« ΠροηγούμενηΣυνέχεια »
particular reference to the African race, by Wilson | He was a member of Vassalbero Meeting, and his Armistead.
end, we trust, was peaceful. The motive of the author is stated to be a desire to interest and enlighten the public mind on a sub- SURVEY OF THE COAST OF THE UNITED ject intimately connected with the happiness or
STATES. misery of a large portion of the human family ; and The object of the Coast Survey, is to procure by a relation of facts, and testimonies, which no as- an accurate chart of our extended and dangerous sertions can annul, to remove a deeply rooted pre- sea-coast, in which every prominent object
, jndice, existing in the minds of many, respecting natural or artificial, visible from a vessel apthe African race.
proaching the land, and every change in the From a synopsis of the work which has been re- depth of the water, the character of the bottom, ceived, it appears that the writer has taken a wide and the set and force of the ocean currents shall range of inquiry in regard to the physical and in. be so clearly and precisely delineated, that the tellectual character of the coloured race; and has mariner may be enabled easily to recognize his endeavoured to refute the opinion which imputes a position upon the coast; be fully warned of the native inferiority to the negro. The work contains dangers which lie in his path; notified of the one hundred and fifty biographical sketches and structed how to enter safely ihe port of his des
harbors of safety which lie open to him, and inanecdotes of coloured people; many of which, we
tination. are told, afford striking evidence that inferiority of But to insure such important blessings to abilities is not a necessary concomitant of a co- numbers of our race, is not an easy matter. It loured skin.
is no common map which is to furnish the sea. Of the execution of the work we of course have man with a secure guide ; and it requires no no means of forming a conclusive judgment. From common resources of knowledge, patience, and the objects embraced in the discussion we hope to energy to overcome the obstacles, and fix with find an interesting and instructive volume. absolute accuracy, the position of each headThe price to subscribers is three dollars ; and any land upon our coast
, and of every rock and sandpersons who are desirous of patronizing the publica- pit which lurks under the waters of the adjacent tion, or procuring the work, may do so by applying
It requires no ordinary talents to conto George W. Taylor, No. 50 North Fourth Street, duct successfully, even a topographical survey of at the N. W. corner of Fifth and Cherry Street, upon land, such, for instance, as that which the Philadelphia.
State of Massachusetts has recently furnished, as a pattern for her sister states hereafter, when they
shall see the importance of substituting maps of WEST TOWN SCHOOL.
their territory, for the fancy sketches of imagiThe Committee to superintend t
the Boarding nary mountains and impossible rivers which School at West Town will meet there, on Sixth day, now pass under this name ; but when there are the 7th of next month, at 10 o'clock, A. M. The added the difficulties of accurate hydrography, Committee on Instruction to meet at the school on the determination of the forms and directions of the preceding evening at half past 7 o'clock. ridges of rock or mud which lie invisible beneath
The Visiting Committee attend the semi-annual the surface of the sea, it may be easily conceived examination of the students, commencing on Third that a vast expenditure of labour is required, and day morning the 4th prox. Thomas KIMBER, Clerk.
absolutely inexhaustible resources of knowledge. Philadelphia, 3d month 25th, 1848.
To execute such a survey, then, the first thing to be done is to fix with extreme accuracy, a
number of convenient points, determining their Dien, -In this city, on the morning of the 21st distances apart, and their relative positions. To
DIED,—In this city, on the morning of the 21st do this with the necessary precision, by direct ult., after a lingering illness, JOSEPH SHARP, in the 55th year of his age; a member of Philadelphia measurement from one point to another, would Monthly Meeting
be impossible, and if possible would require cen
turies for the completion of the work ; recourse In Vassalboro, Maine, of consumption, on must therefore be had to the principles of trigoFirst day morning, the 30th of First month last, at the residence of her father, Mary, daughter of nometry; and a single base-line conveniently Timothy and Elizabeth Robinson, in the 30th year selected, and of some length, say ten miles
, of her age. She was a member of Vassalboro being once accurately measured, and its position meeting, and remarkable for the innocency of her in relation to the meridian being carefully deterlife and conversation. So tranquil and quiet was mined, the angles of position of any number of her close, that the precise moment of her depar- points, from the extremities of this base, may be ture could not be determined.
observed, and we shall then have all the data In the same place, and of a similar disease, necessary for a calculation by which their relaon Third day evening, the 15th of Second month tive positions and distances may be found with last, JACOB Hussey, in the 60th year of his age. I precision, limited only by the correctness of the
observations. The distance between any two of Hassler. The present superintendent has introthese points being thus ascertained, will furnish duced into it some new features, to two of which, us with a new base, from which we may pro- as we consider them of immense practical imceed, as before, to the determination of new portance, we propose briefly to allude. points, and thus the whole tract to be surveyed The first of these was so to arrange the orgais covered with a series of triangles, the positions nization of his surveying parties, as to make of whose vertices are known. This operation the work consist, in the first instance, of a numis called the primary triangulation. The length ber of independent surveys, which, radiating of the sides of these triangles, will of course vary from distinct centres, should, by gradual producwith circumstances, and will principally depend tion, meet each other, and uniting, form the one upon the nature of the country. In a mountain- great survey in which the work is to result. ous region, they may be from fifty to seventy Such a method of proceeding applies to the work miles, while in a flat tract it may be impossible the most severe test of its accuracy, which could to obtain a greater length than twelve or fifteen. be devised, for it requires the measurement of a The space within these triangles is then, by a number of base-lines on various parts of the second operation, subdivided into other and coast, upon each of which rests appropriate smaller triangles, and these again are similarly triangulation, at the outer verge of which, are subdivided ; and thus the whole tract becomes numerous points common to two systems, in the covered with a net-work of lines well determined determination of which they must accurately both in length and direction, the areas within coincide ; and as this coincidence can only which are sufficiently small to be considered as be ascertained by means of the calculations planes, and the minute features of the topography which are performed in the general office at may then be put in by the use of the plane-table, Washington, all trimming and bending of obwhich is in principle nothing but a drawing- servations to meet the purpose is impossible, board and ruler, provided with sights, and so and if any error exist it must be seen. mounted that it may be used upon the field. quires, therefore, no little confidence on the part The outline of the coast being accurately known, of the superintendent, in the work of himself and the result of the soundings within sight of shore his assistants, to permit the proposition of so can be easily connected with the land-survey— bold a plan, the vast importance of which is and the position of shoals, breakers, and islands, however easily seen, since it allows all the imout of sight of land, can be determined by the portant harbours upon our extended coast to usual observations for fixing their actual position enjoy at once the benefits of the survey, and upon the surface of the earth.
thus prevents immense annual losses of lives and The work can be verified at any time and merchandize now jeoparded upon our almost unplace, by actual measurement of any straight known seas, shortens the time necessary for the lines whose length can be calculated from the completion of the entire work, and, as the supertriangulation, and it is truly wonderful to see intendent has shown, (not only on paper, but in how near these independent determinations agree, practice,) is productive of great economy in the when the operations have extended hundreds of expenditures. This feature has now, we believe, miles from the original point of beginning. become the settled policy of the government, and
It is easy thus to give a general idea of the under it the operations of the survey in 1844 theory of a trigonometrical survey—but it is im- embraced ninė states; in 1845, thirteen ; in possible to convey to general readers, an idea of 1846, fifteen; and in 1847, eighteen states. the immense and ever-recurring difficulties which The second improved feature which has been oppose the actual prosecution of such a work, introduced by Mr. Bache into the survey, constill less of the resources of inventive genius, sists in the publication of the maps containing profound scientific knowledge, acute perception, the results of the survey, as fast as the work is patience, and energy which are required to overcompleted. In this way the harbor of New come them, and bring such a work to a success. York, the approaches of Philadelphia, and ful issue. The whole result rests upon the several detached harbors upon Long Island accuracy of the primary triangulation, and there Sound and the Chesapeake, have been published, is perhaps no problem ever solved by the human and the maps, upon a convenient scale, exposed intellect, upon which all the resources of physi- for sale at a price so low as to allow every one cal science are so completely exhausted as upon to possess himself of a copy. this, and upon the accompanying astronomical Let us hope that the suggestion of Mr. Bache, observations, by which the absolute positions of at the close of his last report, will not only be the points of the survey upon the surface of the adopted, but extended, and that our government earth are determined, the geodesic operations will not only order the Pacific Coast to be simichecked, and the surveys of one country placed larly surveyed, but that it will extend the plan so in connection with those of others, in other quar- as to include the lakes and great rivers, and ters of the globe.
finally, to embrace a complete topographical Our Coast Survey was well begun and excel- survey of our whole territory. lently conducted by the late lamented Mr.
For Friends' Review.
great objects of the institution--to alleviate, and NEW YORK HOSPITAL, AND BLOOMINGDALE to restore.
It is mentioned as a curious fact, that the first
attempt in the United States, to hold a meeting In a late number of the Review, some remarks for Divine worship, in an institution for the inappeared in reference to the Pennsylvania Hos- sane, is believed to have been made at the Lupital for the Insane, which is situated about two natic Asylum adjoining the New York Hospital miles west of the Schuylkill, on the Haver
--the building, for which the Bloomingdale Asyford road. Within a few days, the writer has lum was erected as a substitute. « On the 31st been furnished with a pamphlet, containing the of August, 1819, John Stanford, who will long annual report for 1847, of the Governors of the be remembered for his active benevolence, New York Hospital, and of the Bloomingdale preached a sermon to the inmates of that inAsylum, to the Legislature:-also the report to stitution.” Those who attended, behaved with the Governors, of Dr. Pliny Earle, the physician great propriety; many of them kneeling while of the asylum. These reports, when made hy in- prayer was offered, and several expressed their telligent individuals, possess peculiar interest, in- thanks at the close of the service. T. U. asmuch as they bear directly upon the afflictions of our species, and the modes of alleviating them.
FRIENDS IN CONGENIES. At no period since its establishment, have the benefits of the Hospital been so widely diffused,
A Friend of Leeds, in England, has kindly transas during the past year. This was mainly owing mitted to the Editor of the Review, a brief notice of to the prevalence of various forms of typhus a visit which he has recently paid to parts of the fever, or, as we familiarly term it, of ship fever. continent, some portion of which was made to the Upwards of one thousand cases of this character little company professing with us in France. As the were admitted, and the tables show that nine information which it contains, not only in relation hundred and sixty-two of them were natives of to our fellow professors in that country, but to Ireland; most of them, doubtless, recently ar- other objects which came under his notice, appears rived in the country. The gratifying success which attended the treatment of this fearful dis- quite interesting, we publish the narrative without ease, is believed to be attributable in great mea
While we acknow.
abridgment or alteration. sure, to the excellent arrangements for ventilation ledge the favour of this first communication, may and cleanliness throughout the establishment.
we indulge a hope that it will not be the last?-Ed. The Bloomingdale Asylum for the Insane, is The little community at Congenies and other within the limits of the city of New York, seven places in its vicinity in the South of France, miles from the City Hall, overlooking the Hud- have become an increasing object of interest son, and commanding, from one of the most ele- within the last few years, and have been visited vated hills of the “ Harlem Heights,” a prospect, from time to time by ministers and other memwhich for variety and beauty is scarcely sur-bers of our Society. passed. The farm contains fifty-five acres, the This simple, but interesting body of people, grounds of which are so finely improved, that are the descendants of thé Camisards, who took they will bear a favourable comparison with the refuge in the mountains of the Cevennes, and beautiful homesteads of the wealthy, in the rural, fought valiantly for their faith, during the cultivated districts of England.
persecutions subsequent to the revocation of the The average number of patients for the last edict of Nantes. The Camisards were of the year, was one hundred and thirty-seven, which old stock of the Albigenses. The continual is greater than that of any previous year. The loss or imprisonment of their ministers, induced expenditures were $26,553.25. The physician their ministering one to the other. At the cessaregrets that in a large proportion of cases, the tion of hostilities, many of them persevered in a delay in sending patients to the asylum is so great, system, which, in the first instance, had resulted that the probabillty of a cure is much diminished. from circumstances. Towards the close of the Too many forget ihat in this, even more than in last century, one of their number was desirous all serious diseases of the body, early attention of giving a positive form to the belief and cusis of the utmost importance. Their reluctance toms of their little community, and prepared a to avail themselves of the best means provided, work, though very imperfectly, on the subject. leads them to overlook the fact, that insanity, in It was taken by one of the body to Holland, to its earlier stages, may readily yield to proper be printed, and there he heard, for the first time, treatment, while prolonged delay may place the that in England and America there existed a afflicted subject beyond the power of restoration. people, who entertained many of the same
Manual labour—innocent recreation--lectures, opinions as himself, He proceeded to England, &c., are among the means judiciously employed and became acquainted with the Society of to divert the disordered mind from an unprofita- Friends, to whom the existence of this little body ble and perpetual recurrence upon itself, and of fellow-believers was thus made known. They have been eminently successful in promoting the have been for some time under the cognizance of
Friends in England, who have exercised a been a temple erected in honour of Caius and watchful care over them. A two months meet- Lucius, the sons of Agrippa. It is 75 feet long, ing is held at Congenies for the transaction of 37 broad, and 39 in height, and adorned with Church business for the whole of the little 30 fluted columns of the Corinthian order, with meetings of Fontinais, St. Hypolite, St. Gilles, beautifully worked frieze and capitals. Many Codagnan, &c., in which answers to the Queries have been the honours rendered to the Maison are annually drawn up for the London Yearly Carreé. Architects from all parts of Europe, Meeting, or Meeting for Sufferings.
even from Rome, have travelled to Nismes to In the summer of 1842, during a two months' take models from it; and Louis XIV. at one tour on the continent of Europe, I visited the south time, entertained the project of having the buildof France, and being desirous whilst there of see- ing transported to Paris, that his architects might ing something of those professing with us, I con- form their taste upon it. But this enterprise, cluded to spend a First day either at Nismes or worthy of a vain king, surrounded by parasites Congenies, where most of them reside. On arriv- who told him his power was boundless, was ing at Nismes, I set out in search of M. Frossard, found to be perilous, and Nismes has retained the Protestant Chaplain, to whom the Protestant her ornament. Antiquarians say that the walls Minister at Marseilles had given me a letter of of this temple were covered with bas reliefs in recommendation. Not finding him in, but ex- marble and bronze, which have been destroyed pected shortly, I availed myself of the opportu- or stolen. nity of perambulating the interesting ancient The next place we visited was the Fountain city of Nismes, so remarkable for its Roman of Nismes, which has always been celebrated. antiquities, some of which I shall presently men- The Romans were so struck with its beauty, tion. On returning again to M. Frossard's, I that they built a magnificent temple on its borders, found him in, and received his hearty welcome. the remains of which may still be seen in its Informing him that my chief errand to Nismes was environs. Its source is situated in one of those to see something of the Friends, he said he calcareous hills which surround the city. Its would introduce me to Christine Majolier, one diameter is 72 feet, and its depth nearly 24 feet. of them with whom he was most intimately ac- 'The water issues from its centre, and often with quainted, proposing to conduct me first to see considerable ebullition ; a calcareous gravel what was most worthy of inspection in the covers the bottom of it, and its banks are adorncity.
ed with numerous plants. The chain of hills Nismes is a most interesting city, and its nu- in which it is situated, abounds with grottoes and merous monuments of antiquity give it a pre
caverns. The baths have lost part of their eminence over any other in Europe, except the antique character. In a hollow to the left, is cities of Italy. Amongst these remains, the most the Temple of Diana, where there is a collection magnificent is the ancient arena, or amphitheatre, of columns, cornices, inscriptions, &c. considered to be one of the finest specimens of In walking, I found the heat very oppressive, antiquity in the world, being in excellent pre- which the inhabitants themselves appeared to servation. It is of the Doric order, built in the feel. During the day the streets were comparaform of an ellipsis, 412 feet by 307, and consists tively deserted, but at sunset every one left his of 120 arches, placed one above another in two house, the promenades all became crowded, and rows. Amongst the 60 arches on the ground until near midnight there was nothing like stillfloor, are four larger ones, facing the cardinal ness in any part of the city. points. Around the interior are 35 rows of Nismes possesses a University, a Royal steps, once the seats of spectators, which it is Academy, a public library of 10,000 volumes, a calculated would accommodate 20,000 to 30,000 museum of natural history, a drawing school, persons. These seats rise gradually, one above an agricultural society, besides some charitable the other, to the height of 70 feet, and are still institutions. Amongst these is an orphan asysufficiently perfect to admit of persons ascending lum, which has been superintended by one of to the very top, from which there is a fine view our Society for sixteen years, but who has lateof the city. This building was used by the Ro- ly been obliged to discontinue the office on acmans in the exhibition of combats between wild count of her health. She is spoken of in strong beasts and gladiators. It is now only used occa- terms of approbation, as having conducted it in a sionally, and then only on the first day of the week, very satisfactory manner, both as regards the in exhibiting equestrian performances. Some of welfare of the institution, the best interests of the massive blocks of granite, of which it is the children, and her own conduct as a conbuilt, are 18 feet long. My kind friend and sistent Friend. During the twenty years that conductor was busily engaged in taking paint have elapsed since its establishment, a consideings in oil of various parts of this remarkable rable number of orphans have been educated in and picturesque structure.“
the Asylum, most of whom are now usefully The Maison Carreé, another of the antiqui- filling various situations in life. Many of these ties of Nismes, is one of the most perfect and appear to possess simple piety, and manifest a beautiful in the world, and is supposed to have sincere affection for their teachers, as well as a
grateful remembrance of the care bestowed upon , long felt the want of a scoool for their children, them whilst in the institution.,
which John and, Martha Yeardley, two minisThere are several persons residing in Nismes ters from England, were interested in promoting, who profess with Friends, respecting whom, as and which was established at Nismes a few well as those in adjacent places, I received some years ago, and is conducted with great benefit interesting information from Christine Majolier. and satisfaction. Every Friend who has visited Feeling desirous of spending First day where these parts must have perceived the want of the greatest number resided, I concluded to go to such an institution, and, accompanied with the Congenies, about seven miles distant from Divine blessing, it may be one means of uniting Nismes. Whilst I was dining with Christine, the little Society there, and be instrumental in her brother George, from Congenies, came in, assisting to uphold a standard to the spirituality and very kindly offered to accompany me there of the gospel dispensation. The state of rein the afternoon. The Diligence drove very ligion in the south of France is at a very low nearly past their house, and his sister was wait- ebb. As far as I was able to form a judgment ing our arrival, for Christine had previously sent during my short sojourn, those professing with word that they must pay every attention to a us are now quite as much beyond the generality stranger. They compelled me to take up my of professing Christians, as is the case with our quarters under their hospitable roof. I can truly Society in England. say, I met with a most hearty and cordial recep- The afternoon before I left Congenies, we tion from these kind Friends, and enjoyed my- made an excursion into the surrounding country, self during the few days I sojourned amongst and my kind friends showed me through some them.
of their vineyards and olivegroves. Nearly the On First day morning, many Friends called whole of this district, for miles round, consists before meeting, and manifested much pleasure in of an undulating country, a constant succession seeing one from England. About forty persons of low hills, most of them clad with vines, and constituted the meeting in the morning, and many of them sprinkled with olives, walnut, Daniel Brann, a Friend from Fontinais, address- almond and mulberry trees. From one of the ed us twice at considerable length. The meeting hills we ascended, the Mediterranean, though house, built by subscription about twenty years twenty or thirty miles distant, is often seen in ago, is an excellent and commodious building. clear weather, but it proved rather too late in Thomas Shillito, being at Congenies at the time the evening to have a view of it. I observed of its erection, I was informed assisted in build- during our ramble many interesting wild flowers, ing part of the wall of the graveyard with his a fine field for the botanist, and had I been preown hands.
pared, I could have enriched my herbarium conCongenies is a small town of about 1000 in- siderably. I preserved a few of the smaller habitants, about 50 or 60 of whom, including species, which, besides the beauty they possess, minors, are Friends. They have no acknow- will serve as lasting memorials of my visit to ledged minister among them, but a young wo- Congenies. But amongst the most interesting man, formerly superintendent of the orphan of these, is an olive branch, which Lydie Majoasylum at Nismes, now residing at Congenies lier cut for me during our ramble, from a fine on account of her health, speaks occasionally. old olive tree in one of her own olive yards, deThis young woman is the sister of the late siring I would preserve it as a memento of our Jules Benezet, a young man of amiable and ex- delightful excursion. This is the more valuacellent character, and generally beloved, who ble, from being cut from a tree planted by her was assassinated a few years ago. This horrid father, Louis Majolier, a highly esteemed minisact was perpetrated between Nismes and Calvi- ter, who died only a few years ago. He was son, where he was robbed, and his body thrown well known to Friends in England, having freinto a ditch of water. He left a widow with quently attended the Yearly Meeting in London; two children, and a prospect of a third, who and an interesting and valuable testimony rewere entirely dependent upon his exertions for specting hiin has been published.* She gave support. Her case excited so much commise- me another branch in charge at the same time ration in the town, that the managers of the for an unknown female friend in England, whose theatre proposed acting a piece for her benefit. brother had died in their house in Congenies, On hearing of their intention, however, she de- being on a visit there on account of his health. clined accepting their kindness, from conscien- They have kept up, for some years, a friendly tious motives, choosing rather to put her trust in correspondence, and though personally unacHim who has commanded us to seek first His quainted, and separated from each other upwards kingilom, rather than to avail herself of a bounty of 1000 miles, they have become very closely unitarising from a source her conscience disapproved. ed in religious fellowship. What a powerful inThrough the kindness of a Friend in England, fluence does the bond of Christian love and fellowsome pecuniary relief was promptly sent her, and gratefully received.
* This memorial was re-published in the first numThe little community in the south of France ber of Friends' Review.-Ed.