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the way best calculated to do that which these court, and give them an asylum on board, in case men profess themselves so anxious to do, if you her misconduct towards her people should comwill only give them more money,—to protect pel her to fly. ... If you go into the your shores. Where do you think all the great Mediterranean and follow your ships there, there line-of-battle ships are gone to? I have picked is the same process going on. Why, the Mediup a few notes abroad, for I have travelled by terranean is covered with your ships; not to look water as well as land, and I venture to say that after your commerce; we have solved that questhere is not more perfect idleness or more demo- tion; they cannot put up the pretence in future ralization, the consequence of idleness, going on of protecting our commerce; we have repudiated in the same space, upon the face of the earth, protection. But you will find them leaving than in' our ships of war, for want of having Portsmouth, and sailing direct for Malta, the something to do. Where do you find these great skulking-hole for your navy. I was at great line-of-battle ships which you pay for and Malta at the commencement of the winter, in the equip, and keep ready for sailing, at your har- month of November. There was a ship arrived bours, with such magnificent display of power when I was in Malta, from Portsmouth ; it had
1 and science? Do they'go in those directions come direct; it had a thousand, hands on board where you have most extensive commerce? Do when it lest Portsmouth ; it came into Valetta they go in the direction of Hamburgh, which is harbour with 999 men and boys, having lost one the great port of Europe ?.. You never 'see an on the passage ; it went straight into Valetta English man-of-war there. Do they go to the harbour. I went from Naples to Egypt and to Baltic, where you have so much trade ? Rarely Greece, and when I came back, there was the is it that a man-of-war goes there; you seldom vessel lying there still ; it had never gone out; see one there; there is rough weather, and there her officers had gone on shore to live in the are not many attractions on shore there. Well, clubs ; and the lieutenants and other officers, go then to America, to North America, and I finding the utmost difficulty in having even a presuppose, ere long, we shall do one-fifth or one- tence for employing the crew, set them to hoistsixth of all our foreign trade with the United Jing up their sails and letting them down again ; States—we shall come to that, I hope, very soon, and scrubbing the decks till they almost scrubbed are there any of these great men-of-war on the the planks in pieces.
I speak for coast of North America ? Why it is the rarest myself as an independent member of the house thing if one is seen there. It is noticed in the of commons, that not a shilling shall be added American newspapers, if any English man-of-to the estimates for our armaments but I will war appears on their coasts; they never go force a division of the house upon it. I began there; they do not like the society; there are by identifying this question of our armaments no idle people there, and, therefore, they do not with the question of free-trade, and I tell you in go there; they are not wanted, and they would conclusion, that the question of free-trade is do harm rather than good, if they did go deeply jeopardised all over Europe by the course Where, then, do these ships-of-war go to that we are taking, or which it is proposed to take. you have to pay for ?
. . I moved for Why, I receive the papers from Paris. There a return of the amount of our average naval is a band of free-traders there, associated together, force that has been in the Tagus and the waters who publish their weekly organ, as we publish of Portugal on the first of each month during the our Anti-corn-law Circular. They call it the last twelve months, the names of the ships, the Libre Echange; it is edited by my talented, complement of guns, and the number of men. able, and excellent friend, M. Bastiat. That When it turns up, I should not be surprised, if paper of last week is mourning in sack-cloth and you were to see that you have had a naval force ashes over the conduct they think England is in the Tagus and the Douro, and on the coast of going to adopt. What says the organ of the Portugal, which, in number of guns, will not protectionists, the Moniteur Industriel! Why, fall much short of the whole American navy. they were deluging not only France but England Lisbon is a pleasant place to be at, as I can with their paper of last week, in which they vouch for, having seen it; the climate is delight- leap with exultation. We told you so ; England ful; geraniums in the open air in the month of is not sincere in free-trade; she has no faith in January! I do not quarrel with the taste of the her principles; she sees that other nations will captains or admirals that go and spend a twelve- not follow her example, and she is preparing month in the Tagus, if you will let them; but armaments to take that by force which she what are they doing, in return for the money thought she would take by fraud.' I exhort my they cost you? Are they forwarding in any, fellow-countrymen everywhere to 'resist this the remotest degree, English interests there? I attempt to throw odium upon our principles. Nothing of the kind. Our fleet has been in We begun our advocacy of free-trade, believing the Tagus at the absolute disposal of the Queen it would bring in its train peace and harmony of Portugal, and positively and literally for no- amongst nations. The most enthusiastic amongst thing else. Our papers have avowed it, that our us never said, as some papers now pretend to fleet is wanted there to protect her majesty and I say, that we expected the millennium immedi
ately after we had got free-trade. We never ex- | attempt to fix which of them shall sit nearest to pected it. We expected we should have to give Christ, on his right hand or on his left; but let time to other nations to adopt these principles, us consider them all with thankfulness and great precisely on the same ground that we required joy, giving thanks for them earnestly to God, time to adopt them ourselves. But what we did their Father and ours, that He has magnified hope was this—that the continent of Europe, His grace in them, and made them conquerors with its eyes steadily fixed upon this country, in over sin and death; and praying that we may connection with this question, would, at all be added to their number, and that we too may events, have seen that we were not the first to be a subject for thankfulness and not for sorrow have doubts as to the tendency of our own prin- to the generations which shall come after us. ciples, by arming ourselves against the world,
Dr. Arnold. when we were pretending to seek only friendship and amity. We promised to many a good
A NIGHT FROM HOME. and peaceful man who joined this agitation, that An incident of a rather interesting nature we would endeavour to make it the harbinger of happened at Perth last week. Three boys, two that peace he so much cherished. We planted the sons of Sergeant Campbell, and another the olive tree; we never expected its fruit to whose name we have not learned, the oldest fifcome forth in a day, but we did and do expect teen years, and the youngest eleven, took a fancy, it to yield fruit in due season.
on Thursday forenoon, being up the water-side
on a ramble, to cross to the island opposite THE DISCORD AND THE HARMONY OF
Scone Palace, and known by the name of “ the
woody island." They accordingly all waded SAINTS.
across, the water being comparatively shallow; It might be done, indeed, but it were a thank- but after sojourning an hour or two upon it, their less labour, to look over the list of God's saints-state of mind may be conceived, when, approachof those, I mean, whose lives and minds are in ing the bank to return, they found the river so any way known to us—and to notice the ble--swollen from a sudden flood, as to preclude the mishes in each; how some, according to their entire possibility of any attempt to recross. The several constitutions of mind and circumstances, poor little fellows wandered about on the bank have omitted duly to cultivate one virtue, and the rest of the day, earnestly gazing on the opothers have omitted to cultivate another ; how posite shore, and along it as far as their vision some have too much neglected some great truth, could stretch, or as far as an object could be whilst others have raised to the level of truth, or seen, in the hope that some friendly form would even above it, some great error; how'some have appear and be the means of making known their been very zealous for much that was evil, while situation and of bringing them relief. No one, others have been too cold toward much that was however, although they occasionally saw some good. Above all, it would be possible but very stroller in the distance, 'came within hearing of painful to mark so often their alienation their cry. The result was the shades of evening from each other; how they mistook each other descended, and with the darkness sunk their for enemies and shunned each other's society, hopes of assistance for the night. They ac. insomuch that, as in the sad story of the con- cordingly, and with wonderful fortitude, although tention between Paul and Barnabas, they parted cold, hungry, and weary, set about accommodataltogether from one another, and, instead of doing themselves to their circumstances as they ing the Lord's work together, they were each best could. Occasionally, they ran about to keep obliged to do it alone. All these things might themselves in warmth, and at other times hudbe noticed, and history must notice them. . But dled together under a tree or bush for the same with all this, there is another point no less true, purpose ; and in this position they sometimes which is equally matter of history, and which got a little sleep. At length the morning dawned, it is far more profitable for us to contemplate- and they were again on the look-out on the bank, that with all this difference, nay, with all the but several weary hours passed before they saw sense of discord which actually may have pre- any one approach. It was eight o'clock when vailed, there was in all, even where they them- they saw a man, and their joy may be imagined selves observed it not, a secret harmony; all when the Campbells found him to be their own were Christ's soldiers, and satan's enemies ; father. We need not say on discovering his all, in that great struggle between good and evil
, children, whom he had searched for the whole which has gone on in the world since man's first night, that he immediately stripped and waded sin, were, according to their measure, fighting on across for them with all a father's anxiety and the side of good. Therefore now, when all have delight at finding them scathless and even wonentered into their rest together, and they who derfully cheerful. But one thing remains to be were parted from one another here, find, to their told. He wanted to take his oldest son over first exceeding joy, that they must needs be one for on his back, but the son refused, saying, “na, evermore, inasmuch as they each were one with ye. maun tak Willie, he's bare fitted, an' awful Christ, let us not dwell upon the differences, nor cauld;" and on asking him to go second, he re
plied, “na, tak this time, for he's littler | down, viz.: The means of national security, the
The usual practice of nations was evidently based
upon the supposition that their security from the
aggressions of their neighbours depends upon their
the generally admitted maxim, that to be prepared for PHILADELPHIA, THIRD MONTH 25, 1848. war is the best preservative of peace. And though
the fallacy of this doctrine has been proved by the QUAKERISM. In a former number some re
history of all nations, and is easily demonstrated by
argument, it still retains a place in the theory of marks were introduced respecting the benefits that would accrue from the adoption and observance of irations of the safety arising from the pacific policy,
governments. Notwithstanding some practical illusthe principles which the Society of Friends has which had been exhibited long anterior to the Chrisalways professed. Agreeably to the prospect inti tian era, and the unquestionable fact that the Chrismated at the close, some additional remarks will tians of the two first centuries absolutely refused to now be submitted to our readers. There is in the
bear human mind a propensity to view with indifference, filled with the disasters and horrors of war; though
arms; though the history of the world was if not with contempt, such opinions or motives of the whole tenor and spirit of the Christian religion action, as differ widely from our own. And there
peace and good will to man—it evidently is probably nothing in which this propensity is more requires a confidence in the protection of an overstrongly exemplified, than in the estimate we form of the religious opinions and experience of others. ruling and all powerful Providence, which nothing
less than conscientious conviction of duty can In these respects
, we are apt to judge of our neigh- furnish, to enable nations to withdraw their dependbours by ourselves. It is therefore no subject of surprise, that when George Fox and his coadjutors and intrust their security to the Divine blessing, and
ance upon the arm of flesh and the policy of man, proclaimed the doctrine of freedom from sin, not only as attainable in the present life, but as a neces- tice in their intercourse with others. The standard
to the necessary result of a strict adherence to jus. sary part of the Christian character, and professed which christianity first offered to a jarring world, an experience similar to that described by the
was that which the Society of Friends were again Apostle, when he declared that the law of the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus had made him free from the the governments established in the western world
concerned to proclaim and uphold; and it was in law of sin and death, they were regarded by many under their administration, that the safety and of the professors as well as the prosane, as visionary enthusiasts
. The doctrines which they preached advantage of the pacific policy received their most and the standard which they held up to view, sylvania, which was erected in the midst of savage
prominent illustration. The government of Penn. inculcating a degree of purity which the high pro- tribes, accustomed to war, and unacquainted with fessors of the day, the teachers and rulers of the peo- the humanizing doctrines of the gospel, was found ple, were conscious they had not experienced, the latter had no alternative but to reject the doctrine, long as the rulers continued to act upon the princi
capable of maintaining the relations of peace, as or submit to the condemnation which it passed upon ples of the founder. This was an example such as them. We accordingly find, that those who made the the world had never witnessed before; and it furhighest profession of religion themselves, were gene nished a triumphant refutation of all the arguments rally among the most strenuous opponents of the that could be advanced in support of the necessity rising society. Like the first annunciation of our of military preparation against the aggressions of Lord's resurrection, their words seemed to them as
hostile invaders. idle tales, and they believed them not.
This practical illustration of the results arising As many of the practices into which their reli- from the gospel plan, in opposition to the policy of gious principles necessarily led them, were widely the world, could not fail to operate upon the more different from those which generally prevailed, they considerate class, even of those who did not em. were naturally regarded as enemies to the existing brace the general principles of Friends, and to lead order of society.
to a closer examination of the policy or necessity of Among the practical results of their religious prin- referring the adjustment of national controversies 10 ciples, there were three in particular, all of unques- the uncertain arbitrament of the sword. The principles tionable importance, which varied so widely from upon which the government of Pennsylvania was those usually adopted by their cotemporaries, that founded, were not only conducive to the maintenance those who held them were naturally regarded, like of peace, in their external relations, but they perthe primitive Christians, as turning the world upside vaded the system in its internal operations. The re
formation, rather than the punishment of offenders, I will no doubt be generally admitted. This progress became a prominent object of penal law. The me- may be regarded as the necessary result of advanliorations of the criminal code, by which the early cing civilization and refinement. But we ought to legislation of the province was marked, and the im. remember that the progress of society, civil and repetus thus given to the march of civilization and ligious, is owing to the labours and influence of enhumanity, in the punishment of crimes, may be lightened individuals, and to the principles which clearly traced to the religious opinions of William they impress upon the public mind. We may, Penn and his coadjutors. George Fox, at an early therefore, justly consider the promulgation of our period of his ministry, testified against the sangui- Joctrines in relation to war, by the early professors nary laws of his native country, and urged the judi- of Quakerism, as among the most efficient means cial officers of the time to the exercise of a lenity of promoting the civilization of the world. which the statutes of the realm did not allow. The Our reflections on the other points in question, views of christianity, and the principles of action must be deferred to a future number. which this first preacher of our Society was labouring to inculcate and establish, were those which the MARRIED, -At Friends' meeting house, New founder of Pennsylvania and his fellow professors Garden, Columbiana county, Ohio, on Fifth-day carried with them to the new world; and introduced
the 10th ult., Lawrie Tatum, of lowa, to Mary
ANN, daughter of James Hervey Dean. to a considerable extent, into their system of legis. lation. To these principles we are unquestionably indebted for the prominent station which this State the morning of the 4th'inst., Lydia, wife of Elihu
DIED, --In Greenfield, Saratoga county, N. Y., on has occupied in the improvement of the penal law; Anthony, in the 79th year of her age. She was a and to what else can we attribute the fact, that she member of Greenfield Monthly Meeting, and for was several years in advance of any other in the many years acceptably filled the station of Elder. Union, in giving a death blow to negro slavery by close of it, attended with great bodily distress, she
Her last illness, which was protracted, and, near the legislative enactment.
was enabled to bear with Christian patience, deIt is not now designed to inquire whether the siring that if there was anything in her way, she standard which was held up by the early professors might be favoured to see it. She died, like one of the society, has been always supported by a con
falling asleep, having expressed her belief that
"all was clear." Blessed are the dead which die sistent example; but we insist' :hat the exaltation in the Lord, from henceforth: yea, saith the Spirit, of the standard itself, in relation to war, was of that they may rest from their labours; and their great importance to the world. While the true works do follow them. principles of the gospel were proclaimed, even as a In Northeast, N. Y., on the 2d inst., Amy theory, this theory was a standing protest against an
Carman, widow of Richard Carman, in the 88th inconsistent practice. The standard of Quakerism year of her age. She was a member of Stanford
Monthly Meeting, and for many years, filled with being inscribed with peace on earth and good will to proprieiy and usefulness, the station of Elder. men, is a rebuke to its professors if they fall below it. Though for some time too feeble to attend our re. Whatever the standard may be, the object and aim ligious meetings, yet her concern for the welfare of of the sincere in heart, will be to conform their society was lively and undiminished; and her practice to it. Consequently the more nearly the quiet and peaceful close leaves no doubt, that,
through Redeeming mercy, she was prepared for a standard approximates to persection, the more ex- better state of existence, where the wicked cease alted will the practice probably be.
from troubling, and the weary are at rest. If now we advert to the consequence of a strict and invariable adherence to the principles of Quaker- MEMORIAL OF FRIENDS IN ENGLAND ON ism in relation to war, we readily perceive that the
NATIONAL DEFENCES. example must have a powerful effect upon those At a Meeting for Sufferings, held the 4th of who fall within the sphere of its influence. The
2d month, 1848. system includes not only an abstinence from hostile aggression and military preparation, but the subju.
This meeting has thought it right, in upholdgation of the malevolent passions from which wars
ing our Christian testimony against all wars and and fightings spring. Hence the consistent advocate fightings, to prepare, on behalf of the Society, a
memorial on the subject of the military defences of peace diffuses a moral atmosphere around him of the country, to Lord John Russell, as the head in which the spirit of war can searcely breathe ; an of the present administration. It was presented atmosphere in which the halo of military glory finds to him on the 1st inst., by a committee of the no place. And when the fires of heroism cease to said meeting, who were received in a kind and be fanned by the breath of fame, they will probably friendly manner. This meeting is renewedly soon expire.
impressed with the value and importance of this That the principles for which Friends have our ancient testimony to the peaceable character always contended, have made very important pro- of the Gospel, and feels engaged in brotherly gress in the world since the days of Fox and Penn, love to commend to our members generally, the
consistent maintenance and the diffusion of it in Although we painfully feel that even of later a Christian spirit.
time our country has not been clear of the sin of ROBERT FORSTER, Clerk. war in its intercourse with distant nations, we The Memorial is as follows:
regard it as a cause of reverent gratitude to Him
who ruleth in the kingdoms of men, that through TO LORD `JOHN RUSSELL, FIRST LORD OF
THE His good providence, peace has remained unTREASURY.
broken between us and the neighbouring comWe have respectfully to solicit thy attention tries of Europe, with so very little exception, to a few considerations in reference to the sub- for the last thirty years. Incalculable are the ject of additional military defences for the coun- benefits, moral and religious, as well as political try. In doing so, we are aware of the high and commercial
, which have resulted therefrom, standard which we have to uphold; but how- both to them and to us; and the retrospect of ever sensible of our own imperfections, we feel the past, and especially of the repeated deliverthat it is simply the standard of the New Testa- ance from threatening disputes and hostilities ment, and that which we dare not lower, but between this and other countries, in different which, through the help of the Holy Spirit, all parts of the globe, ought assuredly to lead us as are called to maintain.
a nation to put our trust rather in the protection In obedience to the plain precepts, and in and overruling hand of the Almighty, than in the conformity to the whole scope of the Gospel of defence of fleets and armies. our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, we have, as a We had hailed the repeated settlements of religious Society, ever maintained that all war, disputes between nations by the safe and honourdefensive as well as offensive, is unlawful to the able method of arbitration, as well as numerous Christian. Our Lord expressly enjoins it upon other instances of the adoption of a pacific polius to love our enemies, and when smitten on cy in later times, as indicating some approach the one cheek to turn the other also. His com- to those true principles of Christian government mands are illustrated and enforced by His own which we cannot but desire may, with all naperfect example-an example which we are told tions, wholly supersede the sin of war, whether in Scripture, He hath left us that we should fol- offensive or defensive, with its complicated evils, low His steps, “ who did no sin, neither was moral and social. guile found in his mouth ;” “when he was re- We cannot but regard military preparations, viled he reviled not again ; when he suffered he even when undertaken by a nation on the ground threatened not, but committed himself unto Him of defence against apprehended or possible agthat judgeth righteously.” Believing, as we do, gressions, as calculated to irritate the inhabitants that that which is a duty for man individually, of other countries ; and as therefore practically is a duty for man collectively, and that what is tending to precipitate the very events against .contrary to the commands of Christ in one man, which they profess to guard. Nor can we shut is contrary to His will in a people, we have our eyes to the fact, that all such preparations, uniformly maintained that all war and warlike whether by increase of the standing army; by operations are unchristian, and that the nation impressment for the navy; by calling out the that would be found walking in the light of the militia, or otherwise training men to the use of Gospel must not lift up-sword against nation, arms; or by the formation of forts and arsenals, neither learn war any more. We are, more inevitably diffuse a martial spirit among the over, firmly persuaded that nothing would so people and kindle the angry passions of the surely promote both the safety and the true multitude ; whilst the low morals of a naval port prosperity of kingdoms, as an entire conformity and of a garrison town but too plainly show that to the precepts and the example of Christ. one evil tendency of our nature is closely con
Hence it is with deep concern and sorrow of nected with others, and that war and its accomheart, not only as Christians, but as dutiful sub-paniments are among the most prolific sources jects of our beloved Queen, and as true friends of of vice. our country, that we have observed the discus- We are deeply sensible of the arduous and sions in Parliament and the agitation of the difficult duties which devolve upon our rulers
, public mind in reference to increased military especially in times like the present, and we de preparations against the possible aggressions of sire that you may be enabled, by a wise adminforeign powers. Whilst, therefore, we desire to istration based on Christian principles, to show abstain from intermeddling in mere political to surrounding nations that the true strength of questions, we have believed it required of us, as the empire consists, under the blessing of God, a solemn and religious duty, respectfully to lay in that moral power which results from fearlessbefore thee and those who are associated with ly and trustfully doing what is right in His sight
, thee in the administration of the affairs of the and in performing the duties and cultivating the empire, our earnest plea against any addition to arts of peace. the military operations of the country, however May that wisdom which is from above, and such addition may appear to be simply of a pro- which is peaceable as well as pure, be so earnesttective character.
ly sought and so faithfully followed, by those who