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and the child is solicited to reflection when he is of these innocent victims should ascend, ótrumpetonly capable of sensation and emotion. In in- tongued,' to the ears of every parent and every fancy the attention and the memory are only ex- teacher in the land. . Give us free air and cited strongly by things which impress the senses wholesome exercise; leave to develope our exand move the heart, and a father shall instil more panding energies in accordance with the laws of solid and available instruction in an hour spent our. being, and full scope for the elastic and in the fields, where wisdom and goodness are bounding impulses of our young blood !'" exemplified, seen, and felt, than in a month spent in the study, where they are expounded in stereotyped aphorisms.

The following story told of Franklin's mode of “No physician doubts that precocious children, treating the animal called in those days · Lounin fifty cases for one, are much the worse for the ger,” is worth putting into practice occasionally, discipline they have undergone. The mind even in this age and generation :-One fine seems to have been strained, and the foundations morning while Franklin was busy preparing his for insanity are laid. When the studies of ma- newspaper for the press, a lounger stepped into turer years are stuffed into the head of a child, the store, and spent an hour or more looking people do not reflect on the anatomical fact that over the books, &c., and finally, taking one in the brain of an infant is not the brain of a man; his hand, asked the shop-boy the price. 6 One that the one is confirmed, and can bear exertion dollar," was the answer. “One dollar,” said -the other is growing, and requires repose; the lounger, “can't you take less than that ?" that to force the attention to abstract facts—to No, indeed: one dollar is the price.” Another load the memory with chronological and histo- hour had nearly passed, when the Lounger rical or scientific detail-in short, to expect a asked, “ Is Mr. Franklin at home ?" “ Yes child's brain to bear with impunity the exertions he is in the printing office.” 6 I want to of a man's is just as rational as it would be to see him," said the Lounger, The shop boy hazard the same sort of experiment on its immediately informed Mr. Franklin that a genmuscles.

tleman was in the store waiting to see him. • The first eight or ten years of life should be Franklin was soon behind the counter, when the devoted to the education of the heart—to the for- Lounger, with book in hand, addressed him thus: mation of principles, rather than to the acquire- “ Mr. Franklin, what is the lowest you can take ment of what is usually termed knowledge. for this book ?" • One dollar and a quarter," Nature herself points out such a course; for the was the ready answer.

“ One dollar and a emotions are then the liveliest, and most easily quarter ! Why your young man asked only a moulded, being as yet unalloyed by passion. It dollar.” “True," said Franklin, “and I could is from this source that the mass of men are have better afforded to take a dollar then than to hereafter to draw their sum of happiness or have been taken out of the office.” The Lounmisery ; the actions of the immense majority are, ger seemed surprised, and, wishing to end the under all circumstances, determined much more parley of his own making, said, “Come, Mr. by feeling than reflection ; in truth, life presents Franklin, tell me what is the lowest you can an infinity of occasions where it is essential to take for it.” “ One dollar and a half.”

“ A happiness that we should feel rightly ; very few dollar and a half ! why, you offered it yourself where it is at all necessary that we should think for a dollar and a quarter.”- —“ Yes," said Frankprofoundly.

lin, “and I had better have taken that price then “ Up to the seventh year of life very great than a dollar and a half now.” The Lounger changes are going on in the structure of the brain, paid down the price and went about his busiand demand, therefore, the utmost attention notness, if he had any, and Franklin returned into to interrupt them by improper or over excite- the printing office, ment. Just that degree of exercise should be given to the brain at this period as is necessary HARVESTS WITHOUT PREVIOUS SOWING. to its health ; and the best is oral instruction,

In the Schnellpost of Wednesday, we find an exemplified by objects which strike the senses.

" It is perhaps unnecessary to add that, at this account of a method of compelling the wheat period of life, special attention should be given, plant to become perennial, like grass

, and to both by parents and teachers, to the physical de perfect its grains annually without annual sowvelopment of the child. Pure air and free exer

ing of seed, which has been successfully praccise are indispensable, and wherever either of ticed at Constance in Germany. It was discothese is with held, the consequences will be cer

vered by the steward of an estate named Kern. tain to extend themselves over the whole future His method, after ploughing and manuring the life. The seeds of protracted and hopeless suf land, and sowing it with Summer or Winter fering have, in innumerable instances, been sown wheat

, is to mow it in the Spring before the ear in the constitution of the child simply through makes its appearance. This process is repeated

. ignorance of this great fundamental physical law; several times in the season, and the product is and the time has come when the united voices used as hay. The plant is then allowed to grow



and be cut in the ordinary manner. The next | all nature is in harmony with it, is brought into year it ripens earlier, and bears more abundantly his presence by it; and it affords at once cultithan wheat treated in the ordinary manner. It vation and recreation.-Friends in Council. is manured in the autumn like grass in the meadows, and in Spring cleared from weeds. In CHRISTIAN CALMNESS DISTURBED. this manner, from one field four successive harvests have been gathered.

We watched by the side of the tranquil stream,

That the sun had tinged with its parting beam;

The water was still, and so crystal clear,

That every spray had its image there.
One dark night, about the beginning of De-
cember, while passing the streets of the Villa de And every reed that over it bowed,
Natividade, I observed some boys amusing them-

And the crimson streak and the silvery cloud,

And all that was bright, and all that was fair, selves with some luminous object, which I at

And all that was gay was reflected there. first supposed to be a kind of large fire-fly ; but,

And they said it was like to the chasten's breast on making inquiry, I found it to be a beautiful

That religion soothes to a holy rest, phosphorescent fungus, belonging to the genus When sorrow has tamed the impassioned eye, Agaricus, and was told that it grew abundantly And the bosom reflects its expected sky. in the neighbourhood on the decaying leaves of

But I took a stone that lay beside, a dwarf palm. Next day I obtained a great And I cast it far on the glassy tide, many specimens, and found them to vary from And gone was the charm of the pictured scene, one to two and a half inches across. The whole

And the sky so bright, and the landscape green. plant gives out at night a bright phosphorescent And I bade them mark how an idle word, light, of a pale greenish hue, similar to that emit- Too lightly said, and too deeply heard,

Or a harsh reproof or a look unkind ted by the larger fire-flies, or by those curious

May spoil the peace of a heavenly mind. soft bodied marine animals, the Pyrosomoa. From this circumstance, and from growing on

Though sweet be the peace, and holy the calm,

And the heavenly beam be bright and warm, palm, it is called by the inhabitants « Flor du

The heart that it gilds, is all as weak, Coco." The light given out by a few of these

As the wave that reflects the crimson streak. fungi, in a dark room, was sufficient to read by.

Ye cannot impede the celestial ray, I was not aware at the time I discovered this

That lights the dawn of eternal day, fungus that any other species of the same genus But so you may trouble the bosom it cheers, exhibited a similar phenomenon. Such, how- ’T will cease to be true to the image it bears. ever, is the case in the Adolearius of De Candolle ; and Mr. Drummond, of Swan River Co

INFLUENCE. lony, in Australia, has given an account of a What if the little rain should say,

" So small a drop as I, very large phosphorescent species occasionally

Can ne'er refresh those thirsty fields ; found there.-Gardner's Travels in Brazil.

I'll tarry in the sky!”

What if a shining beam of noon MOSAIC GLASS FLOORING-NEW INVENTION.

Should in its fountain stay, Mr. P. Hewins, of this city, has made a highly Because its feeble light alone important discovery. It is a composition, cheaply Cannot create a day! obtained, with which he makes glass plates for Doth not each rain drop help to form, flooring—a substitute for marble, being stronger

The cool refreshing shower ? and more beautiful, and full fifty per cent.

And every ray of light to warm, cheaper. He has made a discovery in the pro

And beautify the flower ? cess of coloring, by which the plates are made

MARRIED,—On the 6th inst., at Friends' Meetto partake of every variety of colour, which

ing House on 12th street, GEORGE RANDOLPH to

can never be cated or lessened in freshness. Hartford Times. Rebecca, daughter of Jasper Cope, all of this




West Town School.
At present, many a man who is versed in
Greek metre, and afterwards full of law reports,

The Committee to superintend the boarding is childishly ignorant of nature. Let him walk school at West Town, will meet there on Sixth with an intelligent child for a morning; and the day morning, the 15th inst. at 10 o'clock. child will ask him a hundred questions about

The Committee on Instruction, to meet the the sun, moon, stars, planets, birds, building, preceding evening at 7 o'clock. farming, and the like, to which he can give

The Visiting Committee to attend the semivery sorry answers, if any. Or, at the best, he annual examination, commencing on Third day has but a second hand acquaintance with nature. morning, the 12th inst. Men's conceits are his main knowledge. Where

THOMAS KIMBER, Clerk. as, if he had any pursuit connected with nature, Phila. 10th mo. 2d, 1847.-2t

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two pence.

For Friends' Review,



fourteen, he constructed a simple refracting telePublished Weekly by Josiah Tatum,

scope, probably the cheapest that ever was

formed since the glasses fixed on a board in the No. 50 North Fourth Street, corner of Appletree Alley, shop of a spectacle maker exhibited their magPHILADELPHIA.

nifying power to the admiring spectators.* Price two dollars per annum, payable in advance, or six

William Allen purchased an eye-piece and copies for ten dollars.

object-glass, for which he paid a shilling; and This paper is subject to newspaper postage only.

formed his tubes of pasteboard, which cost him

With these materials (which cost

about twenty-eight cents of our money) and his LIFE OF WILLIAM ALLEN;

own ingenuity, he constructed an instrument With selections from his Correspondence.

which brought into view the satellites of Jupiter;

objects which had never been visible to human 3 vols. 8vo.

sight, until Gallileo applied his telescope to the A biographical work with the above title has heavens. . been issued from a Philadelphia press,* since

In his puerile years the choice of a profession the commencement of the current year. It was not made without much thoughtfulness, and describes, with considerable minuteness, the an earnest desire for right direction. “In him," diversified pursuits, the private reflections, says his biographer, “mental cultivation and and the religious engagentents of one of the philosophical attainments were happily united most extraordinary men of his time. In a

with sound Christian principle; he was ever diary which he commenced in the eighteenth watchful lest the allurements of science should year of his age, and continued with some inter- beguile his heart from love to God, or adherence mission through great part of his active ca- I to the simple truths of the gospel; and his exreer, we are presented with an unvarnished ample is an encouraging evidence of the efficacy narrative of his youthful studies, and the means of that grace by which he was enabled, through by which, with slender opportunities of instruc- a long course of years, steadily and consistently tion, he was qualified to take a respectable sta- to pursue the path of piety and usefulness.” tion among the philosophers of the day: and

The first entry in his diary manifests his conthe exercises, through which he was led pre

cern to guard against evil thoughts; and the paratory to his extensive engagements in the second, his apprehension of the danger of unreligious society to which he belonged.

profitable conversation. The observations of The subject of this memoir was born in ministering friends, and the reflections which London in the year 1770, and enjoyed the advantage of a religious and guarded education;

• One account of the invention of the telescope is, his pious parents, who were members of the So- in Zealand, while playing in their father's shop, observed

that the children of a spectacle maker in Middleburg, ciety of Friends, endeavouring during his early that two of the glasses being held in such a position years not only to impress his susceptible mind that the vane of a neighbouring steeple could be seen with a just sense of the value of the Holy Scrip-through them, it appeared larger than when viewed by tures, and of the benefits to be derived from the naked eye; and that their father, to facilitate the associating with religious persons, but also of of brass rings, so as to increase or diminish their dis

observation, attached the glasses to a board by means the necessity of careful attention to the convic- tance from each other. These glasses, being afterwards tions of truth upon his mind; and their labours placed in a tube, formed a telescope. Whether this in these respects were frequently reviewed instrument was actually first made in this way or not, with filial gratitude in maturer life.

it is agreed that the use of magnifying glasses was dis

covered by accident, and that Gallileo, hearing of it, was His propensity to scientific pursuits was led to investigate the laws of refraction, and thus on manifested at an early period. At the age of scientific principles he at length constructed a telescope,

which, increasing the apparent dimensions of an object

thirty times, brought into view the satellites of Jupiter The work was published by Henry Longstreth, andother celestial phenomena not previously observed. No. 317 High Street, from the London edition. Vide Bossut's History of Mathematics.


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arose in his own mind, are frequently noted in and his own, to be openly professing an interest its early pages, evidently with the design of in the abolition of this traffic which he did not rendering their impression as permanent as pos- actually feel. From the majorities which comsible,

monly supported his parliamentary measures, it The abominations and cruelties of the African was inferred that this might have been carried slave-trade, which were brought about the time much sooner than it was, if he had given it his when this diary opens, very prominently before zealous concurrence. William Allen, from his the British public, early attracted the earnest at- observations at the time, arrived at a conclusion tention of William Allen. In the Second month, similar to that which Clarkson maintains. They 1789, when in his 19th year, the following both gave him credit for entire sincerity. It is record was made. “When I reflect upon the indeed well understood, that there was an influtyranny and oppression exercised by my coun- ence near the throne, which neutralized his trymen towards the poor Africans, and the efforts on this subject as a member of the many thousands yearly murdered in the dis- cabinet. graceful slave-trade, I can but be a zealous op- At some time between 1789 and 1793, he poser of slavery; and indeed, I have been so was introduced by Joseph Gurney Bevan into

, for a long time, as far as lay in my power—yet his extensive chemical establishment at Plough one step further may be taken by me, which is Court, where his talents and integrity soon prowanting to complete my testimony in this re- cured for him a responsible station. Or this spect, and which, if universally adopted, would concern he ultimately became the proprietor. inevitably put a stop to this enormous evil; and On a review of the year 1793, during which that is, disusing those commodities procured by he was much engaged, in addition to his usual the labour of slaves. And as sugar is, undoubt. business, with literary and chemical pursuits, edly, one of the chief, I resolve, through divine he says, “Much depressed during part of this

I assistance, to persevere in it until the slave-trade year with doubts and fears whether I was in shall be abolished. This was about two years my right place; but after a season of great conbefore the pamphlet of Fox, advocating the fict, I was permitted to feel the consolations of abstinence from West India sugar and rum, was the spirit of God in a manner marvellous to published. To this determination, we are in- myself; the clouds disappeared, the tempest formed, he continued to adhere until the aboli- ceased to assail my habitation, and quietness and tion bill was passed-after which he resumed confidence possessed my soul. For this and the use of sugar.

other touches of his love, rouchsafed to me, who The following notice, in the same year, may am so unworthy of the least of his mercies and perhaps excite an inquiry, whether the zeal of of his truth, I desire to be ever grateful.” our fathers, in relation to the interests of the Under the Third month, 1794, we find the free coloured race, is inherited by Friends of following judicious and impressive observations. the present day.--" This morning John Pember- “Oh! the beauty of pleading for the truth in a ton informed the Yearly Meeting, that the three Christian spirit, and keeping the creaturely Monthly Meetings of Philadelphia had appointed warmth and zeal, under foot! Endeavour to committees to visit the families of the black convince the party that it is love for them people, resident among them, (amounting to which induces us to persuade them, joined to 245 families,) and that they found them, with a conviction of the rectitude of the cause we very few exceptions, an industrious, sober peo- advocate; in such case, by no means strike at ple, maintaining their families comfortably." or wound them, or unnecessarily lift up the

The interest which he took in the proceed-voice of censure, either obliquely, by inference, ings of Parliament in relation to the African or in a more open manner; this is not likely to slave-trade, is manifested by the copious detail convince, but to confirm in error, there being a which he gives of the motions and speeches of perverseness in human nature which tends to the members. Clarkson's history of the abolition reject and oppose a proposition, however good of that traffic, in which the proceedings of Par- in itself, which is maintained with obstinate liament are related in a connected order, having tenacity, and urged with indecent obtrusion. been long before the public, very little further If the spirit of love fail to convince, we are information was to be expected from the pen of hardly likely to succeed.” a youthful observer: and perhaps the interest In the year 1796 he was united in marriage which readers of our day may take in this with Mary Hamilton, who was to him an object biography would not have been diminished by of sincere affection ; he declaring a few months the omission of these details. It may, however, after their union, that she was, next to divine be remarked, that these memorandums furnish consolation, the greatest comfort be enjoyed. evidence that the imputation of insincerity in But a year had not passed before this beloved his advocacy of this cause, was early cast upon companion was called to ber everlasting home, W. Pitt. It is well known that this influential leaving a daughter only about five days old. minister was believed by many in this country Though this afflictive dispensation was felt by


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William Allen in all its weight and bitterness, to silent retirement for the renewal of spiritual and the prospect of a long continuance in this strength. state of mutability became an object of dread In the spring of 1799 we find him attending rather than desire, yet he still found the hope no less than twelve lectures in a week, on and promises of the gospel an anchor to his anatomy, physiology, &c., yet he could find soul: and the effect of this painful bereavement time to devote to the relief of the poor, and the was to drive him to a more earnest pursuit of duties devolving upon him as an active member those things which belonged to his permanent of religious society. Besides, we must necessapeace. The consolation which, according to rily suppose that the oversight of his own exhis own account, he frequently received from tensive establishment occupied no inconsiderable the sympathy of his friends, furnishes an inti- portion of his attention. The secret of accommation to such as can feel for the afflictions of plishing so much seems to have been, that no others, not to forget those who are similarly time was wasted in idleness, and very little tried: but to remember that the language of allotted to sleep. sympathy is sometimes like a cup of cold water In 1800 and 1801, the family of William Alto the thirsty soul.

len was again visited by the messenger of death; Towards the end of 1797, we find William his father being removed in the former, and a Allen taking a leading part in the preparation brother in the latter year. He was tenderly and execution of a plan for relieving the distress attached to them both, and in the record which of the poor, many thousands of whom, in the he made of their decease, we may readily disvicinity of London, were reduced to destitution cover the sensibilities of the brother and son, by the stagnation of trade and the high price of mingled with the resignation and hopes of the provisions. A society was formed, subscriptions Christian. were opened, and an establishment made, (upon In the summer of 1801, provisions being exa plan similar in some respects to that tried by ceedingly dear, partly in consequence of the Count Rumford in Bavaria, *) by which the poor war with France, and partly from the failure of were daily supplied with nourishing soup, at a the harvest, Friends of Philadelphia Yearly penny a quart.

Meeting raised by subscription a considerable Amidst the cares of an extensive and in- sum, which was remitted to the Meeting for creasing business, and the labours of philanthro- Sufferings in London. William Allen, being py in his attention to the poor, we find him still then a member of that body, notices the remitpursuing the study of chemistry, philosophy, tance with appropriate acknowledgements; but botany, and mathematics; but with some signifi- considering the donation as designed for the recant intimations of the danger which he felt | lief of indigent Friends, he intimates a belief himself in, of allowing his mind to be improperly that their American brethren had apprehended absorbed by the pursuits of science. On one their condition worse than it actually was, for occasion he observes, “ If I am preserved from the Society was still able to take care of its own falling a victim to the world, its knowledge, its poor. The writer of this article, however, from honours and its friendships, I shall be inclined to his recollection of the time, is clearly of the consider it a miracle of mercy.” He evidently opinion that the contributions of American felt, as every religious man who has become Friends were designed and applied to the relief ardently attached to scientific inquiries has of the suffering poor, without limitation to our probably often felt, that the pursuit of know- own Society. ledge, no less than the pursuit of the world, re- By the time to which we have arrived (1801,) quires the curb of religious restraint. Whether William Allen had become known to men of or not, in his labours for the acquisition of know- learning and science for his extensive and varied ledge, he always kept within the limits which acquirements; and particularly for his accuracy his religious duty enjoined, we cannot resist the and skill in the performance of chemical expericonviction that he maintained, notwithstanding ments. And about this time he undertook to his multifarious avocations, a lively concern to deliver, gratuitously, a course of lectures at follow the path of manifested duty: and that, Plough Court, chiefly for the benefit of a society besides the attendance of religious meetings, he which was established a few years before, for was accustomed to allot a portion of each day the improvement of its members in the various

branches of experimental philosophy. The • It may, perhaps, be interesting to some of our subjects illustrated in these lectures were chemisreaders to understand that Count Rumford, (Benjanin try, and the theory and practice of mechanics, Thompson,) was a native American; and that, though a military man by profession, a large portion of his time elucidated by appropriate experiments. The was employed in devising and carrying into execution lectures began with about sixty, but the audience the means of improving the condition of the poor. His soon increased so that the room was completely philosophic experiments on the communication of heat, crowded. It appears he got through these lecand their application to the economical preparation of food for the poor at Munich in Bavaria, are highly tures to his own satisfaction; and a mind so reinteresting.

plete with information, and so ardent in the

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