant with the PHILADELPHIA.

Scriptures of truth ; he found himself constrainPrice two dollars per antium, payable in advance, or six ed, upon the same ground of real conviction as his copies for ten dollars.

father had been, to embrace the same, doctrine This paper is subject to newspaper postage only.

and course of life. It is by no means evident,

that he was induced simply through the means ROBERT BARCLAY AND FRIENDS IN

of preaching, to make this change ; indeed, his SCOTLAND.

own clear explanation, which will be shortly (Continued from page 402.)

given, leads us to an opposite conclusion ; but Robert Barclay was born at Gordonstoun, in more especially the testimony of Andrew Jaffray, the shire of Moray, the 23d of the 10th month, one of his intimate friends, who asserted that he 1648.* When very young he had the appear-/ was " reached in the time of silence.” Although, ance of a promising genius; and, after passing Castle, the governor denied him all access to

during his father's imprisonment in Edinburgh through the best schools in his native country, him for the space of several months ; yet he had was sent by his father to the Scottish College had sufficient occasion to observe the circumat Paris, of which his uncle was the rector, Here he made so great proficiency in his studies, spect example and genuine piety of his worthy as to gain the notice and particular approbation parent, as well as that of other servants of the of the masters of the college ; and became espe- mind was in consequence imbued with some

Lord, who entertained similar views; and his cially a favourite with his uncle, who offered to make him heir to all his property, (which was

“ general impressions” in favour of Friends ; very considerable,) if he would remain with till at length, according to the language of the him. But his father, fearing that he might be- Ury Record," he came by the power of God to come tainted with the superstitions of Popery, At this juncture, John Swintoune and James

be reached and made to bow" before the Truth. and in compliance with his mother's dying request, went to Paris in order to bring him home, Halliday were particularly helpful to him as inwhen he was not much more than sixteen years of these individuals,' who uttered those few

struments ; and perhaps it might have been one of age. The uncle still endeavoured to prevent his return ; and proposed to purchase, and give words, attributed to some minister who was to him immediately, an estate greater than his present at the first meeting Robert Barclay atpaternal one, Robert replied, “He is my

tended, and which are said to have had considera

father, and must be obeyed.” Thus he sacrificed in- ble effect on his mind :—they were these-" In

stillness there is fulness, in fulness there is noterest to filial duty; and the uncle, disobliged, left his property to the college, and to other re-thingness, in nothingness there are all things." ligious houses in France.

His own explanation above alluded to, appears Robert Barclay returned to Scotland in 1664;

in the following passage in the "Apology," two years after which, his father became united where, speaking of himself, he says, “Who, in membership to Friends. So far from endea- not by strength of argument, or by a particular vours being used to gain over the son to this disquisition of each doctrine, and convincement persuasion, it was the express desire of the pa- and bear witness to the Truth ; but by being

of my understanding thereby, came to receive rent, that he should have his religion from conviction, rather than from imitation; which ac-secretly reached by this Life. For, when I cordingly proved the case. For, having freely

came into the silent assemblies of God's people, and extensively visited all his relations and

I felt a secret power amongst them which touchfriends, in different parts of the country, of ed my heart; and as I gave way unto it, I found

the evil weakening in me, and the good raised Corresponding to the 2d of 1st month, 1649, New up; and so I became thus knit and united unto Style.

them, hungering more and more after the increase

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of this power and life, whereby I might find my- | Although he did not believe it required of him, self perfectly redeemed.”—Prop. xi. sect. 7. to travel so extensively as some others in this

Some account of his religious experience from work, (there being ample room for variety in his youth, is contained in the succeeding ex- the administration of heavenly wisdom to her tract, given nearly in his own words, from ano- children,) we find him, in this respect, very ther of his publications, which is a treatise on highly esteemed in love by his fellow-servants. “ Universal Love:"_“My first education from William Penn styles him an accomplished my infancy, fell among the strictest sort of Cal- minister of Christ;" though, perhaps, not invinists ; those of our country being generally tending to convey what may in this day be unacknowledged to be the severest of that sect; in derstood by that phrase. George Fox, who was heat of zeal surpassing not only Geneva, from by no means addicted to eulogy, but rather senwhence they derive their pedigree, but all other tentious in his commendations, testifies of Robert reformed churches abroad. I had scarce got out Barclay, that he was “a wise and faithful minisof my childhood, when I was, by permission of ter of Christ—who did good service for the Lord, Divine Providence, cast among the company of -turning people from darkness to light.” Papists; and my tender years and immature ca- Before turning from these striking specimens ·pacity, not being able to withstand the insinua- of the effect of submission to Divine power in tions that were used to proselyte me to that its operation on the soul, it will be proper, for way, I became quickly defiled with the pollu- the sake of those readers who may need such tions thereof; and continued so for a time, until information, at least to advert very briefly to it pleased God, through his rich love and mercy, Robert Barclay's character as an author, and to to deliver' me out of those snares, and to give me one of his engagements in that line. He was a clear understanding of the evil of that way. considerably exercised in controversy, from the In both these sects, I had abundant occasions to many contradictions which in that day were receive impressions contrary to this principle of poured forth upon this view of the Truth, and love: seeing the straitness of several of their upon him for its sake, chiefly in his own coundoctrines, as well as their practice of persecution, try. In these, he ever acquitted himself with do abundantly declare, how opposite they are to honour to his religious profession; but particuuniversal love. The time that intervened be- larly by " An Apology for the true Christian tween my forsaking the Church of Rome, and Divinity,” held by the people called Quakers, uniting with those with whom I now stand en- which volume was published in Latin so early gaged, I kept myself free from joining with any as the 28th year of his age; his first piece har. sort of people, though I took liberty to hearing appeared in print six years before. “ This several. My converse was most with those was, says William Penn, “ the most comprewho inveigh much against judging, and such hensive of all his pieces. It came out at the kind of severity : which latitude may perhaps close of a long and sharp engagement between be esteemed the other extreme, opposite to the us of this kingdom, and a confederacy of adver. preciseness of these other sects; whereby I saries of almost all persuasions. It was his also received an opportunity to know, what happiness both to live in a more retired corner, usually is pretended on that side likewise. As and to enjoy at that time a space of quiet above for those I am now united to, I justly esteem his brethren ; which, with the consideration of them to be the true followers and servants of their three or four years' toil, and a sense Jesus Christ."

of service in himself, put him upon undertaking Through great love, watchfulness, and fidelity and publishing this discourse, as an essay towards to the inward appearance of Jesus Christ, “the the prevention of future controversy. It first true Light,” Robert Barclay early came forth a lays down our avowed principles of belief and zealous and able witness for it, taking up his practice-(after which he has put the objeccross to the glory and friendship of this world, tions which he had collected out of our adverand despising the shame that attended his own- saries' books—and answers them; and lastly ing this testimony ; for he esteemed “the re- cites divers authors, both ancient and modern, proach of Christ greater riches than the trea- especially some of the primitive ages, for further sures in Egypt,” and counted all things but loss illustration and confirmation. The method in comparison of winning Christ, and being and style of the book may be somewhat singufound in Him. After this manner, he rapidly lar, and like a scholar; for we make that sort of advanced, it may be said, both with regard to learning no part of our divine science. But that stature and strength, to such a growth in grace was not to show himself ; but out of his tenderand saving knowledge, as has been the admira-ness to scholars, and, as far as the simplicity and tion of many. It was not long before he was purity of the Truth would permit, in condescencalled out to the public'ininistry; and, receiving sion to their education, and way of treating this gift “ as his greatest crown or dignity,” la- those points herein handled.” It has passed boured to fulfil the services required at his hand, through many English and also foreign editions, in bringing others to the truth as it is in Jesus; being translated into several languages. Among and his labour was not in vain in the Lord. I those, who from that day to the present have

For Friends' Review,

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joined the Society by convincement, not a few
have been led to do so, from the perusal of this SOME ACCOUNT OF JOHN CROOK.
book. Several have been the testimonies given
in its favour by authors of repute. “I am not

Our late and valuable friend John Griffith, ashamed,” says one, "to own, that I have with informed Robert Dudley that John Crook, one great pleasure read over Mr. Barclay's Apology

of the earliest and most distinguished ministers for Quakerism; and do really think it the most amongst the people called Quakers, was remarkmasterly, charitable, and reasonable system, that able on many accounts, especially during the I have ever seen.

It solves the numerous diffi- violent persecutions of that people, in the reign culties raised by other sects, and by turns thrown of Charles II.—a large portion whereof fell to at one another, and shows all parts of Scripture

this man.

It was observable that his gift in the to be uniform and consistent.”* Cato's Letters, ministry was such, that he frequently, in these or, Essays on Liberty, civil and religious, by times of great affliction, whilst free from impriGordon and Trenchard, 1720, vol. iv. p. 256. sonments, continued his declarations in public Another author, Norris, a minister of the meetings for upwards of three hours, during the • Established Church,” declares, “ I cannot think whole of which, such authority attended, as to Quakerism inconsiderable, as the principles of convince many of his auditory that nothing short it are laid down 'and managed by Barclay. of a Divine commission could produce the

That great and general contempt they lie under, baptizing effects attending his ministry ; in condoes not hinder me from thinking the sect of sequence whereof, many were joined to the Quakers to be far the most considerable of any Society of which he was a member, through that divide from the Church, in case the Quaker- his labours, and became ornaments thereof. ism that is generally held, be the saine with that

He outlived those days of dark intolerance, which Mr. Barclay has delivered to the world some years, much beloved for the remembrance as such; whom I take to be so great a man, of his past services and sufferings in the noble that I profess freely, I had rather engage against cause of religion; and frequently appeared in I

, a hundred Bellarmins, Hardings, and Stapletons, the meetings of Friends in very long testimonies than with one Barclay.” And again, that he of sound doctrine and pleasing expressions. knew of no religion so rich in reputation for But some deeply exercised minds amongst his great men, but might be glad of the accession of friends observed, with concern, that that

energy such a' writer. of Divine Light, Tract. ii. of melting virtue, which had accompanied his Of

gospel labours in former times, to their great In truth, to adopt nearly the words of a candid consolation, was now very little, if at all, felt to writer, Robert Barclay's qualifications for con

attend his ministry. troversial labour, were unusually eminent; being

Two of these weighty elders, from a sense of not only master of useful literature, but of a clear duty, when they found their minds suitably comprehension, a capacious reach of thought, a

qualified, waited on him, and, with all the tenclose and convincing manner of reasoning, de- derness and deference due to his age, expelivered in a forcible style, though plain and un

rience and great worth, communicated their fears affected. The excellency of his temper, height

on this account, and intimated their wish that ened by the influence of religion, preserved him he would look at this matter, and seek to that in coolness, that his judgment was not blinded Gracious Being, in whose service he had been by any degree of passion; whilst his regard to so effectually engaged for many years, and with undisguised truth prevented him from flattering

such remarkable success, for his blessed counsel error, or excusing calumny. His enlightened on this subject, and at a suitable time favour mind penetrated to the bottom of his subject;

them with the result of his deliberation on what and this imparted a clearness of method, which, they had laid before him. He received their with the weight of his arguments, proved him communication with great meekness, and, after an overmatch for his antagonists.

some weeks, waited on them, in a broken, tender It is not requisite here to enlarge any further frame of mind, letting them know, with many on this author's productions. An ample survey tears, that their brotherly, or rather fatherly conof them has been given by the author of “duct toward him, was a kindness that he should short Account of the Life and Writings of never forget, and that, upon deep thoughtfulness Robert Barclay,” published in 1802. William on the subject referred to him, he found there Penn also wrote a preface to his collected was ample cause for it, and he looked on them Works, in which there is a particular recom-as messengers of love from his great Master to mendation of the several treatises of which it warn him of his dangerous situation; and then consists. This introduction, for the lively spiri- related how he now found he had gradually and tual sentiments pervading it, can scarcely be read imperceptibly slidden off in these times of public without advantage by those who have a true tranquillity from receiving his ministry through relish for divine things.

that pure unmixed channel, through which he

had formerly received it. The spring of the (To be continued.)

ministry, he said, during the fierce trials of per

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secution, flowed so copiously through him, that them in jails," " Ah," replied the interrogator, he felt little labour to come at it. But, in these “ neighbour W. our forefathers sometimes sadly latter days of the Church's tranquillity, he, from mistook the proper use of jails." the love he had felt for the cause, delivered words “ Friend Y." returned my courteous kinsas they occurred to him in the public assemblies, man, “there is but one class of men who acwhich he did not perceive (till their kind intima- knowledge and condemn errors. 6 And what tion to him) were only from his natural powers class is that,” queried the other? “ That class," as a man, and not from the Divine gist of gospel continued my kind cousin, “ is composed excluministry as formerly; of which he was now sively of Noblemen.” With that we parted, fully convinced, and returned praises for his (as Christians should part) having tested the disgreat deliverance, where first due, and gratitude position of our neighbours to our entire satisto them as instruments thereof.

faction. He continued for three years after this, quite To me this little meeting in the wood was silent as a minister, and about that time he again not only very pleasing, but profitable, and I broke forth in a few words, just as at first com- therefore the more readily make this memoraning out in the ministry, and gradually increased dum of it. in his gift to the comfort and edification of his Be

ye therefore kind one to another, tenderfriends, and was always very careful ever after, hearted, forgiving one another, even as God for not to exceed the measure of Divine opening Christ's sake hath forgiven you." with which he was favoured, in the exercise of

A NIECE.

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nis gift.

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SPEECH OF R. COBDEN, M. P., ON NATIONAL For Friends' Review,

DEFENCES. FROM THE DIARY OF

SEVENTH

According to accounts received by the late MONTH, 1829.

arrival, the British government has resolved Being on a visit to my esteemed kinsman to add very considerably to the existing estab

in Montgomery county, we were lishment for national defence. The following proceeding one First day morning to meeting in extracts from a speech delivered on the 27th of his carriage, when, in passing through an open First month last, at a public meeting at Manpiece of wood, our fore wheel struck a stump, chester, present a forcible view of the absurdity by which a swingletree was broken.

of this measure. The speaker, we may recol. My cousin quickly remarked, we now shall lect, is a member of Parliament, and a zealous have an opportunity of testing the kindness of advocate of free trade. our neighbours, B. and Y., who were fast ap- “ You will bear me out that, throughout the proaching, on their way to their respective places long agitation for free-trade, the most earnest of worship, the former being a Baptist, the latter men who co-operated with us, were those who a Presbyterian.

constantly advocated free-trade, not merely on Having met, the former stopped his waggon, account of the material advantages which it observing, “Why, neighbour W., you have would bring to the community, but for the far broken a swingletree,” and, at the same time loftier motive of securing permanent peace betaking out a hatchet

, added, “I seldom travel tween nations. I believe it was that considerawithout having this tool with me, and, by tion that mainly drew to our ranks that great the help of it, I hope I can be of some service accession of ministers of religion that gave so

He then went into the wood in quest powerful an impetus to our progress at the comof a suitable stick to replace our broken tree. mencement of the agitation; and I, who have

By this time our Presbyterian friend drew up, known most of the leading men connected with and asked, “ What's wanting, neighbour W.?”' the struggle, and have had the opportunity of “Not much," replied my cousin, “only a little understanding their motives, may say that I bePresbyterian help.” “In what way will you lieve the most earnest, persevering, and devoted have it,” rejoined the ready Calvinist. "In the of our coadjutors have been men who were

“ shape of a good leather strap, if convenient,” re- prompted by those loftier, those purely moral sponded my cousin, who, by the by perceived and religious motives, to which I have referred, he could spare one without much difficulty. especially for the object of peace. Now, I am

So, without further delay, the strap was brought sure that every one of those men has shared round to the place where it was needed, in order with me in the shock which my feelings susto secure our new swingletree.

tained, when, within one short twelvemonth Whilst our two kind friends were thus en- almost, after we had announced ourselves as gaged, Y., with an arch look, said, “ Mr. B. free-traders to the world, we are startled with don't

you think we are doing wrong in helping the announcement that we are going to increase these Quakers to meeting ? • Why, yes,'

our warlike armaments.

. . Now rejoined the grey headed Baptist, “if our fore- what I wish to stipulate with you and the people fathers did righi in preventing them by lodging of England is this, that the question before us is

to you.

not a military question; it is not a naval ques-into practice the very simple idea, that, apart tion ; 'it is a question for civilians' to decide. from the precepts of religion, which we do so When we are at war, then the men with red often quote, but so seldom practice, and upon the coats, and swords by their sides, may step in. merest calculations of an enlightened self-interest, and do their work. But we are now in peace, nations have a far different mission upon earth and we wish to reap the fruits of peace ; and in than to excite in each other' mutual fear? How order to do that, we must calculate for ourselves long will it be before they discover the selfish the contingencies of a possible war. It is a objects of those who have an interest in persuadcivilian's question ; it is a question for the tax- ing them that the name of a foreigner is synopayers, who have to maintain the cost of war- nymous with that of enemy? When will they it is a question for the merchants, for the manu- learn that, as children of the same Father, their facturers, for the shopkeepers, for the operatives, real and only enemies, those which they ought for the farmers of this country. What is this to struggle to destroy, are ignorance, oppression, prospect of a war ? Where does it come from? misery, and superstition that in proclaiming You, I say, are competent to judge, better than their mutual friendships, they will tend to the

I military men ; you are more impartial; you are consolidation of peaceful relations with each disinterested; at all events, your interest does other ?—when will they discover that the mainnot lie on the side of war. Any man who can tenance of formidable armaments, in countries read a book giving an account of France, who whose nationality is not seriously menaced, incan read a translation from a French newspaper, flicts an evil upon all, and confers benefits on who will take the trouble to investigate the statis- none? But, better to define my idea, do you tics of the progress of their manufactures, their not think that if, confident of the maintenance of commerce, and their wealth,—any man, I say, an honorable peace, we were to deduct from the who can study these things, is as competent as 500 millions francs which our army and navy any soldier to judge of the probability of war. I cost us, twenty millions to be applied to the eduhave had better opportunities than any soldier of cation of the people, and a like sum for the purstudying these things; and I say, there never pose of converting 20,000 soldiers into road was a time in the history of France and England makers; if we gave back to agriculture and when there was a greater tendency to a pacific manufactures 50,000 more soldiers, leaving in policy in France, and especially towards this our pockets the sum which they cost to pay and kingdom, than there is at this moment. support them-think you not that this would be There are five or six millions of proprietors of a good result of the entente cordiale. Do you real estate in France : you have not a tenth of not think that this example of common sense, the number in England. Those are all thrifty, and feeling of security given by us, would have painstaking, careful men, all with their little sav- its influence upon the other countries of Europe, ings, their little hoards of five-franc pieces, all would lead to other disarmaments, would facilimost anxious to do something for their children, tate everywhere those fiscal reforms which are ---for there is not a more affectionate or domes- postponed from day to day on the plea of the tic race on the earth than the French. I have necessities of the treasury, and would give to seen with horror and shame, and indignation the productive industry that capital and labour which way in which some of our newspapers have are now diverted into unproductive channels ?? spoken of the French people. :

Now,

While in a state of profound I want us to understand a little better about these peace, it is for the tax-payers of England to deforeigners. You may remember that, about cide whether you will run the risk of war and three weeks or a month ago, I had occasion to keep your money in your pockets, or whether address to the electors a few remarks at Newton you will allow an additional number of men in on the occasion of the election of our friend Mr. red coats and blue jackets to live in idleness Henry, and there I let fall some remarks favoura- ander“ pretence of protecting you. I am for actble to a reduction of our armaments, and show. ing justly and fairly, and holding out the olive ing how necessary it was that we should reduce branch of peace to all the world'; and I am for our expenditure, to carry out our fiscal reforms. taking upon myself, so far as my share extends, I little dreamt then, that, within a few hours of all the risk of any thing that may happen to me, that time, a large meeting was held at Rouen, the without paying for another soldier or another Manchester of France, at which 1,800 persons sailor. But it is not merely the question of assembled at a public dinner to promote the pro- whether you will have more armaments, that gress of parliamentary reform : and there a gen- you, as civilians, are competent to decide. You tleman was making a speech so similar to my have already laid out, or will expend this year, own, that he sent me a newspaper, and express- seventeen millions sterling upon your armaments; ed his astonishment that our two speeches should and it is a question upon which you are compehave been made, without collusion, so similar to tent to decide, whether the best possible use is each other. I will read, if you please, this gen- made of your money-whether, for instance, tleman's remarks. This gentleman, M. Vicinet, the navy for which you pay so largely, is really says: How long will it take to turn from theory employed in the best way, or, at all events, in

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