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are invested with the chief authority in this realm, 1 I do not attach any great weight to public that you may be enabled by your counsels, in opinion, except where there has been time for creasingly to promote the glory of God, in the correct and full information, and that opinion is peace, the harmony and the welfare of His ra- given without extra excitement, and wholly tional creation.
without party views. Public sentiment, how(Signed by forty-nine members.) ever, is to be respected when the people are London, 1st month 21st, 1848.
well informed, and have time to form an opinion. And it is always matter of policy to respect and
to listen to it: because it will have an influence REMARKS ON CAPITAL PUNISHMENT.
in complaints and verdicts, when crime has been
committed. If the people will not convict nor . Public opinion, both in Europe and in the complain, because they are opposed to capital United States, is becoming more opposed to punishments, criminals will escape all punishCapital Punishment-with some, as to its im- menis. And surely, it would be better for socipolicy, with others, as to its agreement with the ety, and for the innocent and virtuous, that the rights of humanity, and with others again, as to guilty and injurious be punished by confinement, iis inconsistency with the spirit of Christianity. than not punished in any way.
It is believed, by a portion of the people, that It is admitted that the state prisons now are Christianity does not justify or sanction il-and strong enough to prevent all escape ; and it is that this consideration is superior to all others. admitted by most, that the fear of confinement With the sincere Christian, this suggestion to hard labour for life, will prove as sure and should, and will have influence. If the Gospel powerful a preventive of crime, as that of the pundoes not allow one individual to take the life of ishment of death. And surely, with every man, another, how can a society of men justly do it? something is due, with the benevolent much is As to humanity and mercy, they certainly plead due, to the consideration of giving a poor miserafor the guilty, so far, as that they may have an ble sinner time to reflect, to repent, and become opportunity and the means of reformation, if prepared for heaven. consistent with the welfare of the virtuous. And As the state prisons are now generally regulatas to the policy of the milder system, many be- ed and conducted, I believe they afford an oplieve, that severe punishments rather increase portunity for reformation, and do often effect than diminish crime. It has been fully proved, that most desirable object. It is true that the both in Europe and in America, that where the principal design and purpose of human governpenalty is severe, the effect has been, that few, ment is to punish for the violation of law, for the very few, are convicted or complained of, and welfare and protection of its subjects; and that a vast majority of offenders, therefore, es- heretofore this has been the only design. The cape all punishment. And this evidently serves spirit of this enlightened age, chastened and only to corrupt society, and bring the civil au- guided by the spirit of Christianity, has suggested thorities into contempt. It is difficult to find a the penitentiary system; by which the criminal jury who will bring in a verdict of guilty, against may have an opportunity to reform, at the same one charged with the commission of a crime which time that he is subjected to restraint or punishis to be followed by a capital punishment. They ment inflicted by society for its safety; and many will be casuists enough to find some reason for benevolent and pious individuals are seeking for saying not guilty ; when, if the punishment the accomplishment of this object. I see not were confinement to hard labour in the state how the plan can be opposed by any enlightened prison, they would readily have said guilty. philanthropist. No objection to it will satisfy There is no reasoning against this feeling, or this ihe humane and benevolent, which does not go result. So it is. Many men think that human to show, either that confinement in a state prison governments cannot rightfully take away the life will not be a sure and effectual restraining of the of man. There are cases which might be criminal from farther mischief: or that this named; one within two years in a neighbouring punishment will prove a far less preventive of state, particularly, when the spectators thought, crime, with the bad who are abroad in society, and the judges thought, and the jurors no doubt than the gallows; and will therefore not be so thought, the prisoner at the bar guilty. But death great a terror to the wicked, as capital punish- · was the penalty of the crime charged, and they ment. It is believed, that with the most said not guilty: and the prisoner was discharged. abandoned and depraved, confinement to hard But had the punishment been confinement to labour for life will be more dreaded than a sudhard labour for life, there is no doubt the ver- den death ; and that while capital punishment is dict would have promptly been “guilty.” And the penalty of crime, there is great reason to exthe fear of confinement for life, within the massive pect most who are guilty will escape all punishwalls of the state prison, with depraved and ment, through the influence of public opinion, miserable culprits, must be a strong check on the and the humane feelings of the jurors. I believe indulgence of evil passions, which may entail we are far more sure of having the guilty desuch a punishment.
tected, convicted and punished, if capital punish
ments should be abolished, and confinement to return of the disorder should take place, I trust hard labour for life in the state prison substituted, the same power will be with me for good.” in all cases where now the statutes require the Eleventh month, 1st. In his private note book, penalty of death.
he writes :—“Oh, my dear heavenly Father ! do thou, for the sake of thy dear Son, be with
me at this time ; be near unto me and help me. NOTICE OF ANTHONY STERRY, Oh Lord ! my thoughts and hopes are on thee, OF SOUTHWARK, ENGLAND.
and thy dear Son. - Oh! shew me thy face
again ; and grant unto me a measure of that love This dear young friend was, from a child, of which has kept my thoughts on thee, many a delicate constitution. He had much to contend times during this illness. If it should please thee with in his natural disposition, but it appears that, again, Oh Lord, to bring me very low, do thou from early life, he had felt the necessity of its be with me, and draw me nearer and nearer unto subjugation, and that truthfulness had been a thee. Do thou enable me, day by day, to do prominent feature in his character. The opera- that which is right in thy sight; and help me, tion of the Holy Spirit to create anew in Christ Lord, by thy grace, to strive against my besetting Jesus, it is believed, was powerfully experienced sin.” by him, during the latter part of the life of his 18th. “Oh Lord, how can I acknowledge all dear mother, to whom he clung with great affec- thy loving kindness, and tender mercies, whilst tion, and whose prayers, on his behalf, appeared brought very low. In the hour of anguish thou to be graciously regarded.
wast with me; thy rod and thy staff helped me. About the beginning of the 5th month, 1846, Oh, give thanks unto the Lord, for he is good; he was attacked by illness ; when, being deprived for his mercy endureth forever.' Great are thy of the precious sense of acceptance in the Be- mercies, and that my soul knoweth right well
. loved, of which he had previously been a par- Thine, Oh Lord, have been the leading strings taker, he was for a season involved in deep of love ;-Oh, how gently hast thou dealt with mental conflict.
About this period, he wrote, I do hope and Twelfth month, 2d. “ There are times when believe that I have been benefitted by this ill- my mind is permitted to feel a peaceful calm, ness, and have at times felt the presence of and holy joy; when I am lost in wonder and good; but I do feel that much remains to be gratitude, in contemplating the love of Him who overcome, particulariy now that I am getting died for me, and whom I trust I increasingly better, and former inclinations return." So desire to serve ; who has indeed dealt with me closely did he cling to the hope of restoration, as a Father that pitieth his children. When I that even when told the opinion of his medical think how many are called away at a moment's attendants, he still thought he should eventually warning, and others with but a short time for recover; and it was not until the unexpected preparation, whilst I have had months for conrupture of a blood vessel on the lungs, on the iemplating his mercy and goodness towards me, 2d of 11th month, that he felt his disease was of I feel sometimes almost overpowered, and know a nature from which he must not expect to not how to love Him as I ought."
After commenting a little on his ailments, he Till near the latter part of his illness, he was adds :-“Should patience and grace be granted very seldom able to give expression to his me, then I can rest in peace, as to the event of feelings; to a friend he wrote — I have looked this illness, I have been shewn the emptiness of upon this illness as a peculiar dispensation for some of the things of this world; but I still cling my good; and although at times rather low, to many of them. There is still much to overunder the feeling that I am making no progress, come; and patience with others, I want much." yet I trust that if not now, it may at some future He often mentioned his fears that he did not time, be sanctified to me; and my earnset desire love his Saviour enough, or feel sorrow enough is, that the Lord's hand may not spare, till the for his sins; though, he added, they have not work is accomplished ; and I trust He will give been what the world calls gross sins. mę strength to bear it.”
In reply to an inquiry relative to the state of Tenth month, 6th. "On looking back to the his mind, a few days before his decease, he time when Sir B. Brodie came to see me, (8th said, " I have a confident hope that all will be month, 20th,) when I was worse than at any time, well; for I have a sure and firm belief, that He either before or since; I recollect, with thankful has indeed begun the good work in me ; and I ness, that my mind did then feel easy, as to the feel assured He will in no wise cast out those event of my getting better. I do not think I who, in humble trust, come unto Him. It is all could have expressed a wish either way; though of His grace
and mercy, that we are saved." I cannot say I have the same feelings now, as I On the morning of the 23d of 1st month, think, with returning health, the desire for life 1847, but a short time before his close
, he said
, is given to enjoy it. Yet I hope I never shall in impressive manner, Father! the forget the feelings I had at that time; and if a chariots of Israel, and the horsemen thereof!'
What is all the world to me now! When I fit seems wisely to avoid forming such a labyrinth walk through the valley and shadow of death, I as might confound itself in its daily course, or in will fear no evil ; Thou art with me, thy rod and its efforts to escape from an enemy, to whose thy staff, they comfort me.'' On his father re- depredations it is exposed even in its retreat. marking the unutterable comfort it afforded him, | Its time of labour is chiefly at an early hour in to hear him express so much, he added :--" I do the morning ; but if every thing be still, it may not know that I am going just now, but I have a be seen at work at other seasons. The slightest very precious feeling, if going through the dark sound or movement of an approaching foot stops valley: and His arm is with me. All will be the work, and no further listing of the earth will well;" and after a short pause, “ He is with me; be attempted that day. These runs are mosily all is well."
made towards the end of autumn; are this creaAfter the expression of his love to all, he re- ture's hunting-ground for food ; are abandoned joined :—"It is hard work to die! but I have a when the soil has been thoroughly searched sense given me that, through the love and mercy through and through ; and though they are formof my Redeemer, a place of rest is prepared for ed with so much toil as to make it desirable not me." He then took an affectionate leave of his to desert them while there is anything to be done sister and brothers. After which, he embraced there, yet in a month or two the animal quits his dear father, and, in about ten minutes, quietly them for new ground, perhaps at a great distance, passed away, we humbly trust, to join the just where the hunting promises better success. of all generations, in ascribing glory and honour A favourite spot for its winter quarters, and to the Lord God and the Lamb.
one it prefers to other seasons, is in enclosed He died on 23d of First month, 1847, aged fields, under the shelter of a hedge of high-piled twenty.Annual Monitor.
earth, along the middle of whose base the run is carried, and in whose mass of mould it finds
security from cold and from its natural enemies. THE MOLE.
The heaps it throws up are cast on the sides, The habits of the mole will vary with the and at intervals a lateral passage is driven into soil, and particularly with the structure of the the field, to which, when the inducement is ground, as it is rich and deep, or shallow, level, powerful, it transfers its principal operations ; rocky, uneven, or intersected with raised mounds and there encounters its greatest hazards from or hedges of earth, five or six feet high, and of the traps of the mole-catcher, and the pursuit of the same thickness, such as divide fields in the the weasel and the rat, with whom it fights furiwest of England. The presence of this animal ously, but without success. When undisturbed, is known by the heaps of fine earth, or hills, the mole often shifts its quarters ; and in makthrown up during its subterraneous operations. ing a new selection, its choice seems to be much In deep ground, little of its labours can be traced, influenced by caprice. It makes these changes except when thus marked ; but in a thin soil, or especially in the months of July and August; in hard ground, a ridge is often driven alɔng, but I have known it to take excursions of rewhich is distinctly raised above the ordinary moval to such distances, that no mark of its prelevel of the surface ; and the mole-hill is only sence could be detected, in the month of January, elevated where the earth is so fine and friable, if an open and moist season. A large part of that the removal of some part of it is necessary such a journey must be along the surface; and to give the creature a clear course in its runs, it is probable that, at all times, this is its mode backward and forward. The creep or run is in of emigration to distant places. In summer, a zig-zag direction ; and when the neighbour- much of its time is thus passed in migration from hood is very productive of its prey, exceedingly one field to another, because the hardness of the so, as if the animal were unwilling to pass out ground renders it difficult to throw up
the soil, of so fertile a district. But for the most part it and follow up the worms, which have sunk takes a straightforward course ; and in the open deeper down into the soil. It shows the same space of a down, it passes through more than love of change in moist weather, when the fifty paces of distance without lifting a heap, ground is more workable. with a progress amounting to two or three If not to its mind, the mole repeatedly changes human paces in a day, and the whole run is two its quarters; and though shut up in darkness, it hundred feet in length. In the course of this reluctantly continues on the northern declivity passage, advantage is taken of any obstructions of a hill, where it has little light, and less heat, which occur, as if conscious of the probability unless its other advantages are unusually great. of pursuit; and the run is made to pass among Its migration from one district to another exthe roots of dwarf furze, and even under a large poses it to great danger, as it is slow to escape, stone, while, at irregular distances, openings are and little prepared to defend itself. made to allow of excursions on the surface, and The run is differently formed in spring, in the free admission of air. There are many consequence of a difference of object. Where lateral branches from the principal passage ; but fields are not large, the hedge is still the selected none of them extend to any great distance ; for I spot; on which account its nest is not often dis
covered. Mr. Bell has given a sketch of the destructive. Admitting that mole-heaps, and skilful arrangements made for its safety at this loosening of the soil by the runs made through time; but in districts where the hedge is chosen a field, are inconveniences, and even injurious, for defence, no other departure from its usual and that it is unsightly to see a gentleman's form is made than an enlargement of the space, lawn disfigured with these tumuli, such annoy. and a more comfortable lining. Fourteen young ances may be either removed or turned to advanones have been discovered in one nest; but tage ; and it must not be forgotten that their though the mole is not a social animal, it is hard destruction of more injurious creatures is conto believe that they could have been littered by siderable. If it is desirable to expel them from one mother.
their haunts, it may be done effectually without The mole may sleep more in winter than 'in destroying them: for their extirpation is sure to other seasons, but it is not its habit to become be followed by a fresh invasion.—Couch on Intorpid at this time. In frost and snow, fine stinct. earth is often seen freshly turned up, as evidence of its activity ; but as it is a creature of great voracity, and cannot endure long fasting, like
From the very able report of the St. Louis many wild animals of that character, it is not committee to the Chicago Convention officers, easy to say how its wants are at this time sup- we make the following table, showing the length plied. A dead or living bird, numbed with the of that part of the principal western rivers navicold, is always a welcome morsel; but its track gable by steamboats. has not been seen in the snow in pursuit of it.
Miles. It perceives the earliest approach of a thaw; and Mississippi from the Gulf to St. Anthony's after a long seclusion, a heap may be seen pro- Falls,
2,200 truding through the thin covering of snow, as Missouri, from its mouth to the foot of the evidence of its sensibility to change of tempera- Rapids,
2,000 ture—a circumstance more easily understood Red River, to head of navigation, 1,000 when we recollect that it is the radiation of heat Ohio to Pittsburg,
1,000 from the inner parts of the earth which exercises Arkansas, to mouth of the Neosho and the first influence in the change ; and that it is A.Verdigris,
630 because the air abstracts this heat more rapidly Tennessee to Chattanooga,
485 than the earth supplies it, that frost and snow Wabash to Lafayette,
300 are produced and continued. When, from Illinois to Ottawa,
250 changes in the atmosphere, this rapid abstraction Cumberland to Nashville,
200 ceases, the heat below becomes more sensibly Osage,
200 felt; and this is first visible at the surface of the soil.
Total, A good supply of drink is essential to the mole's existence; and its healthy condition is marked by a softness and moisture about the snout, where its most perfect organ of sensation Some folks accuse pigs of being filthy in their is placed. The flexibility of that organ, and its habits, and negligent in their personal appearcommand over it, are indeed exquisite ; but it is ance. But whether food is best eaten off the not used in the operations of excavation and lift- ground, or from China plates, is, it seems to me, ing. This is the work of the feet, neck, and the merely a matter of taste and convenience, about hinder part of the shoulder; and in these parts which pigs and men may honestly differ. They the mole is perhaps the strongest quadruped in ought then, to be judged charitably. At any existence, in proportion to its size. The heaps rate, pigs are not filthy enough to chew tobacco
, it throws up are not made simply by lifting; for nor to poison their breath by drinking whiskey, the superfluous earth is collected at easy dis- And as to their personal appearance, you don't tances, and thrust along, until so much is accu- catch a pig playing the dandy, nor the females mulated, as compels it to convey it out of the among them picking their way up this muddy way, and then its work in tunnelling goes on village, after a rain, in kid slippers. again.
Notwithstanding their heterodox notions, hogs The mole has more enemies than it is sup- have some excellent traits of character. If one posed to have ; for though its disappearance chances to wallow a little deeper in some mire from a district is sometimes due to emigration, hole than his fellows, and so carries off and there must be other causes at work to account comes in possession of more of this earth than for their extirpation in particular localities. his brethren, he never assumes an extra importThey may destroy each other in their burrows, ance on that account; neither are his brethren for they are exceedingly quarrelsome; the fox stupid enough to worship him for it. Their and weasel, too, are formidable foes ; but the only question seems to be, is he still a hog? If ceaseless war waged against them by man, the he is, they treat him as such. least excusable enemy they have, is the most And when a hog has no merits of his own, be
DEFENCE OF SWINE.
TRUTH WELL EXPRESSED. The Governor of Tennessee, in his inaugural address, says :
"I firmly believe, and take pleasure in announcing it, that no state can prosper in a long career of true glory in the disregard of the claims of justice and the injunctions of the Christian religion. A flood-tide of apparent prosperity may come, filling for the time the avenues of trade, and satiating the cravings of taste and curiosity, yet sooner or later it has its ebb, and either cloys with its abundance or leaves the void greater than before, History is a silent but eloquent witness of its truth, and from her undying lamp sheds a stream of unceasing light along our pathway. The fabrics of ancient greatness, built by injustice and consecrated to ambition, are now fliiting shadows before us, starting up from behind the broken pillars and fallen columns that were reared to perpetuate the genius by which they were wrought."
ON SILENT WORSHIP.-J.J. G.
Its peaceful shelter spread;
The word that wakes the dead.
In stillness and in prayer ?
A minister is there.
True graces to impart :
And preaches to the heart.
And bids the coldest glow;
Of deep contrition flow.
He bows the loftiest soul;
How matchless his control!
In tenderest touches given :
And stays the soul on heaven.
The holy influence spreads;
For God that influence sheds.
BY JEAN FREDERICK OBERLIN.
An account of the terms of service of each of
the Presidents of the United States, the time of their decease and ages.
George Washington, from March, 1789 to 1797, died December 14, 1799, aged 68.
John Adams, from 1797 to 1801, died July 4, 1826, aged 91.
Thomas Jefferson, from 1801 to 1809, died July 4, 1826, aged 83.
James Madison, from. 1809 to 1817, died June 28, 1836, aged 85
James Monroe, from 1817 to 1825, died July 4, 1831, aged 73.
John Quincy Adams, from 1825 to 1829, died February 23, 1848, aged 81.
Andrew Jackson, from 1829 to 1837, died June 8, 1845, aged 78.
Martin Van Buren, from 1837 to 1841, who still lives.
Wm. H. Harrison, from March 4, 1841 to April, 4, 1841, when he died, aged 74.
He lived only 31 days after his inauguration.
John Tyler, from April 1841 to March 1845, who still lives.
James K. Polk, from 1845, who still occupies the Presidential chair.
Oh Lord! thy heavenly grace impart,
THE CHILD'S EVENING BLESSING.
L. H. SIGOURNEY.
And lay its glories waste ;
Unconscious of the blast. BEATTIE.
The Treasurer of the Coloured Infant School Association gratefully acknowledges the receipt of twenty-five dollars from a contributor over the signature of N. N.