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ground, and carried to a village called Futtee, or people, and their shade upon their right hand, Foot of Dee, where they had a grave made for it. remarkably appear in many instances of his proThey continued to remove every corpse that was tecting care towards those that trusted in him, interred in the same ground; nor did the bar- some of which are not here enumerated. While, barous practice cease, till a representation being therefore, the Scriptural language is grievously made to the King's Council, a secret check was true of many wicked, “When thy hand is lifted given them, and this more than ordinary inhu- up, they will not see;" yet are there, in all ages, manity put a stop to.

such ample proofs of providential interposition The convincement of Andrew son of Alex- and disposal of events, as should certainly tend ander Jaffray, and that of several others of Aber- to bring about, in the hearts of those not yet deen and parts adjacent, about the beginning of utterly hardened, that blessed crisis, when "all the year 1673, afresh excited the indignation of men shall fear, and shall declare the work of those termed the clergy. At their instigation, God; for they shall wisely consider of his the provost, and others of the magistrates, came doing.” to a Monthly Meeting held by Friends, on the

(To be continued.) 6th of the 3d month, and took the names of all present, both men and women; this list they forwarded by William Gordon, their agent, to

A QUAKER FUNERAL. the King's Council, charging him with instructions, strenuously to importune the Council During our stay at Saratoga we had our house against this peaceable people. His business, as of feasting turned into a house of morning by the it appears, he executed with the utmost assiduity. death of two of its inmates, within a few

days of But shorıly after, it happened, that he went down each other. The one was an elderly gentleman, from Edinburgh to Leith to hear a sermon; and, whose death it was believed—if not actually in the time of it, going out of the place of wor- caused—was greatly accelerated by imprudent ship, he was presently after found dead, diet and an excessive use of the waters; his body

Upon the solicitation of this William Gordon, was removed immediately after death to New the Council, on the 1st of the 5th month, sent a York for interment. The other was a young summons to nineteen of this people; who ac- Quaker from Providence, here with his parents, cordingly appearing before them at Edinburgh on and brothers, and sisters, intending soon to be the 10th, after two sittings of the Council, were married, and his proposed bride daily expected fined, and their several fines assigned to one to meet him. He came here labouring under Hugh Neilson, an apothecary of that city. inflammatory rheumatism, and was considered While he was busying himself in a process at to have recovered from this affection, when law for recovering the fines, the King's Com- suddenly in the night he was seized with missioners and Council issued a proclamation, spasms of the heart and faintness, and before his remitting all penalties and fines for non-conforin- father could come to his assistance—though ity, except such as were already paid, or en- sleeping in the next room-he expired. This gaged for by the parties' bond, or other security. event, as might be expected, threw a sadness and This cleared the people called Quakers; for their gloom over the inmates of the house in which it principle was, neither to pay the fines, nor in occurred; and when the funeral of the deceased anywise to compound for them; their strict ob- took place, on the day following his death, it servance of which, entitled them to the benefit was attended by all who were within the dwell. of the above proclamation, and disappointed ing. It was the first Quaker funeral at which I Hugh Neilson in his attempts against them. had ever been present; and it affected me very

Previous to the issuing of this proclamation, deeply, from the simple and unostentatious sosome of the Friends who were likely to be suf- lemnity by which it was characterized. The ferers by the endeavours of Hugh Neilson, ad-coffin, of plain mahogany, without the appeardressed him a letter, dated the 30th of the 7th ance of breast-plate, handles, or escutcheon, was month; in which they strongly pleaded their brought from the bedroom by the young men innocency of any crime, for which in justice who were his friends and companions in life, they ought to be fined, urging their conscientious (and by whom, also, it was alternately carried objection to fulfil his demand, and warning him, to the grave,) and placed on a large table, prein solemn language, to " despise the gain of op- pared with a clean white linen cloth spread, on pression." This paper is signed by Alexander which to receive it. It was followed by the Skene, David Barclay, and others. It is further parents, relatives and personal friends, who stated, that this person was so wrought upon, walked after it in pairs, but in their ordinary either by the letter above alluded to, or, which is dresses, as neither black clothes nor any other more probable, by his own utter disappointment outward emblerns are ever worn by the Quakers. of his prey, that he exclaimed, he should never They then took their seats on the sofas and trouble the Quakers more, for it was unhappy to chairs around the drawing rooms, and soon after have any thing to do against them.

this the remaining space was occupied by nearly Thus did the Lord, who is the keeper of his two hundred persons living in the house, and

pomps and

some few from the neighbourhood belonging to sympathise deeply, that never, perhaps, was the Society of Friends. A dead silence pre- there an assembly of the same number of persons vailed, which continued for more than half an more completely absorbed in devotion, awe and hour, and so unbroken and profound was the grief combined, as the kneeling mournefs (for so stillness, that the fall of a pin might be heard if all had become by sympathy) which surrounded dropped on the floor. There was something the corpse of this young and suddenly snatched indescribably impressive in this 'spectacle, of a flower fading before their eyes; while the sweetgaily dressed assemblage of persons congregated est' accents of maternal love, piety and resignafor pleasure at this focus of gaity and thought-tion, filled their ears and penetrated the inmost lessness, sitting in an ordinary drawing room, recesses of their hearts. I have seen many funewith the dead body of one of their own com- rals in many different lands, and conducted in panions—alive but two days before-lying in very different modes, from the “ the cold shroud of death in the very midst of vanities” which swell the death pageantry of them. I do not think that any spoken discourse, heroes and kings, to the simple interment of the however eloquent, could have more powerfully friendless mariner, who is consigned to a watery arrested the feelings, or awakened the attention grave, without prayer or chaplain, by the hands to the certainty and frequent suddenness of of his brother shipmates; but I never remember death, and the hourly necessity for a preparation to have witnessed anything half so heart-searchfor it, than was effected by the silent scene ing and mind-impressing as this; and I cannot before us; and accordingly many eyes besides but believe that if so simple, yet purely devotional those of the friends and relatives of the deceased a mode of interring the dead were universally were filled with tears.

adopted by Christian nations, instead of the At length a venerable old Quaker gentleman, "plumed hearse, the hired mourners, the long, upwards of eighty years of age, who had come unmeaning cavalcade, with scarfs and hands, and in from the country to attend tho funeral, arose sable cloaks," where all within is coldness and and addressed the assembly. " It was unusual,” indifference, the change would be highly benehe said, “ but not unpleasing, to see so many ticial, if the object of accompanying the interment strangers congregated together to witness the de- of the dead with any ceremonial at all, be to parture from among them of one of the number impress the living with the necessity of preparing of their society; and he felt impelled, by an to follow them.-Buckingham's Travels in Am. irresistible impulse, to profit by the occasion, and to address a few words to those by whom

From the (London) Friend. he was surrounded. His observations were full of piety, beauty and appropriateness; and there The Condition and Prospects of Ireland, and could hardly have been one present who did not

the evils arising from the present distribution respond to the aspiration with which he con

of landed property, with suggestions for a cluded—" that all might be able to say in the

remedy. By Jonathan Pim. language of the Apostle, It was good for me to To all who feel for their kind, and whose have been here.' Another pause of profound sympathies do not evaporate in expressions of silence ensued, which was quite as impressive as commiseration, or even in the indulgence of a before, and another short address from the same charitable benefaction, Ireland, her miseries and venerable patriarch, the last, he thought it pro- her help, present a subject of the deepest inbable, he might ever be permitted to utter in the terest. presenee of others, which made almost every When witnessing, in 1846, the feelings which one present weep copiously. To the pause were excited throughout the length and breadth which succeeded the close of this followed a of our little society, on hearing of the terrible most touching scene. The stepmother of sufferings of our Irish fellow-subjects, and how the deceased, who had sat beside her deeply almost universally the inquiry arose, How can amicted husband, and surrounded by her sor- we mitigate these sorrows ? the hope sprung in rowing children, fell gently on her knees from our minds, that the effort so promptly made to the place where she sat, and while nearly all the feed the hungry and clothe the naked, would strangers present instinctively followed her, as- lead to a more intimate acquaintance with the suming the same supplicating attitude, she poured real condition of Ireland, and to some Christian forth a prayer, so full of eloquence, devotion, efforts for her permanent improvement. The sweetness, tenderness and simple beauty, as to present work, by one of the laborious secretapenetrate many hearts. The evident struggles ries of the Dublin Relief Committee, may be between her own feelings and her sense of duty, considered as an important step towards the rewhich caused her voice every now and then to alization of our hope. With what judgment falter and her utterance to become choked, and and singleness of purpose the Dublin Commitee, which shook her husband with deep and con- and also the Local Committees in several of the vulsive sobs, was so powerful and so truthful principal towns, in which our friends reside, an exhibition of the genuine pathos of unaffected have devoted themselves to the distribution of nature under bereavement with which all could I the charitable funds placed at their disposal, is


well known; but highly as we value the efforts, only impeded by the laws of entail, but also, and by which the extreme suffering of the people perhaps still more, by the complication of titles, has been assuaged, and multitudes saved from and the consequent great expense and difficulty starvation, we know not but a still greater benefit of obtaining a safe conveyance of property. may have been conferred on the destitute classes This is so notorious, that it is an Irish adage, in Ireland, by the deep consideration into which “a farthing's worth of land and a pound's worth many members of these committees have been of law.” We shall best illustrate the subject by led, with reference to the causes of existing evils, a few extracts from the work before us. and the means by which they may be lessened “ The proprietors in see in Ireland are probaor removed. This work of Jonathan Pim's bly fewer than in an equal area in any part of may be considered as embodying in a brief and Western Europe, Spain only excepted ; whilst clear form some of the principal results of such the tenants in possession of land are more numeran investigation. It embraces a succinct view of ous.* These remarks apply more strongly to the capabilities of Ireland, and of her past his- Connaught, than to any other of the provinces. tory, a pretty full statement of her recent suffer- | The estates of Connaught are peculiarly large. inys, and of her present condition ; inquiries into Several proprietors have more than 100,000 the seats and causes of her pauperism and crime, acres. The proportion of small farms is greater and concludes with an able consideration of the than in the rest of Ireland, being 100,254 from means to be adopted for her permanent reclama- one to five acres, while the whole number of tion. We have no hesitation in saying, without farms is only 155,842. committing ourselves to every opinion which it “ By far the greater part of Ireland has been expresses, that the object and the execution of confiscated since the reign of Henry VIII. The the work alike claim for it a general and careful grantees of confiscated lands in Munster, receive perusal.

ed from Elizabeth large tracts of 4000 to 20,000 It is no easy task to solve the problems which acres of good land, besides mountain and bog. present themselves to the inquirer, in the con- The result has in many cases been, that the sideration of the question, How is Ireland to be owners preferred living in England, and let their improved ? But our mature conviction is, that lands on long leases, or for a perpetuity, to others, the more her past history and her present cir- who, in their turn, let their lands in smaller porcumstances are really understood, the fewer will tions at a profit rent; thus becoming inferior these difficult problems be ; and we shall per- landlords or middlemen. It frequently happens haps be brought to wonder less that she is so that two, three, or four of these intervene bebad, than that she is as good as we find her. tween the head landlord and the actual possesThough this opinion is not just now formed, we sor of the soil, each of them 'holding by a long confess it has been confirmed by the careful lease, and deriving a profit rent. This multipliperusal of this calm and pains-taking review of cation of subordinate interests is a great bar to the past and present condition of Ireland. We improrement." may have something to say relative to the past, The following extract may serve to illustrate but we wish in the first place, to call the atten- the circumstances under which the land of Iretion of our readers to the present condition of land is so generally placed : Ireland, with reference to a point which we be. Almost every where the land is held in large lieve demands peculiar attention in England, at estates. The proprietors are generally bound up the present time. Irish corn and black cattle, by settlements, embarrassed by mortgages and once so carefully excluded from our shores, are other encumbrances; the ground, with some exnow freely imported. Her manufactures, against ceptions, is in want of draining, and ill-cultivated; which so many statutes have been passed in by- the holdings are generally small, the tenants too gone days, are fully at liberty to compete with ofien ignorant and lazy. Every where the disthose of her wealthier sister; but still the most proportion exists between the demand for, and important of her industrial resources, and the the supply of labour. Can we doubt that the great means of her national prosperity are fear- large éstates held by embarrassed proprietors, fully obstructed. The Land, to which, in Ire- who are unable to improve the property themland, we must look as the great source of the selves, and are restricted by law from selling it national wealth, is bound by the remains of to others, produce most of the other evils which feudalism, under which a nominal ownership in affect the country? And is not the natural the soil is retained by parties whose ancestors remedy, to remove these restrictions, to allow the had long since wasted its value “in riotous liv- sale of these large estates, and to apply the princiing.”. A very large portion of Irish estates are ples of free trade in land? held in the name of parties who are wholly una- “ The great difficulty in Ireland is the want of ble to exercise the duties, or even, in a great security, as respects the title to, and possession many cases, the rights of property. The agent of land. Hence arises the want of capital, as of the mortgagee or of the Court of Chancery, is

The number of proprietors in fee has been estiin receipt of a large portion of the rental of the mated at about 8000. The proprietors of land in Engcountry, and sales of encumbered estates are not land are estimated as having been 200,000 in 1801.


none will expend labour or money in improving to free competition, will eventually fall into the . the soil, unless he be assured of reaping the hands of those who have the capital and the fruits of his outlay. Until some change be pro- ability to manage it, with the greatest advantage duced in this respect, no improvement can be to themselves and the country. This would inexpected. This insecurity affects both the pro- deed be a great change-a legal revolution more prietor and the tenant. The first in many cases serious in its effects on individuals, more imporholds by a doubtful title, or one so difficult to tant in its consequences to society at large, than prove as seriously to interfere with the power of any event which has for many years affected the sale; and the estate being entailed, he has only destinies of this nation,-a revolution infinitely a life interest, and is therefore disinclined to ex- more important in its bearings on Ireland than pend money on improvements which will not be the Reform Bill, or Free Trade, or any of the immediately remunerative. The latter is merely subjects which have heretofore agitated the puba tenant-at-will, and always liable to be evicted'; lic mind so strongly.". having no certainty of possession, he will not of The adoption of the measures here proposed, course give any labour, or expend any, money, we believe to be nothing more than simple jusfor which he does not expect an immediate re- tice to the Irish people. turn. In both cases, the inost injurious conse- “ But it is said, that the power of settlement is quences result.

a right inherent in property of which it should “A large proportion of the land is strictly not be deprived; that a man may do what he bound up by settlements. Their present holder likes with his own. Is this so ? Has an owner has merely a life interest; he is in reality not of land a right to destroy it? to keep it waste or the owner; he cannot deal with it as an owner, untenanted ? to break down the banks of his he is merely a trustee for others; he has no river, and convert the neighbouring fields into a interest in its future, though permanent improve

ve- morass ? to cover them with stones or gravel, and ment, except so far as he may wish to benefit his destroy their fertility ? It will be said, that none successors ; he cannot reap the benefit himself; but a madman would act thus. Granted; but he cannot sell; he cannot dispose of a part, even still we may ask the question, does he possess though the alienation of a part might greatly the abstract right to do so ? Certainly not. The enhance the value of the remainder; he holds it soil of the country is the property of the state during his lifetime, as his predecessor held it, un- granted to its possessors to use, not to waste, altered, unimproved, to transmit it to his heir It is a trust for the benefit of all, which should clogged with the same restrictions, alike injuri- be guarded with peculiar care ; because, while ous to himself and to his country. Here are the limited in extent, all inust ultimately derive their results of the system under the most favourable support from it. There are limits to the power circumstances, when the property is unencum- of an owner over his land; he may not destroy bered, and the landlord free from debt." it; he may not permanently injure it. He is

We heartily concur in the following recom- fully entitled to enjoy it during life, and to bemendation:

queath it at his death. There his responsibility “ Free the land from all restrictions ; make it ends, and his natural right ceases ; any extension an article of free sale ; reduce the expenses of of the power is a fictitious not a natural right. It transfer to a reasonable amount; make it be is created by law, and it is to be exercised only answerable for the debts of its owner; and, above so far as it does not interfere with the public all, make such arrangements as shall give security good. The power which has created it, may and simplicity of title ; and it will soon be found control and limit it: this has already been done that there is ample capital in the country for the in the Thelluson case, and by the various statutes necessary improvemements, and for the employ- of morimain. The owner of an estate in Eng. ment of the people. In short, let a law be pass- land and Ireland, has been deprived of the power ed, allowing the sale of landed property, not- of entailing it for ever. The state may interfere withstanding entails or settlements. "Let it be farther; nay, is bound to do so, if a sufficient accompanied by arrangements for facilitating cause be shown. When a railway or other transfers, and for simplifying some of the more public work is to be carried on, the owners of complicated modes of tenure, and the object will the ground are deprived of their land. If sufibe effected. Land will become an article of sale cient cause be shown, parliament will even break and purchase, constantly in the market. Capital an entail, and allow the sale of an estate. It is will be invested in it, not merely as an invest- wholly a question of expediency. If the present ment producing a small but secure income, but power over landed property be injurious to the as an investment for the purposes of trade. The community, it ought to be further limited." unencumbered proprietor of land will find it his Let it not be supposed that the author is here interest to sell a portion of his estate, in order maintaining some theory of political rights opposthat he may be more able to improve the rest. ed to the possession or the influence of wealth, The mortgagee will enter into possession, or sell or even of hereditary distinction—he has no war the property for his own security. The soil of with an aristocracy. He says, the country, like every thing else which is open “The aristocratic element in the constitution


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is certainly of great moment in giving stability years, will be doubled: and we have great reason to the institutions of the country. To be de- to believe the number of immigrants arriving prived of it would be a serious loss. " But this from America, and perhaps other countries, will result by no means follows as a necessary con- also be very considerable." sequence of free-trade in land. Many old fami- The writer has never been able to feel parlies in England have retained estates without ticularly partial to the views, or favourable to their being entailed. The necessity of good the operations of the American Colonization Somanagement would produce its natural fruits. ciety, but he has many times, and for years, felt Proprietors of land would trust to prudence and great regret that this fine opportunity for the economy, to retain possession of their property, establishment of a gorernment upon peace prininstead of relying on legal disabilities which con- ciples had not been improved. How noble and trol their freedom of action, for good as well as how cheering to humanity would have been the for evil. The aristocracy would no longer be spectacle of a republic founded in Africa in the disgraced by the disreputable conduct of pro- middle of the nineteenth century, upon those prietors of entailed estates, in contracting debts Christian principles which Wm. Penn, one hunwhich they cannot discharge, and in so doing, dred and fifty years ago, gave so beautiful an illus. bringing their rank into contempt

, and lessening tration of, and which are so good humoredly retheir influence more than if, having no such pro- ferred to by the Providence Journal in an article tection, they were obliged to sell their ancestral in the 28th No. of the Review. In fact, President inheritance."

Roberts himself, in the inaugural already alluded (To be continued.)

to, almost recognises the efficiency of these prin

ciples in sustaining a government, when he says, For Friends' Review.

“I am persuaded that no magnanimous nation INDEPENDENCE OF LIBERIA.

will seek to abridge our rights, or withhold from

the republic those civilities and that comity which The establishment of an independent Repub- mark the friendly intercourse between civilized lican Government on the Western coast of and independent communities, in consequence of Africa, some three or four degrees north of the our weakness and present poverty.” Surely if equator, and stretching for some two or three weakness and poverty throw a shield around hundred miles south of Sierra Leone towards their possessor, the Christian virtues of meekCape Palmas, is unquestionably a circumstance ness and justice, and a disposition to harm none, which may lead to events, the importance and doing to all as they would be done unto, could magnitude of which it is impossible to foresee. not prove less availing. Let us hope, then, that The English language, in all probability, will a disposition to beat their swords into ploughultimately prevail there, and the spirit of our free shares, will animate the bosoms of those whose institutions, will, it is to be hoped, more and position enables them to mould the common more be developed, and infused into the laws of mind, in this infant State, and induce them to the Republic.

endeavour to 'exhibit to older establishments a The first Legislature met at Monrovia on the proof, that it is safer to rely upon the all-power3d of the 1st month last, and the feasibility of ful arm of Divine Providence, than upon the establishing and sustaining an independent Chris- sword.

Z. tian State on the African coast, composed of, and conducted wholly by coloured men, is to be tested. The Legislature, consisting of a Senate and lower House, represents three counties, The habits of children prove that occupation those of Montserrado, Grand Bassa and Linoe. is of necessity with most of them. They love Each county sends two senators, and the whole to be busy, even about nothing, still more to be number of representatives is eight. At the usefully employed. With some children it is a opening of the legislature, the President, J. J. strongly-developed physical necessity, and if not Roberts, delivered an Inaugural Address, which turned to good account, will be productive of is characterized in the African Repository as positive evil, thus verifying the old adage, that “a temperate, dignified and modest document, * Idleness is the mother of mischief.' Children breathing a spirit of generous devotion to his should be encouraged, or if indolently disinclined country, and fraught with sound sense and libe- to it, should be disciplined into performing for ral sentiments.” “ According to the best compu- themselves every little office relative to dress tation I am at present able to make," says he, which they are capable of executing. They “and which I believe is pretty nearly correct, should also keep their own clothes and other the population of Liberia proper, including, of possessions in neat order, and fetch for themcourse, the original inhabitants who have incor- selves whatever they want; in short, they should porated themselves with us, and subscribed to learn to be as independent of the services of the constitution and laws of the republic, is now others as possible, fitting them alike to make a upwards of 80,000. I have no doubt the natural good use of prosperity, and to meet with fortitude population of the republic, in the course of twenty lany reverse of fortune that may befall them. I




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